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  • Chapter 17Land Resources

  • Overview of Chapter 17Land UseWorld land useUS land useWilderness Park and Wildlife RefugesNational ParksWildlife RefugeForestsForest management DeforestationRangeland and Agricultural LandWetlands and Coastal AreasConservation of Land Resources

  • Land Use- Worldwide

  • Land Use- United States

  • Local areasNational Parks Wildlife Refuge- Erie and Tinicum (John Heinz, close to Philadelphia)

    Allegheny National Forest only one in PA

  • John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge

  • Allegheny National Forest

  • Land Use- United States55% of US land is privately ownedRemainder of land is owned by governmentMost federally owned land is in Alaska and 11 western states

  • Managing Public and Private LandPublic Planning and Land UseLand use decisions are complex and have multiple effectsMust take into account all repercussions of proposed land useManagement of Federal LandWide-Use MovementEnvironmental Movement

  • Wilderness AreasWildernessA protected area of land in which no human development is permittedWilderness Act (1964)Set aside federally owned land as part of National Wilderness Preservation SystemNo development permitted (including roads), trails left alone, not maintained. Maybe difficult to visitManaged by NPS, USFS, FWS & BLM

  • WildernessSome areas have a limited number of permitted human guests to reduce impactOther problems include invasive species

  • PA Wilderness areas Allegheny National Forest

  • National Park SystemCreated in 1916Currently includes 58 parks (not including other designations like monument, historic site etc.)Primary goalTeach people about the natural environment, management of natural resources and history of a siteYosemite National Park

  • National Park SystemThreats to U.S. ParksCrime & VandalismTraffic jamsPollution of the soil, water and airOriginating both inside and outside the parkResource violationsNatural RegulationPolicy to let nature take it courseNo culling wildlife (no hunting)No suppressing wildfire

  • Ken Burns National Parks documentaryAntiquities Act Roosevelt A Progressive Republican of his day

    Park scandal of the day:

  • Wildlife RefugesNational Wildlife Refuge System (1903)Represent all major ecosystems founds in the USMissionTo preserve lands and waters for the conservation of fishes, wildlife and plants of the USRecreation (including hunting and fishing) are permitted Cannot impede conservation efforts

  • ForestsRole in Hydrologic Cycle (right)Forest ManagementDeforestationForest Trends in the USTrends in Tropical ForestsBoreal Forests

  • SuccessionHow has succession played a role in Okehocking?

    Describe the historical change in Okehockings land use?

    What stage of succession is Okehocking? Think of trees that indicate stage.

  • Forest ManagementTraditional Forest ManagementLow diversity- monocultures (right)Managed for timber productionEcological Sustainable Forest ManagementEnvironmentally balancedDiverse treesPrevent soil erosionPreserve watershedsWildlife corridors- unlogged

  • Harvesting Trees

  • Harvesting Trees - Clearcutting

  • DeforestationTemporary or permanent clearance of large expanses of forest for agriculture or other useWorld forests shrank 90 million acres from 20002005CausesFireExpansion of agricultureConstruction of roadsTree harvestInsect and disease

  • DeforestationResultsDecreased soil fertilityUncontrolled soil erosionProduction of hydroelectric power (silt build up behind dams)Increased sedimentation of waterwaysFormation of desertsExtinction of speciesGlobal climate changes

  • Forest Trends in USMost temperature forest are steady or expandingReturning stands lack biodiversity of original forestsMore than half of US forest are privately owned (right)Forest Legacy ProgramConservation easement

  • Local Efforts

  • US National ForestsManaged for multiple usesTimber harvestLivestock forageWater resource and watershed protectionMining, hunting, fishing, etc.Road building is an issueProvides logging companies with access to forestClearcutting is an issue

  • Sheep grazing in Apache National Forest, AZ

  • Case-In-Point Tongass National ParkOne of worlds few temperate rainforestsPrime logging areaModified 1997 Forest PlanRoadless Area Conservation Rule (2000)Politics rules government agencies

  • Trends in Tropical ForestsTropical rainforests (below) and tropical dry forests

  • Disappearing Tropical Rain ForestsPopulation growthCannot account for all of itImmediate causesSubsistence agricultureCommercial loggingCattle ranchingOther causesMiningHydroelectric power

  • Disappearing Tropical Dry ForestsPrimarily destroyed for fuelwoodUsed for heating and cooking

  • Boreal ForestsWorlds largest biomeExtensive clearcuttingPrimary source of worlds industrial wood and wood fiber

  • Rangeland and Agricultural landsRangelandLand that is not intensively managed and is used for grazing livestock

  • Rangeland Degradation and DeforestationOvergrazing leaves ground barrenAnimals exceed their carrying capacityLand degradationNatural or human-induced process that decreases future ability of land to support crops or livestockDesertificationDegradation of once fertile land into nonproductive desert

  • Rangeland Trends in USMake up 30% of total US land area2/3 privately ownedPressure from developers to subdividePublic rangeland managed by:Taylor Grazing Act (1934)Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976)Conditions of public rangeland are slowly improvingGrazing fees is an issue

  • Agricultural LandUS has 300 million acres of prime farmlandMuch is being overtaken by suburban sprawlParking lotsHousing developmentsShopping malls

  • WetlandsLands that are usually covered with water for at least part of the yearHave characteristic soils and water-tolerant vegetationBenefitsHabitat for migratory waterfowl and wildlifeRecharge groundwaterReduce damage from floodingImprove water qualityProduce many commercially important products

  • Hurricane Sandy ImpactInfluence of wetlands

    Influence of oysters

  • WetlandsHuman activity that threatens wetlandsDrainage for agriculture or mosquito controlDredging for navigationConstruction of dams, dykes or seawallsFilling in for solid waste disposalRoad buildingMining for gravel, fossil fuels, etc.Shrinking 58,500 acres per year

  • Restoring WetlandsNo Net Loss of Wetlands:Development of wetlands is allowed if corresponding amount of previously converted wetland is restoredNot all wetland restorations are successful

  • CoastlinesCoastal wetlandsProvide food and habitat for many aquatic animalsHistorically regarded as wastelandUS starting to see importance of protecting this environmentRetaining seawalls (right)

  • Coastal DemographicsMany coastal areas overdeveloped3.8 billion people live within 150km of coastline6.4 billion people will likely live there by 2025United States14 of 20 largest US cities along coast19 of 20 most densely populated countries along coasts

  • Conservation and Land ResourcesAll types of ecosystems must be preservedFour criteria of importance:Areas lost or degraded since European colonizationNumber of present examples of a particular ecosystem (or the total area)Estimate of the likelihood that a given ecosystem will lost a significant area or be degraded in next 10 yearsNumber of threatened and endangered species living in the ecosystem

  • Conservation and Land Resources

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