Bubble Power

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<ul><li><p> SEMINAR ON BUBBLE POWER THE REVOLUTIONARY NEW ENERGY SOURCE</p><p>BY: VISHNU.S ROLL.NO.4428 S7.ME </p></li><li><p>INTRODUCTIONSonofusion Research team from various organizations have joined forces to create acoustic fusion technology energy consortium (AFTEC) to promote the development of sonofusion.It was derived from a related phenomenon, sonoluminescence.Sonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded by sound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse-and may one day become a revolutionary new energy source. </p></li><li><p> SONOLUMINESCENCEWhen a gas bubble in liquid is excited by ultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit short flashes of light suggestive of extreme temperatures inside the bubble.</p><p>These flashes of light, known as sonoluminescence, occur as the bubble implodes, or cavitates.</p><p>Chemical reactions occurs . </p></li><li><p> THE IDEA OF SONOFUSIONTechnically known as acoustic inertial confinement fusion.</p><p> In this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filled flask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting the motion of tiny gas bubbles.</p><p>High temperatures and pressure speculated at the bubble core .</p><p>This leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclear fusion.</p></li><li><p>EXPERIMENTAL SET UP</p></li><li><p>BASIC REQUIREMENTSPyrex flaskVacuum pumpPiezoelectric crystalWave generatorAmplifierNeutron generatorNeutron and gamma ray detectorPhotomultiplierMicrophone &amp; speaker</p></li><li><p>HOW SONOFUSION WORKSAction of vacuum pump.</p><p>Fill the flask with deuterated acetone.</p><p>For initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHz applied to the ring.</p><p>Fire a pulsed neutron generator.</p></li><li><p>EXPERIMENTAL SET UP</p></li><li><p> ACTION IN THE FLASK</p><p> Stage (1) Neutrons flying through the flask create a bubble cluster in the deuterated acetone liquid. </p></li><li><p>Stage (2)The negative pressure in the liquid makes the bubbles swell 100000 times in size (from nano to millimeter-scale). </p></li><li><p>Stage (3)The liquid pressure turns positive and compresses the bubble, causing them to implode with great violence.</p></li><li><p>Stage(4)The implosion creates an instantaneous pressure of 10 trillion kilopascals and temperature of more than 100 million degree C, making the deuterium fuse. </p></li><li><p>EXPERIMENTAL SET UP</p></li><li><p> FUSION REACTIONDeuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable outputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritium and a proton.The energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed in a reactor to create water vapor &amp;drive an electricity generator. </p></li><li><p>EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT TABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSION DEVICE</p><p>We gather two kinds of evidence that the deuterium is fusing.</p><p>The first is by measuring levels of another hydrogen isotope tritium</p><p>The second is neutron emissions detected by the neutron detector.</p></li><li><p>SEQUENCE OF EVENTS</p></li><li><p>OTHER APPROACHESMainly two types:</p><p>Laser beam technique.</p><p>Magnetic confinement fusion</p></li><li><p>ADVANTAGESIt is self sustaining.Easily control.Produce more energy than it consumes.Low cost.Easily available raw materials.Environmental friendly.</p></li><li><p> APPLICATIONSThe technology might one day, in theory, lead to a new source of energy. It may result in a new class of low cost energy.</p><p>Compact detectors for security applications.</p><p>To analyze molecular structure of materials.</p><p>Machines that cheaply manufacture new synthetic materials &amp; efficiently produce tritium, which is used for medical imaging to watch dials.</p></li><li><p>FUTURE DEVELOPMENTSFully self-sustained.</p><p>neutrons</p></li><li><p>ContdTo create a full-size electricity producing nuclear generator.</p></li><li><p>CONCLUSIONFor more than half a century, thermonuclear fusion has held out the promise of cheap, clean and virtually limitless energy.</p></li><li><p>REFERENCEIEEE spectrum ,MAY 2005.www.purdue.eduwww.iter.orgwww.washington.edu</p></li><li><p>THANK YOU</p></li></ul>