Chapter 1 Exploring Life Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Chapter 1 Exploring Life Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 2 Biology - the scientific study of life The phenomenon we call life We recognize life by what living things do Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 3 Images : Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings HIGHLY ORDERED Slide 4 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION Slide 5 Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/chloroplasts.htm Venus fly trap 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Image from: http://www.travel-net.com/~andrews/images/animations/traffic.gif RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENT Slide 6 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings REGULATION Living things adjust and control cell processes to maintain conditions suitable for life HOMEOSTASIS Slide 7 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ENERGY PROCESSING Slide 8 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Slide 9 Images: Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm REPRODUCTION Slide 10 Ecosystems Communities Organisms Populations Biosphere A Hierarchy of Biological Organization Slide 11 8 Cells 6 Organs and organ systems 7 Tissues 10 Molecules 9 Organelles 50 m 10 m 1 m Atoms Slide 12 New properties emerge with each step up in hierarchy of biological order Structural arrangement and interaction of parts is important to function! http://www.animationlibrary.com/sc/101/Bicycling/?page=1http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/jmc0030l.jpg Slide 13 EMERGENT PROPERTIES ~ the sum is greater than the parts http://www.rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb1/part2/images/dipeptide.gif http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/cat-removed/enzyme_.gif Individual amino acids don t catalyze chemical reactions but proteins do! Slide 14 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Connect concepts and provide a framework for understanding Slide 15 Unifying Themes in Biology connect concepts & provide framework for understanding Evolution ~ biologys core theme; differential reproductive success Emergent Properties ~ the sum is greater than the parts The Cell ~ basic structure of all organisms Heritable Information ~ DNA Structure & Function ~ form follows function Environmental Interaction ~ organisms are open systems Energy and life ~ work requires energy that flows from sunlight to producers to consumers Regulation ~ feedback mechanisms Unity & Diversity ~ universal genetic code Scientific Inquiry ~ observation; testing; repeatability Science, Technology & Society ~ functions of our world Slide 16 Evolution Evolution, biologys core theme, explains both the unity and diversity of life. The Darwinian theory of natural selection accounts for adaptation of populations to their environment through the differential reproductive success of varying individuals. 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif Slide 17 EVOLUTION is the CORE THEME SLIDE FROM BIOLOGY ZONE by Kim B. Foglia Slide 18 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy and Life All organisms must perform work, which requires energy. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers. Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Consumers (including animals) Sunlight Chemical energy Heat Ecosystem Slide 19 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings Continuity and Change (Unity & Diversity) All species tend to maintain themselves from generation to generation using the same genetic code. However, there are genetic mechanisms that lead to change over time, or evolution. Slide 20 Diversity is a hallmark of life BUT... Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 21 ... as diverse as life is, there is also evidence of remarkable unity Cilia of Paramecium. The cilia of Paramecium propel the cell through pond water. Cross section of cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope 15 m 1.0 m 5 m Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by moving a film of debris- trapping mucus upward. Slide 22 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Images from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structure and Function Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization Slide 23 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology http://pluck.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/restroom_blog.gif Regulation - Everything from cells to organisms to ecosystems is in a state of dynamic balance that must be controlled by positive or negative feedback mechanisms. http://www.me-go.net/rtw/images/biggulp.jpg Slide 24 In feedback regulation The output, or product, of a process regulates that very process http://www.wildtech.org/images/feedback.gif Slide 25 In negative feedback An accumulation of an end product slows the process that produces that product B A C D Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 D D D D D D D D DD C B A Negative feedback Example: sugar breakdown generates ATP; excess ATP inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway Slide 26 In positive feedback (less common) The end product speeds up production WW X Y Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z ZZ Z ZZ Z Z Z Y X Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Positive feedback EXAMPLE: Chemicals released by platelets that accumulate at injury site, attract MORE platelets to the site. Slide 27 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from BIOLOGY ZONE by Kim B. Foglia Interdependence in Nature No organism is an island. Organisms are open systems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings. Slide 28 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings Science as a Process - Science is a way of knowing. It can involve a discovery process using inductive reasoning, or it can be a process of hypothesis testing. Slide 29 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings Science, Technology, and Society Scientific research often leads to technological advances that can have a positive and/or negative impacts on society as a whole. Slide 30 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cells are every organism s basic units of structure and function. The TWO main types of cells are: PROKARYOTES (bacteria & archaea) EUKARYOTES (protists, fungi, plants & animals) Slide 31 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology HERITABLE INFORMATION- The continuity of life depends on