CHAPTER 17 Phlebotomy. Introduction to Phlebotomy Purpose of phlebotomy: collect blood for laboratory analysis Phlebotomy: incision of a vein for the

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> CHAPTER 17 Phlebotomy </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Introduction to Phlebotomy Purpose of phlebotomy: collect blood for laboratory analysis Phlebotomy: incision of a vein for the removal of blood Phlebotomist: individual who collects the blood sample </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Introduction to Phlebotomy Types of blood collections Arterial puncture Venipuncture Skin puncture Venipuncture is the puncturing of a vein for the removal of a venous blood sample and is performed when a large blood specimen is needed for testing </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Introduction to Phlebotomy Methods of Venipuncture Vacuum tube uses an evacuated tube and is the fastest, most convenient, and most often used method Butterfly and syringe used for difficult draws such as small or sclerosed veins </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> General Guidelines for Venipuncture Patient preparation Fasting Avoidance of medications Special preparation required by outside laboratories </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Collection and Handling Requirements Collection Supplies Type of specimen required Amount of specimen required Techniques for collecting specimen Proper handling and storage of specimen </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Assembling Equipment and Supplies Appropriate blood tubes Ensure tubes are not broken, cracked or expired Label each blood tube Unique patient identifiers, such as name and date of birth Date and time of collection as well as collectors initials Laboratory requisition </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Supplies and Equipment Venipuncture needle Double pointed needle with threaded hub that attaches to vacutainer Has a bevel that facilitates easier insertion into the skin and vein Gauge sizes are 20 to 22 with 21 G being the most common size used Length is 1 to 1 inches </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Supplies and Equipment, cont. Vacutainer/Plastic Holder Used to secure the needle and hold the evacuated tubes Evacuated tubes Glass or plastic tubes with rubber stopper on one end Tubes have a vacuum that assists in drawing the blood into the tube Evacuated tubes have different colored stoppers which indicate the type of additive in the tube </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Supplies and Equipment, cont. Tourniquet Makes patient veins stand out; they are easier to see and palpate Different types of tourniquets Velcro closure Rubber Latex and non-latex </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Reassuring the Patient Explain the procedure Instruct the patient to remain still Tell patient there will be a small amount of pain associated with the procedure Make sure patient is ready for procedure; tell them they will feel a small stick </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Venipuncture Vacuum Tube Method Review requirements and tubes from order Sanitize your hands Greet and identify patient; discuss previous draw experiences Assemble equipment Tubes, vacutainer, needle, tourniquet, gloves, alcohol pads, gauze, cotton, co-ban Check for expirations on all equipment </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Venipuncture Vacuum Tube Method, cont. Prepare equipment Place tube loosely in vacutainer Apply tourniquet to assess veins Take tourniquet off, clean area with alcohol Put tourniquet back on, position arm Anchor vein using thumb and first finger of non-dominant hand </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Venipuncture Vacuum Tube Method, cont. Insert needle at a 15 degree angle Stabilize the tube, never change hands during the procedure Fill each tube to exhaustion As last tube fills to 3/4 s full, remove tourniquet and remove tube Place gauze or cotton at site and apply pressure </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Venipuncture Vacuum Tube Method, cont. Apply co-ban Place tubes in upright position after labeling Remove gloves and sanitize Chart the procedure Appropriate sites for antecubital vacuum tube method of venipuncture </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Butterfly Method of Venipuncture Called the Butterfly method because of the wings located between the tubing and needle </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Butterfly Method of Venipuncture, cont. Used when veins are smaller, have a thin wall or are more likely to collapse Gauge of needle is 21 to 23 Length of needle is to inch After collecting equipment and supplies: Seat patient Assess veins and locate vein for venipuncture </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Butterfly Method of Venipuncture, cont. Follow procedure used for antecubital draw Compress plastic wings together with bevel up Insert at 15 degree angle to skin After inserting, decrease angle to 5 degrees Follow order of draw </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Alternate Venipuncture Sites Inner forearm Wrist area above the thumb Back