CHAPTER 1 1 1

Download CHAPTER 1 1 1

Post on 25-Sep-2015

217 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

worksheet

TRANSCRIPT

<p>CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION</p> <p>1.0 INTRODUCTIONIf language structure makes up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and flesh, (Hammer, 1991, p. 153 as cited in Hossein Aslanabadi &amp; Giti Rasouli, 2013).In learning a foreign language, vocabulary plays an important role. It is a core element that integrates the four skills which are speaking, listening, reading and writing all together. In order to communicate well in a foreign language, students should acquire an adequate number of words and should know how to use them accurately. Vocabulary is the total number of words in a language. (Hornby, 1995, as cited in Ali Sorayaie Azar, 2012) According to a definition provided by Schnakenberg (2013), vocabulary is a list or collection of words or of words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained. He reviews the vocabulary knowledge is the key to unlock the meaning of text. Hammer For the pupils to utilize and apply English in their daily life, the pupils need to have interest and motivation in order for them to learn English by heart. According to ztrk (2012), one of the key factors of the success of the students in learning second language is the value that individual gives on the task or the activity. Therefore, from the statement, it shows that when the pupils have interest and passion towards certain activities that are conducted in the lesson, they can learn the language better. Therefore, as the central of the class, the role of teacher is very crucial to stimulate and cultivate interest inside pupils to learn and utilise English especially when they are still young. In recent years, research has been carried out in developing teaching strategies to teach vocabulary. Therefore, card game is one of the methods that have been chosen by teachers from all over the world in enhancing pupils performance in mastery vocabulary. There are many studies being carried out to prove card games can stimulate pupils interest especially in learning English. Generally, Tunchalearnpanih (2012), in his studies reviewed that games are proposed to solve the problems. Games bring in relaxation and fun for students, and they will learn and retain new words easily. Games create the motivation for learners of English because of the competition between students. Besides, Wright, Betteridge &amp; Bucky (2005) asserted that games add interest to what students might not find very interesting. Sustaining interest can mean sustaining effort (as cited in Jacobs, 2010).During my previous practicum, the schools that I went to are situated in suburb areas where all of the pupils come from middle-class family background. Their parents work as gardeners, government employees, factory workers, and also running small business. Generally, the English proficiency level of the pupils in these schools is low-intermediate level. Therefore, their progression in learning and mastering the language is quite slow and weak. Through my observation in the classroom, I found that the pupils had problems to understand the lesson. Due to lack of vocabulary, they struggled to understand what the teacher taught in the class. Pupils also did not participate well. They chose to be quite and passive rather than to give their responses to the teacher. As I observed the pupils performance in the class, I found that the main reasons that they did not have good understanding in learning English is because of the lack of interest to learn and utilize the words. Therefore, the problem that I would like to highlight from this research is how to increase pupils interest in utilising vocabulary through card games.For last semester, I was assigned to conduct my practicum session at one of the school around Bukit Mertajam area in Penang. This school is situated around Bukit Mertajam suburb which can be classified as a rural school. The enrolment of pupils who came to this school is about 300 pupils who come from different family background. Most of the pupils come from average family social background where their father works as a farmer, factory workers, rubber tapper, and contract workers. Generally, based on the past result of the UPSR examination, I found that the pupils performance especially in English was very low compared to the other subjects. Therefore, I can conclude that most of the pupils in this school have problems in learning and acquiring English language.</p> <p>1.2 Reflection of Past Teaching Experiences</p> <p>During the past practicum sessions which I underwent in semester 5, 6, and 7, I noticed that there were a lot of problems that were faced by the pupils as second language learners during English lesson. However, for the purpose of this action research, I focused on the problems that the pupils faced in acquiring vocabulary. As second language (L2) learners, one of the critical problems faced by the pupils was their lack of vocabulary. It was clearly depicted when the pupils were asked to read and explain what they understood about the text, they could not give the explanation. I found that the main factor was because they did not know the meaning of the words. Another incident was when I brought the pupils to read books in the library, I asked some of the pupils why they choose to read Malay books rather than English books and their answers were that they did not understand the words in the story. Here, I could sense that due to lack of vocabulary, the pupils felt discourage to read English reading materials because they did not know the content of the text or story.Apparently, the pupils also had problems to understand the lesson. They struggled to understand what the teacher said in the class. As a result, pupils lost interest to learn English and they were passive during the lesson. They chose to be quiet and passive rather than to respond to the teacher because they were not confident to speak in English. Moreover, the pupils tend to speak in Malay rather than using English to communicate even though it was an English lesson. I found that this incident did not only happen in my practicum school but it also happened in most of the schools around the country especially the schools that are situated in rural areas. According to Normazidah, Koo &amp; Hazita (2012), the recent research which investigate the problems and the practice of English language teaching and learning in Malaysia, they review that most of the school children in particular, those who reside in the rural areas experience contacts with English language only during their English classes. As the pupils were not applying what they have learnt during the lesson, the effect that can lead to this situation is that the pupils will easily forget everything that they have gained in the class. From the past teaching experiences, I can sense that the pupils did not have confident to speak and use the vocabulary that they required during the lesson to respond to teachers questions or giving explanations. As pupils had less motivation to use English in the lessons, they could not utilise the vocabulary that they had learnt in the right context. Pica, Lincoln-Porter, Paninos, &amp; Linnell (1996) asserted that it is a common belief that participation in