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Cancer Screening Programs By: Ebru Asik

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Page 1: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Cancer Screening Programs

By: Ebru Asik

Page 2: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

History of Cancer Screening Programs

- Cancer screening is used to detect before

symptoms of the cancer appear.

- In early stages of breast cancer, cervical cancer

and colorectal cancer it can be impossible to

see or feel. That is why we have cancer

screening.

- Can involve blood tests, urine tests, other tests,

or medical imaging.

Page 3: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Types of Cancer Screening Programs

Mammogram: screening programs for

Breast cancer is called mammogram.

Colonoscopy: screening programs for

Colorectal cancer is called a colonoscopy.

Pap Test: screening programs for

Cervical cancer is called a pap test.

Page 4: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

WH

AT T

HE M

AC

HIN

ES

LOO

K

LIKE

Mammogram (left), Colonoscopy Instrument (top right), Speculum (bottom right)

Page 5: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Benefits and Drawbacks

Advantages of a mammogram

- helps detect the cancer

earlier which makes it

easier to remove it.

- Women ages 50 to 69 who

take part in screening are

at a lower risk of dying

from breast cancer

Disadvantages of a mammogram

- false positives - when the

cancer is detected but the test

does not reveal the presence

of the cancer- and over

diagnosis - the screening

detects the cancer but it would

have never been there if the

patient hadn’t been screened.-

Page 6: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Benefits and Drawbacks

Advantages of a Colonoscopy

- Detects colorectal cancer

- Can help find

gastrointestinal and bowel

diseases

- Helps with the removal of

Polyps (tumors that grow

inside the large intestine

and rectum.)

Disadvantages of a Colonoscopy

- It is an uncomfortable and

invasive procedure (most

people are put to sleep during

this procedure)

- Preparation requires the

patient to be on a certain diet

and laxatives a day before

- Can cause bleeding

Page 7: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Benefits and Drawbacks

Advantages of a Pap Test

- Regular Pap tests can

prevent nine out of

ten cervical cancers

Disadvantages of a Pap Test

- Not 100% accurate

-  may not always detect

cell changes

- Uncomfortable

Page 8: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How is the procedure preformed/ What is the science behind it?

Breast Cancer Screening- Clinical Breast Exam – The doctor will carefully

feel the breast and under the arms for lumps. If there is a lump it might be a tumor and needs to be checked with a mammogram.

- Mammogram – The breast is placed on a flat support plate and is compressed with a parallel plate (paddle). An X-ray machine produces small bursts of X-rays that passes through the breast to a detector on the opposite side. Areas of low density such as fatty tissues appear translucent but areas of dense tissues like connective tissue, or tumors appear whiter.

Page 9: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How is the procedure preformed/ what is the science behind it ?

Breast Cancer Screening Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – You

take off all clothes and jewelry you’re put on a tiny slab and pushed into a hole in the machine you lie still while the machine scans you’re body. The machine uses a magnet, radio waves and a computer to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. The MRI like a mammography takes a picture but it is much more clear and is used for people with high risk of breast cancer.

Page 10: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Clinical Breast Exam (Top Left), Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI- (Bottom Right)

Page 11: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How is the procedure preformed/ What is the science behind it?

Colorectal Cancer Screening Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) – This is a

simple blood test that can be taken in your own home. If the test result is positive it doesn’t mean you have colon cancer but it should be followed up with a colonoscopy.

Colonoscopy – Examination of the lining of the rectum and colon using a long flexible tube with a camera on the end. The camera sends images to a screen and the doctor can spot the tumor or cancer.  

Page 12: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How is the procedure preformed/ What is the science behind it?

Cervical Cancer Screening Pap Test – Looks for abnormal cell changes in the

cervix. An instrument called a speculum is gently inserted in the vagina. Cells can be taken from the cervix and are sent to a lab to be examined.

Skin Cancer Screening Skin Exams – If an area of the skin looks

abnormal, a biopsy is usually done. The doctor will remove suspicious tissue with a local excision. A pathologist then looks at your tissue under a microscope to check for any cancer cells.

Page 13: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

 

How Cancer Screening Affects the Well-Being of the Society? 

Many people suffer from cancer around the

world. There are some people who can afford

cancer screenings. But, some Latino Patients are

affected with very significant issues such as

economical problems, cultural beliefs, and more.

Page 14: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How cancer Screening Affects the Well-Being of the Society?

 Economical Problems Many immigrants in the U.S.A. are unaware of breast, colon and

cervical cancer screening programs. That is because the program is

limited, though it is free.