of the hand Top of the foot </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Types of Blood Specimens Clotted Blood has no additives in tubes Serum required for most blood chemistry studies Obtained from clotted blood which is obtained from tubes with no anticoagulants Whole blood required for blood hematology studies such as a complete blood count Plasma obtained from tubes that have anticoagulants to prevent clotting </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> OSHA Safety Precautions To avoid exposure to bloodborne pathogens: Wear gloves Avoid hand-to-mouth contact while working with blood specimens Wear a face shield or mask and eye protection Perform all procedures in a manner to minimize the splashing, spraying, or splattering of blood Bandage cuts before gloving </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> OSHA Safety Precautions, cont. Sanitize hands after removing gloves If exposure to blood occurs, wash with soap and water immediately If mucous membranes come in contact with blood flush with water immediately Do not break, bend, or shear contaminated venipuncture needles Do not recap contaminated venipuncture needles </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> OSHA Safety Precautions, cont. Locate sharps containers and keep close Place blood specimens in containers that prevent leakage during collection, handling, processing, storage, transport, and shipping Handle lab equipment and supplies properly Do not store food in refrigerator where testing supplies and specimens are stored If exposed to blood report incident to physician or employer immediately </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Order of Draw for Multiple Tubes Tubes must be drawn in a specific order as to not contaminate specimens </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Problems Encountered with Venipuncture Failure to obtain blood Can occur with obese or elderly patients After two attempts ask for assistance Reasons for not getting blood: Needle not inserted far enough Needle inserted too far Bevel lodged against the wall of vein </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Hemolysis Hemolysis is the breakdown of blood cells This can occur due to rough handling and can cause inaccurate test results To prevent hemolysis: Store tubes at room temperature Allow alcohol to air dry completely Do not use small gauge needles to collect specimen Handle tubes carefully Do not shake or handle tubes </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Fainting Some patients do not do well with venipuncture Protect patient from injury Place patient in a position that will promote blood flow to brain Notify provider for further treatment </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Inappropriate Puncture Sites When not to use a potential site: Scarred areas or sclerosed veins Bruised areas Burned skin Adjacent to areas of infection Edema Avoid the arm on the same side of a radical mastectomy </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Preparation of Specimen If centrifuging is required: Allow tube to stand upright 20 to 30 minutes at room temperature Do not let blood stand for more than one hour as this causes leaching and will lead to inaccurate test results Centrifuge specimen for 10 minutes Hold tube up to light to look for intact red blood cells or hemolysis If so, re-centrifuge specimen </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Skin Punctures Used to obtain capillary blood specimens Also known as a capillary puncture Example of tests: Hemoglobin Hematocrit Blood glucose Prothrombin time </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Skin Punctures, cont. Puncture sites: Finger tip is preferred for adults Earlobe as a back-up Plantar surface of heal for infants, birth to one year </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Skin Puncture Devices Disposable semiautomatic retractable lancet devices Disposable lancets recommended by OSHA Reusable semiautomatic retractable lancet device </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Skin Puncture Devices, cont. Depth of puncture Adults: no deeper than 3.1 mm Infants and children: no deeper than 2.0 mm If puncture is too deep, may penetrate bone Could result in osteochondritis or osteomyelitis </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Micro-collection Devices Specimens can be collected on various devices: Reagent strips Capillary tubes Micro-collection tubes </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Performing a Finger Puncture Use lateral part of tip of third or fourth finger Do not use index finger because it is too callused Do not use little finger because the amount of tissue is not deep enough and could cause injury to bone Cleanse site with antiseptic wipe Ask patient to remain still Firmly grasp finger, select site, firmly press lancet against site, and perform puncture </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Performing a Finger Puncture, cont. Wipe away the first drop of blood, it is not suitable for testing Allow large drop to form Can massage the finger, but do not squeeze, this can cause inaccurate readings Collect specimen Apply pressure to ensure bleeding stops; apply bandaid </li> </ul>