verbal interaction offers language learners the opportunity to follow up on new words and structures to which they have been ex-posed during language lessons and to practice them in context (as cited in Tong, 2010) Utilising vocabulary is the most crucial aspect that needs to be mastered by second language learners in order to learn effectively in the class. According to the past teaching experiences during the past practicum session, I could see that interest of the pupils in that school towards English subject were not very high. Every weekday, we would have English activities during the assembly for all the pupils for example text reading activities and spelling. These kinds of activities were conducted in order to improve pupils achievement in learning English. Despite all of the activities that had been conducted in order to increase pupils performance in English, I believe that teachers needed to nurture the interest of pupils to learn and utilise the vocabulary. If the pupils did not have intrinsic motivation to learn, it would be difficult for them to master the language. Therefore, in order to find out how to motivate pupils to l utilise vocabulary, I embarked on using Tricky Guess card game to increase pupils interest in utilising vocabulary to pupils. Through this research, I was able to find out whether using the card game is an effective method to increase pupils interest in utilising the vocabulary and also improve pupils participation in ESL classroom.</p> <p>CHAPTER 2ISSUE OF CONCERN</p> <p>The focus of this chapter is to enlighten about the issue that is being highlighted in this research. The discussion of the main problem that leads to this research has been stated through this chapter as it relates to the past experience of researcher and pupils.2.1Problem Statement</p> <p>In this research, one of the problems faced by the pupils is they do not have wide range of vocabulary. Based on my observations, pupils easily forget the list of vocabulary that had been taught in the English lessons and they did not apply what they have learnt outside the classroom. In 2013, I conducted a simple vocabulary test for Year 2 pupils. The main objective of the test was to identify whether the pupils were able to remember the name of clothes that I taught in the previous lessons. I also wanted to identify the effectiveness of the activities that I conducted in their English lessons. However, I found that almost half the pupils in the class could not answer the questions correctly about the types of clothes that they just had learned the day before correctly. According to Harmer (2007), after learning new information, pupils will lost it as soon the end of the learning lesson. Therefore, I believe that when they did not applying the knowledge that they had learnt in the class, they would forget the facts easily. </p> <p>The interest of the pupils to utilise the vocabulary also is one of the main aspect that affect the performance of the pupils in mastering English. As pupils learn English as their second language, they need to have positive attitude and mind-set so that they able acquire the language effectively. Most of the pupils in school consider English Language is a challenging subject to learn and master. I also noted that most of the pupils in my practicum school viewed English as a killer subject and they believed that English was difficult to catch up. I asked a few Year 6 pupils about their favourite subject and what subject that they did disliked. Most of the pupils chose Malay Language as their favourite subject and English as the least favourite subject. I believed that due to those negative thoughts, they lack of interest to learn English and found that English lesson was boring. This could be due to some teachers used drilling method to teach vocabulary to pupils and I believed pupils would easily get bored and less motivated to learn if teaching method was not diversified. Besides, from my point of view, pupils easily lost their interest and do not like English lesson because of the methods that are used by certain teachers to teach English are not fun and interesting. Some of the senior teachers still chose traditional methods to teach in class. I witnessed it during my previous practicum sessions; Chalk and Talk method were still being applied by some teachers in the schools during their lessons even though there were thousands of interactive card games that had been introduced to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Professor Michael Fullan from University of Toronto claims that traditional chalk-and-talk methods of teaching no longer work in a world in which students expectations have been raised by 21st-century technology. (Stewart, 2014) If teachers still hold the belief that chalk and talk method is still the best method to teach English, I believe that pupils will not be able to express themselves confidently and develop critical thinking in the lessons. Moreover, activities that are conducted in the classroom also play an important role in enhancing vocabulary in the classroom. Some teachers tend to give more drilling and ask pupils to copy everything on the blackboard rather than plan interesting and enjoyable activities that would give meaningful experiences to the pupils. Patrick, Ryan &amp; Kaplan (2007) asserted that success in school depends on the extent to which students engage adaptively in classroom learning tasks. (as cited in Rajaletchumi Thaliah &amp; Rosna Awang Hashim, 2008) From this statement, I am certain that by conducting interactive activities like card games can help pupils to enhance their vocabulary in English lessons.</p> <p>2.2.Focus of investigation</p> <p>Based on my observation from the past teaching, the main issue that I would focused for this action research how to develop the interest of the pupils to utilise the vocabulary from the English lessons. I discovered that pupils were not participating well during the lessons. Every time I entered the class, they would ask whether there were any game that would be conducted during the lesson. From the statement of the pupils, I realised that the pupils demanded activities that were interesting in order for them to enjoy the lessons and take part actively during the activities. Thus, I am certain that in order to develop pupils interest to utilise the vocabulary, teacher need to prepare and conduct attractive activities during the lesson. Meece (1991) claimed that teachers who motivate students to learn often develop intrinsic motivation in students to learn for the sake of knowledge (as cited in Yang, 2008). Hence, it shows that interesting and joyful activities is the key aspect that would increase pupils interest and promote intrinsic motivation in utilising vocabulary in ELS classroom. Reflection from the past practicum experiences, I also believed that the pupils in primary schools had difficulties in mastering English language learning because they did not attain a wide range of vocabulary and an inability to master the structures of the language. These problems raised due to the teaching methods that are being used by the teachers in the English lessons were not interesting and fun. As pupils found out the activities that was conducted by the teacher were plain dull, and uninteresting, they would be bored and not be interested to participate in the...</p>