Carbohydrate balance in children. Lipid balance in children

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  • Slide 1
  • Carbohydrate balance in children. Lipid balance in children.
  • Slide 2
  • Milk and sour milk products Milk is one of the most valuable products of feed. It has all necessary substances for normal growth and development of organism. Milk has near 100 different components, and near 20 amino acids. Milk fat has a lot of high insatiable fat acids, vitamins. It is in emulsification case. Milk has cholesterol and lecetin, which are in good balance condition. In milk present milk sugar lactose, which help mastering of calcium. Milk has different mineral substances, the optimal concentration of calcium and phosphorus. In milk present vitamins A, D, B2, B6. Sour milk products are cream, sour cream, cheese, yoghurt. It is mastering better than milk (after one hour mastering 91 % of sour milk products and only 32 % of milk). Milk is one of the most valuable products of feed. It has all necessary substances for normal growth and development of organism. Milk has near 100 different components, and near 20 amino acids. Milk fat has a lot of high insatiable fat acids, vitamins. It is in emulsification case. Milk has cholesterol and lecetin, which are in good balance condition. In milk present milk sugar lactose, which help mastering of calcium. Milk has different mineral substances, the optimal concentration of calcium and phosphorus. In milk present vitamins A, D, B2, B6. Sour milk products are cream, sour cream, cheese, yoghurt. It is mastering better than milk (after one hour mastering 91 % of sour milk products and only 32 % of milk).
  • Slide 3
  • Milk and sour milk products
  • Slide 4
  • Meat and meat products In food use meet of cattle, live-stock, pigs, rabbits, birds, meat products. It is the main source of proteins, it has fats, extractive and mineral substances, vitamins. Boiled meat has a better effect on digestive organs than grilled and stew. Veal, beef, rabbit, chicken, turkey digestive better than meat from pig, goose, duck. In food use meet of cattle, live-stock, pigs, rabbits, birds, meat products. It is the main source of proteins, it has fats, extractive and mineral substances, vitamins. Boiled meat has a better effect on digestive organs than grilled and stew. Veal, beef, rabbit, chicken, turkey digestive better than meat from pig, goose, duck.
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  • Meat
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  • Meat
  • Slide 7
  • Grain products (grain, bread) Cereals make from grain-crops. It has a lot of carbohydrates, some quantity of proteins, and small quantity of fats. Cereals has phosphor and calcium, iron, magnesium, vitamins of B group. There are rise, oats, millet, buckwheat, barley cereals. Bread has 40-50 % of carbohydrates, 5-8 % of protein. In bread are present proteins. Brown bread has more influence on stomach secretion than white bread; fresh bread has more influence on stomach secretion than stale bread and piece of dried bread. Cereals make from grain-crops. It has a lot of carbohydrates, some quantity of proteins, and small quantity of fats. Cereals has phosphor and calcium, iron, magnesium, vitamins of B group. There are rise, oats, millet, buckwheat, barley cereals. Bread has 40-50 % of carbohydrates, 5-8 % of protein. In bread are present proteins. Brown bread has more influence on stomach secretion than white bread; fresh bread has more influence on stomach secretion than stale bread and piece of dried bread.
  • Slide 8
  • Grain products
  • Slide 9
  • Vegetables, fruits and small fruits (berries) Vegetables is the main source of carbohydrates in a case of sugar, starch, pectin. In carrot is present near 6 % of carbohydrates, in beetroot present near 8 % of carbohydrates. There is 75-95 % of water in vegetables. Vitamins and mineral substances are present in a big quantity in vegetables too. Vegetables stimulated stomach secretion, motor function of digestive tract, production of bile. It is help to mastering proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins. Fruits and small fruits (berries) have a lot of vitamins, mineral salts. There are near 85 % of water in fruits and small fruits (berries). It has organic substances, pectin. Vegetables is the main source of carbohydrates in a case of sugar, starch, pectin. In carrot is present near 6 % of carbohydrates, in beetroot present near 8 % of carbohydrates. There is 75-95 % of water in vegetables. Vitamins and mineral substances are present in a big quantity in vegetables too. Vegetables stimulated stomach secretion, motor function of digestive tract, production of bile. It is help to mastering proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins. Fruits and small fruits (berries) have a lot of vitamins, mineral salts. There are near 85 % of water in fruits and small fruits (berries). It has organic substances, pectin.
