Chapter 1 Present Time 1

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    WORK BOOK

    ENGLISH FOR ENGINEERING 1

    GRAMMAR:

    1. Present Time 2. Past Time 3. Present & Past Perfect

    Dr. Eng. Wahyul Amien Syafei, ST, MT Electrical Engineering Faculty of Engineering

    Diponegoro University 2015

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    CHAPTER 1 Present Time 1

    1.1 Pendahuluan

    A. Deskripsi singkat: Pokok bahasan ini memberikan pengetahuan tata Bahasa Inggris dalam membuat kalimat menggunakan struktur present tense.

    B. Relevansi: Pokok bahasan ini merupakan bagian pertama dari dua materi cara membuat kalimat present tense..

    C. Kompetensi

    C.1. Standar Kompetensi: Mampu membuat kalimat present tense dengan benar. C.2. Kompetensi Dasar: Setelah menyelesaikan Pokok bahasan ini Mahasiswa mampu

    1. Memahami struktur kalimat simple present & progressive. 2. Membuat kalimat simple present & progressive dengan benar. 3. Membuat kalimat simple present & progressive menggunakan frequency

    adverbs.

    D. Petunjuk Belajar: bacalah tiap kalimat dengan teliti, telaah, dan tulis kembali materi dengan ringkas dalam tabel atau resume. Kerjakan semua latihan soal, verifikasi jawaban Anda dengan jawaban yang disertakan pada setiap akhir bab.

    1.2 Penyajian 1.2.1 Uraian

    1. THE SIMPLE PRESENT Used for events or situations that exist always, usually, or habitually in the past, present, and future. Illustration:

    Example:

    a. POSITIVE: Ann takes a shower every day. I usually read the newspaper in the morning. Babies cry. Birds fly. b. NEGATIVE: It doesn't snow in Bangkok.

    past

    now

    future

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    c. QUESTION : Does the teacher speak slowly?

    2. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

    Expresses: an activity that is in progress (is occurring, is happening) right now. The event is still in progress at the time the speaker is saying the sentence. The event began in the past, is in progress now, and will probably continue into the future. FORM :

    S + am, is, are + Verb - ing Illustration:

    Example: a. POSITIVE: Ann can't come to the phone right now because she is taking a

    shower. I am reading my grammar book right now. Jimmy and Susie are babies. They are crying. I can hear them right now.

    b. NEGATIVE : It isn't snowing right now. c. QUESTION : Is the teacher speaking right now?

    3. FORMS OF The Simple Present & The Present Progressive

    SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

    STATEMENT

    He-She-It works. He-She-It is working.

    I-You-We-They work. I am working.

    You-We-They are working.

    NEGATIVE

    He-She-It does not work. He-She-It is not working.

    I-You-We-They do not work. I am not working

    You-We-They are not working.

    QUESTION Does he-she-it work? Is he-she-it working?

    Do I-you-we-they work? Am I working?

    start

    now

    finish?

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    Are you-we-they working?

    ORIGINAL CONTRACTIONS EXAMPLE

    Pronoun + Be

    I + am Im Im working.

    You , we, they + are You're, We're, They're You're, We're,

    They're working.

    He, she, it + is He's, She's, It's He's, She's, It's working.

    Do /Does + Not

    does + not doesn't She doesn't work.

    do + not don't I don't work.

    Be + not

    is + not isn't He isn't working.

    are + not aren't They aren't working.

    am + not am not I am not working.

    Note: am and not are not contracted.

    EXERCISE 1. Simple Present vs. Present Progressive. Directions: Discuss the verbs in italics. Is the activity of the verb

    (a) a daily or usual habit? OR (b) happening right now (i.e., in progress in the picture)?

    Its 7.30 A.M., and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. Mrs. Wilson is sitting at the breakfast

    table. She is reading a newspaper. She reads the newspaper every morning. Mr. Wilson is

    pouring a cup of coffee. He drinks two cups of coffee every morning before he goes to work. 2

    1

    3

    4 5 6

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    There is a cartoon on TV, but the children arent watching it. They are playing with their

    toys instead.

    They usually watch cartoons in the morning, but this morning they arent paying any

    attention to the TV. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson arent watching the TV either. They often watch

    the news in the evening, but they dont watch cartoons.

    EXERCISE 2. Position of frequency adverbs.

    Directions: Add the world in italics to the sentence. Put the world in its usual midsentence position.

    1. always Tom always studies at home in the evening. 2. always Tom is at home in the evening. 3. usually The mail comes at noon. 4. usually The mail is here by noon. 5. generally I eat lunch around one oclock. 6. generally Tom is in the lunch room around one oclock. 7. generally What time do you eat lunch? 8. generally Are you in bed by the midnight?

    8 7

    9 10

    11

    13

    12

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    1.2.2 Uraian FREQUENCY ADVERB A. Frequency adverbs usually occur in the middle of a sentence and have special

    positions.

    always

    almost Always

    usually*

    often*

    frequently*

    generally*

    sometimes*

    occasionally*

    seldom

    rarely

    hardly ever

    almost never

    not ever, never

    The adverbs with the symbol * may also occur at the beginning or end of a sentence.

    1. I sometimes get up at the 6:30. 2. Sometimes I get up at 6:30. 3. I get up at 6:30 sometimes.

    B. Frequency adverbs usually come between the subject and the simple present verb (except main verb be). Form :

    Subject + Freq Adv + Verb Example: Karen always tells the truth.

    positive

    negative

    100 %

    0 %

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    C. Frequency adverbs follow be in the simple present (am, is, are) and simple past (was, were). Form :

    Subject + be + freq adv

    Example: Karen is always on time.