Working cancer patients do not get their treatment done, sine

they’re unable to get off from work; they worry about income loss

or getting fired from work

Scared for getting unhealthy diagnosis, which means, emotional

and financial burden on the family. If children are sick, they will be

taken to the doctor, regardless of financial or practical constraints.

Page 15: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How cancer Screening Affects the Well-Being of the Society?

Cultural Beliefs Many women are emotionally challenged, they fear to

visit the doctor. They are responsible for their home and family so they cannot afford any disease.

When a woman is diagnosed with cancer and enters treatment, her role is changing from someone who gives care to someone who needs care.  In addition to keeping multiple appointments, the side effects from therapy such as nausea and fatigue may keep a woman from her established role in the family.

Page 16: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

How cancer Screening Affects the Well-Being of the Society?

 Men, have little knowledge about cooking and other responsibilities towards home. But men who act as head of the household are afraid that a diagnosis of cancer will make them appear weak to their family and will interfere in their ability to care for them.

Fears about time missed from work, loss of income, inability to support dependent family back home, unaffordable medical care, and overwhelming language and cultural barriers, may cause men to delay seeing the doctor until they are very sick.

If diagnosed with a serious illness, a man may keep the illness from loved ones as long as possible for fear of burdening them. This may cause feelings of isolation, loneliness, and depression and may affect his treatment and healing process

Page 17: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Social and Ethical Issues

Social Although most cancer screening tests are non-

invasive or essentially invasive, some involve small risks of serious complications that may be critical (e.g.., perforation with colonoscopy)

Another, harm is the false-positive test result, which can lead to anxiety and unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. These invasive procedures carry higher risks of serious problems.

A slighter known harm is over diagnosis False-negative screening test delays diagnosis

and effective treatment.

Page 18: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Social and Ethical Issues

Ethical Some doctors rig the information of

their patients Some patients involuntarily take the

screenings Patients may not be told the risks of

the screenings and the cancer

Page 19: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Social and Ethical Issues

Social Issues Possible Solutions Make sure they tell the patients all about the

cancer screening and let them know that the tests are not 100% accurate.

Ethical Issues Possible Solutions There should be more than one person

checking a test to make sure no funny business is going on

The cancer should be explained to the patient thoroughly

Page 20: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Canadian Cancer Screening Participation Statistics

Page 21: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Bibliography Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) - National Cancer Institute .(n.d.).Comprehensive

Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute . Retrieved October 7, 2013, from

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/skin/Patient/page1

Breast Cancer Screening. (n.d.). Cancer Care Ontario. Retrieved September

26, 2013, from https://www.cancercare.on.ca/pcs/screening/breastscreening

Cervical Screening. (n.d.). Cancer Care Ontario. Retrieved October 1, 2013,

from https://www.cancercare.on.ca/pcs/screening/cervscreening/

Colorectal Cancer Screening. (n.d.). Cancer Care Ontario. Retrieved August 5,

2013, from https://www.cancercare.on.ca/pcs/screening/coloscreening/

cancer. (2013). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/106118#224752.toc

Screening for colorectal cancer - Canadian Cancer Society. (n.d.). Canadian Cancer

Society. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.cancer.ca/en/prevention-and-

screening/early-detection-and-screening/screening/screening-for-colorectal-cancer/?

region=on

Page 22: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Bibliography

Cultural and Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Care in the Latino Population — EthnoMed. (n.d.). Feature: October/November 2013 — EthnoMed. Retrieved October 16, 2013, from http://ethnomed.org/clinical/cancer/cultural-and-socioeconomic-factors-affecting-cancer-screening-early-detection-and-care-in-the-latino-population

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/overview/HealthProfessional/page1

Ethical issues particular to screening. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://phprimer.afmc.ca/Part3-PracticeImprovingHealth/Chapter9Screening/Ethicalissuesparticulartoscreening

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://thesaurus.com/

Page 23: Cancer Screening Programs Ebru

Bibliography http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/screening http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/overview/

HealthProfessional/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_screening http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/resources/features/

WorldCancerDay/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/71204-pros-cons-having-

colonoscopy/ http://www.msss.gouv.qc.ca/sujets/santepub/pqdcs/index.php?

avantages-limites-inconvenients-mammographie-en http://www.gihealth.com/html/education/colonpolyps.html

Organized Breast Cancer Screening Programs in Canada - Report on Program Performance in 2003 and 2004. (n.d.).Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) | Agence de la sante publique du Canada (ASPC). Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/2008/obcsp-podcs-03-04/participation-eng.php