the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA molecules. This genetic information in encoded in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA http://www.biosciences.bham.ac.uk/labs/minchin/tutorials/mddna.gif Slide 32 11 MAJOR THEMES that unify biology Image from Pearson Education 2005, publishing as Benjamin Cummings EMERGENT PROPERTIES- The living world has a hierarchical organization, extending from molecules to the biosphere. With each step upward in level, system properties emerge as a result of interactions among components at the lower levels. Slide 33 How can we understand biological systems? DILEMMA: Because of EMERGENT PROPERTIES we can t fully explain a higher level of order by breaking it into parts, but... organisms are too complex to analyze without taking them apart! TWO STRATEGIES : REDUCTIONISM SYSTEMS BIOLOGY Slide 34 REDUCTIONISM Reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study http://www.hallucinogens.com/lsd/francis-crick.html http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/mbi1440.htm EXAMPLE: By studying the molecular structure of DNA, James Watson & Francis Crick were able to infer how this molecule could serve as the chemical basis of inheritance Slide 35 The study of DNA structure has led to further study of heredity, such as the Human Genome Project Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 36 https://www.genome-sci.jp/english/images/zu2.gif SYSTEMS BIOLOGY tries to understand how all parts are functionally integrated Slide 37 Systems biology Seeks to create models Diagrams Graphs 3-D objects Computer programs Mathematical equations models of ideas, structures, and processes help us understand scientific phenomena and make predictions To lungs To body Right artium Right ventricle From lungs From body Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 38 Concept 1.5: Biologists use various forms of inquiry to explore life At the heart of science is inquiry A search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions Biology blends two main processes of scientific inquiry Discovery science Hypothesis-based science Slide 39 Discovery science Describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 40 Types of Data DATA are recorded observations Can be: Quantitative involves analysis of numerical data (measure, count, etc) Qualitative involves analysis of data such as words (e.g., from interviews), pictures (e.g., video), or objects (e.g., an artifact). http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/August2006/Casio.jpg http://www.bio-world.com/images/042135.jpg http://plus.maths.org/latestnews/may-aug05/millionaire/measure.jpg Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 41 Induction in Discovery Science In inductive reasoning Scientists derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations EX: The sun always rises in the East. All living things are made of cells. http://virtualbible.net/literature/firstprinciples/Inductive.jpg Slide 42 Hypothesis-Based Science (Deductive reasoning) Inquiry that asks specific questions Usually involves the proposing and testing of hypothetical explanations, or hypotheses Hypothesis Is a tentative answer to a well-framed question, an explanation on trial Makes predictions that can be tested Usually expressed as an: If., then . statement Slide 43 Deduction: The Ifthen Logic of Hypothesis-Based Science In deductive reasoning The logic flows from the general to the specific If a hypothesis is correct Then we can expect a particular outcome Slide 44 We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems Observations Questions Hypothesis # 1: Dead batteries Hypothesis # 2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test prediction Test does not falsify hypothesis Test prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 45 A Closer Look at Hypotheses in Scientific Inquiry A scientific hypothesis must have two important qualities It must be testable It must be falsifiable An hypothesis can only be proven to be FALSE, never proven to be TRUE! Slide 46 The Myth of the Scientific Method The scientific method is an idealized process of inquiry There is not ONE method May design experiment, then backtrack when realize need more observations May redirect research if realize been barking up wrong tree Hind sight is 20/20 Slide 47 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A CONTROLLED experiment must see the effect of ONE VARIABLE at a time Hard to do in field/lab Don t eliminate unwanted variables. cancel their effects by using a CONTROL GROUP Must be repeated (at least 3 X) Can t ignore or rule out data which do not support the hypothesis Slide 48 VARIABLES A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types. independent variable is the one that is changed by the scientist. dependent variable is observed to see how it responds to the change made to the independent variable. The new value of the dependent variable is caused by and depends on the value of the independent variable. controlled variables. are quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant, and must be observed as carefully as the dependent variables. Slide 49 HYPOTHESISIndependent variable (What I change) Dependent variable (What I observe) Controlled variables (What I keep the same) If fertilizer is added, then a plant will grow bigger. Measure amount of fertilizer (grams) Growth of the plant measured by its height Growth of the plant measured by the number of leaves There are other ways to measure growth Same size pot Same type of plant Same type and amount of soil Same amount of water and light Make measurements of growth for each plant at the same time The many variables above can each change how fast a plant grows, so to insure a fair test of the fertilizer, each of them must be kept the same for every pot. Slide 50 IT S JUST A THEORY In every day conversation, a theory often implies an untested guess. In science, the word theory means something different than in common usage. Broader than a hypothesis General enough to spin off more hypotheses Supported by a massive body of evidence Slide 51 IT S JUST A THEORY A theory is a well supported, testable explanation of natural phenomena. EX: Cell Theory, Gravitational theory, or Atomic theory http://www.avgoe.de/StarChild/DOCS/STARCH00/questions/apple_falling.gifhttp://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/chemistry/atomic_structure2/atom.gif Slide 52 TECHNOLOGY applies scientific knowledge for a specific purpose Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings </p>
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