    D. In a question, frequency adverbs come directly after the subject. Example: Do you always eat breakfast?

    E. In a negative sentence, most frequency adverbs come in front of a negative verb (except always and ever). Always follow a negative helping verb or negative be. Example:

    1. Ann usually doesnt eat breakfast. 2. Sue doesnt always eat breakfast.

    F. Negative adverbs (seldom, rarely, hardly ever, never) are NOT used with a negative verb. Example:

    CORRECT: Anna never eats meat. INCORRECT: Anna doesnt never eat meat.

    G. Ever is used in questions about frequency, as in (a). It means at any time. Ever is also used with not, as in (b). Ever is NOT used in statements. Example:

    a) Do you ever take the bus to work? Yes, I do. I often take the bus.

    b) I dont ever walk to work. c) INCORRECT: I ever walk to work.

    EXERCISE 3. Frequency adverbs in negative sentences. Directions: Add the given words to the sentences. Put the adverbs in their usual midsentence position. Make any necessary changes in the sentence.

    1. Sentence : Jack doesnt shave in the morning. a. Usually Jack usually doesnt shave in the morning. b. Often Jack often doesnt shave in the morning. c. Frequently d. Occasionally e. Sometimes f. Always g. Ever h. Never

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    i. Hardly ever j. Rarely k. Seldom

    2. I dont eat breakfast. a. Usually b. Always c. Seldom d. Ever

    3. My roommate isnt home in the evening. a. Generally b. Sometimes c. Always d. Hardly ever

    1.3 Penutup 1.3.1 Rangkuman

    A. The Simple Present And The Present Progressive The Simple Present expresses:

    b. Daily habits or usual activities c. General statement of fact

    The Present Progressive expresses: an activity that is in progress (is occurring, is happening) right now

    B. Forms Of The Simple Present & The Present Progressive

    1. The Simple Present: Subject + Verb/Verbs. Subject do/does + not + Verb. Do/Does + Subject + Verb? 2. The Present Progressive using : To be + Verb ing

    C. Frequency Advebs

    1. Frequency adverbs usually come between the Subject and Verb 2. Frequency adverbs follow be in the simple present (am, is, are) and simple past (was, were) 3. In a question fequency advebs come directly after the subject. 4. In a negative sentence, most frequency advebs come in front of a negative verb. 5. Negative adverbs (seldom, rarely, hardly, ever, never) are NOT used with negative

    verb. 6. Ever is used in questions about frequency, also used with not and NOT used in

    statement.

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    1.3.2 TES FORMATIF

    A. Pretest (error analysis). Present verbs. Directions : All the sentences contain mistakes. Find and correct them. Examples : I no like cold weather. I dont like cold weather.

    1. Student at this school.

    2. I no living at home right now.

    3. I be living in this city.

    4. I am study every day.

    5. Im not knowing my teachers name.

    6. He is teach our English class.

    7. She expect we to be in home on time.

    8. We always are coming to class on time.

    9. Omar does he going to school?

    10. Tom no go to school.

    11. My sister dont have a job.

    12. Does Anna has a job?

    B. Simple Present vs. Present Progressive. Directions: Complete the sentences by using the words in parentheses. Use the simple

    present or the present progressive. 1. Shhh. The baby (sleep) ____________________. The baby (sleep)

    ____________________ for the hours every night.

    2. Right now Im in class. I (sit) ____________________ at my desk. I usually (sit)____________________ at the same desk in class every day.

    3. Ali (speak) ____________________ Arabic. Arabic is his native language, but right now he (speak) ____________________ English.

    4. A: (it, rain) ____________________ a lot in southern California? B: No. the weather (be) ____________________ usually warm and sunny.

    5. A: Look out the window. (it, rain) ____________________ ? Should I take my umbrella? B: It (start) ____________________ to sprinkle.

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    6. A: Look. Its Yourself. B: Where?

    A: Over there. He (walk) ____________________ out of the bakery. 7. A: Oscar usually (walk) ____________________ to work. (walk, you)

    ____________________ to work every day, too? B: Yes.

    A: (Oscar, walk) ____________________ with you? B: Sometimes.

    8. A: Flowers! Flowers for sale! Yes sir! Can I help you? B: Ill take those-the yellow ones.

    A: Here you are, mister. Are they for a special occasion?

    B: I (buy) ____________________ them for my mother. I (buy) ____________________ her flowers on the first day of every month.

    1.3.3 Umpan balik Score = Jumlah jawaban benar x 100/21.

    1.3.4 Tindak lanjut Jika score anda kurang dari 80 maka ulangi lagi memahami rangkuman, kerjakan semua latihan, dan test formatif.

    1.3.5 Kunci jawaban Tes Formatif Chapter 1

    A. Pretest (error analysis). Present verbs. 1. I am a student at this school. 2. I am not living at home right now.

    3. I am living in this city.

    4. I study every day. 5. I dont know my teachers name. 6. He teaches our engish class. 7. She expects us to be in home on time. 8. We always comes to class on time.

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    9. Does Omar go to school? 10. Tom doesnt go to school. 11. My sister doesnt have a job. 12. Does Anna have a job? 13. habit 14. right now

    15. habit 16. habit 17. right now

    18. right now

    19. habit 20. right now

    21. right now

    22. habit 23. habit

    B. Simple Present vs. Present Progressive. 1. is sleeping, sleeps 2. am sitting, sit 3. speaks, is speaking 4. Does it rain, is 5. Is it raining, Is starting 6. is walking 7. walks, Do you walk, Does Oscar walk 8. am buying, buy

    1.4 Referensi

    Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar 3rd Edition, Longman, 2003. Chapter 1. Unit 1.1 1.3. Page 4-9.