causes of wrongful conviction
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Causes of Wrongful ConvictionsCreated By: ProfessorUniversity of Phoenix CJA224
IntroductionIn this presentation we will be discussing the topic: Causes of wrongful conviction
Supported Facts and Previous Cases Certain Statistics Numerous Examples Including Images References
Causes of wrongful convictionIn todays society, countless of people have been introduced to the justice system do to committing major and minor crimes. For instance; murder or parking tickets. However, the United States justice system is not always accurate, when it comes to some of these cases. To be realistic this is what causes chaos in the system and in society. Citizens being proven guilty, when he or she is innocent.
The Innocence Movement
n 1992, Barry Scheck and Peter Newfeld formed the first Innocence Project. The Innocence Movement are passionate and driven people that are concerned over the wrongful convictions of people. This movement has rouse people in action all around the world to try and achieve success in reforming the criminal justice system. Their main mission is to help exonerate people who have been wrongfully convicted. These organizations have been working in this movement and captivating the public through the following: Newspapers Film documentaries Televisions Internet
The Innocence Movement handles all types of wrongfully convicted cases, whether they are DNA case or non-DNA cases. DNA cases are only 10 to 12 % of serious felony cases. There are many people who are wrongfully convicted due to: - Misidentification - False Confessions - Prosecutorial Misconduct - Incentivized Witnessing - Rogue Law Enforcement Officer - Junk Science - Bad Lawyering
The utmost cause of wrongful convictions nationally are from the eyewitness falsely indentifing criminals (Siegel. Shamalleger, and Worall, 2011).
Intimidation Duress Mental impairment Lack of Knowledge in laws and rights Fear of violence Misunderstanding of circumstances Diminished capabilities Imposition of harm Risks or worries of a harsh sentence
Exonerations arise through four revenues:
U.S. state official allots a pardon basis of new evidence proving innocence Courts dismiss charges following newly found evidence In a retrial exoneration is validate Recognition of innocence continues after ones death
How has DNA assisted in wrongful convictionsThere are three main ways in which DNA analysis is used in criminal investigations:
(1) DNA deposited on a victim or at a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample taken from a person suspected of some involvement in the crime. (2) If there are no suspects, DNA deposited on a victim or crime scene can be compared with a DNA database containing DNA profiles of convicted offenders. A match generated through this process is known as a cold hit'. (3) If there are no suspects, DNA deposited on a victim or crime scene can be compared with the DNA samples volunteered by all members of a locality (ie a mass screening, as occurred in the NSW town of Wee Waa in 2000).
Contemporary ExamplesTechnology evolvingAs science and technology evolve, individuals throughout the country are being released from prison due to DNA testing after years of incarceration. Often, investigation of original trials that led to the wrongful incarceration reveal impropriety in physical evidence collection, laboratory procedures followed and/or reporting of test results. Zellner, 2012
Chart of Trials
Exonerations reveal the most frequent errors in wrongfully convicting individuals include:
Incorrect eyewitness identification Defective forensic evidence Untrue confessions Informant testimony Ineffective assistance of counsel Overzealous prosecutor Judicial bias
Wrongful Convictions and Exonerations