  • Slide 10
  • Berries
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  • Berries
  • Slide 12
  • Proteins contains
  • Slide 13
  • Acquiring of food Mastering of food is a ratio between quantity of nutrition which are master by organism to common quantity of food which we eat. Near 95 % of animal products are mastering, near 80 % of plant products are mastering, near 82-90 % of mix products are mastering. Mastering of protein from animal products is 97 %, from plant is 85 %, and from mix food is 92 %. Food must be good chew; it must be good surrounding condition for eating. Mastering of food is a ratio between quantity of nutrition which are master by organism to common quantity of food which we eat. Near 95 % of animal products are mastering, near 80 % of plant products are mastering, near 82-90 % of mix products are mastering. Mastering of protein from animal products is 97 %, from plant is 85 %, and from mix food is 92 %. Food must be good chew; it must be good surrounding condition for eating.
  • Slide 14
  • Isodynamic of nutritious substances, their caloric coefficient We eat protein, carbohydrates, fats. Products of it hydrolyzing go into energy of organism. Amino acids, fat acids, monosaccharides connect in energy metabolism. It all has own energy value. Caloric coefficient of fat is 9,0 kcal/g, protein is 4,0 kcal/g, carbohydrates is 3,75 kcal/g. But we must remember, that we must eat fats, protein, carbohydrates, because in this case, when we eat only one products, may be only energy substitution and our organism need all nutrition for vital activity. We eat protein, carbohydrates, fats. Products of it hydrolyzing go into energy of organism. Amino acids, fat acids, monosaccharides connect in energy metabolism. It all has own energy value. Caloric coefficient of fat is 9,0 kcal/g, protein is 4,0 kcal/g, carbohydrates is 3,75 kcal/g. But we must remember, that we must eat fats, protein, carbohydrates, because in this case, when we eat only one products, may be only energy substitution and our organism need all nutrition for vital activity.
  • Slide 15
  • Principles of putting of nutritive rations Caloricity of daily ration must be equal to energy spend of organism. Person of I professional group need 40 kcal/kg of weight; person of II professional group need 43 kcal/kg of weight; person of III professional group need 46 kcal/kg of weight; person of IV professional group need 53 kcal/kg of weight; person of V professional group need 61 kcal/kg of weight. Caloricity of daily ration must be equal to energy spend of organism. Person of I professional group need 40 kcal/kg of weight; person of II professional group need 43 kcal/kg of weight; person of III professional group need 46 kcal/kg of weight; person of IV professional group need 53 kcal/kg of weight; person of V professional group need 61 kcal/kg of weight.
  • Slide 16
  • Regime of nutrition If we eat 4 times per day: breakfast must have 25-30 % of daily caloricity, lunch (after dinner eating) or before supper eating must have 10-15 %, dinner must have 40-45 % daily caloricity, supper must have 20 % of daily caloricity. If we eat 3 times per day: breakfast must have 30 % of daily caloricity, dinner must have 45-50 % daily caloricity, and supper must have 20- 25 % of daily caloricity. Time between breakfast and dinner must be to 5-6 hours; time between dinner and supper must be 6-7 hours. Optimal duration between eating is 4-5 hours, at night is 8-10 hours. If we eat 4 times per day: breakfast must have 25-30 % of daily caloricity, lunch (after dinner eating) or before supper eating must have 10-15 %, dinner must have 40-45 % daily caloricity, supper must have 20 % of daily caloricity. If we eat 3 times per day: breakfast must have 30 % of daily caloricity, dinner must have 45-50 % daily caloricity, and supper must have 20- 25 % of daily caloricity. Time between breakfast and dinner must be to 5-6 hours; time between dinner and supper must be 6-7 hours. Optimal duration between eating is 4-5 hours, at night is 8-10 hours.
  • Slide 17
  • Completeness and coordinateness of ration Our food must have optimal ratio of protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral substances. Optimal norm of protein is 1,5 g/kg of weigh per day. Protein must give 14-15 % of daily caloricity. Optimal norm of fat is 1,5 g/kg of weigh per day. Fat must give 28-30 % of daily caloricity. Average norm of carbohydrates is 400-500 gram per day. They provide 50-60 % of daily caloricity. Our food must have optimal ratio of protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral substances. Optimal norm of protein is 1,5 g/kg of weigh per day. Protein must give 14-15 % of daily caloricity. Optimal norm of fat is 1,5 g/kg of weigh per day. Fat must give 28-30 % of daily caloricity. Average