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  • E.Carter,T.Fisher,B.Guclu,R.Hastrich,M.Lampe,J.Reilly.February2004

    Brinkman Lab Product Portfolio Development MultiDisciplinarySeniorDesignProject:04017

    PRELIMINARYDESIGNREVIEWREPORTFriday,February20th,2004

    TeamMembers:

    ElizabethCarterTravisFisherBurcakGucluRyanHastrichMattLampeJustinReilly

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    1. TableofContents

    1. TableofContents ................................................................................................... 2 2. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 3 3. NeedsAssessment ................................................................................................. 4 3.1. NeedsoftheClient ......................................................................................................... 4 3.2. NeedsoftheProjectTeam............................................................................................. 6 3.2.1. StatementofWork .................................................................................................. 6 3.2.2. ProblemStatement.................................................................................................. 7 3.2.3. ProjectScope ............................................................................................................ 8 3.2.4. Stakeholders............................................................................................................. 8 3.2.5. BudgetaryParameters ............................................................................................ 8

    3.3. ProductNeedEvaluation .............................................................................................. 8 3.3.1. MarketAnalysis ...................................................................................................... 9

    4. ConceptDevelopment......................................................................................... 11 4.1. ConceptDevelopmentProcess ................................................................................... 11 4.1.1. Clarifytheproblem............................................................................................... 11 4.1.2. SearchExternally................................................................................................... 11 4.1.3. Searchinternally.................................................................................................... 12 4.1.4. Reflectonresults ................................................................................................... 12

    4.2. MaterialSelection.......................................................................................................... 13 5. DesignObjectivesandPerformanceSpecifications ........................................ 13 5.1. DesignObjectives/CriticalPerformanceParameters............................................... 13 5.1.1. OrderQualifiers .................................................................................................... 13 5.1.2. OrderWinners....................................................................................................... 14

    5.2. PerformanceSpecifications.......................................................................................... 14 5.3. EvaluationCriteria........................................................................................................ 15

    6. AnalysisofProblemsandSynthesisofDesign ............................................... 15 7. DetailedDesignProcess...................................................................................... 15 7.1. DesignforFunctionality .............................................................................................. 15 7.2. DesignforAesthetics.................................................................................................... 16 7.3. DesignforMachinability ............................................................................................. 16

    8. ConceptSelection&FeasibilityAssessment.................................................... 17 8.1. MethodsofConceptSelection..................................................................................... 17 8.2. StructuredConceptSelection ...................................................................................... 18

    9. PreliminaryDesignDocuments......................................................................... 23 9.1. EngineeringDrawings ................................................................................................. 23 9.2. BillofMaterials ............................................................................................................. 23 9.3. TechnicalDataPackage(ProjectNotebook) ............................................................. 24

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    9.4. Products.......................................................................................................................... 24 9.4.1. BallBearingBusinessCardHolder .................................................................... 24 9.4.2. CylindricalCardHolder ...................................................................................... 25 9.4.3. PictureFrame......................................................................................................... 26 9.4.4. BookEnd ................................................................................................................ 27 9.4.5. FlatBottleOpener ................................................................................................. 28 9.4.6. PlexiglasDiplomaFrame..................................................................................... 29 9.4.7. InjectionMoldedConcepts.................................................................................. 30

    10. EngineeringModels:HardwareandSoftware ............................................... 31 10.1. Prototypes .................................................................................................................. 31 10.2. FEA.............................................................................................................................. 31

    11. BusinessPlan ........................................................................................................ 32 12. Appendix............................................................................................................... 32

    2. Introduction

    ThepurposeofthisprojectistodevelopaportfolioofproductstobemanufacturedintheBrinkmanManufacturingLaboratory.Theseproductswillbedesigned,manufacturedandmarketedbytheprojectteam.TheproductswillbeavailableforsaletotheRochesterInstituteofTechnologycampuspopulationbytheendofMay2004.

    Theportfolioofproductsincludesthedesign,manufacturing,andbusinessdocumentationforthesetofconceptsdevelopedbythisproject.Thisportfoliowillbetheultimatedeliverableoftheproject.Itwillalsoserveasthesourceofinformationforfutureproductionofthesedesigns.

    Theproductsaredesignedtobemanufacturedwithinthecurrentcapabilitiesofthelab.ThelabisequippedwithtwoCNCmillingmachinesandthreeCNClathes.ThelabisalsoequippedwithadiesinkingEDMandaninjectionmoldingmachine.Themachinetoolsinthelaballowusthecapabilityofproducinghighqualitymachinedparts.Thehighqualityofourproductswillbeanadvantageoverourcompetitorsproducts.

    Allofthedesignsdevelopedasapartofthisproject,willappealtotheRITcampuspopulation.Marketresearchwillprovidethestylepreferencesofthecustomers.Historicaldata,surveys,andfocusgroupswillverifythedemandfortheproductsconsidered.Thisdemanddatawillbeusedinthefinancialanalysisoftheproject.

    Thepreliminaryproductconceptsweredevelopedusingavarietyofcreativeactivities.Theseactivitiespromotedanopenmindedapproachtotheproblemandleadtoamultitudeofimaginativedesignideas.Brainstorming,sketching,and3dimensionalmodeling,weresomeoftheactivitiesthatencouragedconceptgeneration.

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    Themostdesirableconceptswillbeselectedusingastructuredmethodology.TheWeightedConceptSelectionmethodusesaratingsystemtoevaluateeachconceptbasedonasetofmeasurableattributes.Performingthisanalysisrequiresthedesignteamtoquestionthefeasibilityanddesirabilityofeachproductidea.

    Thedetaileddesignofeachconceptevolvedthroughaniterativeprocess.Designformanufacturing,assembly,machining,injectionmolding,functionalityandaestheticswereconsideredduringthedetailedengineeringdesignstage.Theproductsrequiringtheanalysisofmechanicalpropertieswerealsoperformedatthisstage.

    Thisreportwillshowtheprogressoftheproductdevelopmentprocess.Thepreliminarydesignreviewwillserveasagatewaytothesecondhalfoftheproject.Feedbackfromthereviewwillbeusedtorefinetheproductdesignsaswellastheplanningforthefutureofthisproject.

    3. NeedsAssessment

    Beforebeginningthedesignworkofanengineeringprojecttheneedsoftheprojectshouldtobeevaluated.Theseneedswilldefinethenatureoftheproject,includingthescope,schedule,andbudget.Theneedsoftheclient,theprojectteam,andtheoverallneedforthedevelopedproductswillbestudied.

    3.1. Needs of the Client Theneedsoftheclientarewhattheclientexpectsfromtheprojectteam.Theclientneedsserveastheprimaryrequirementsofaproject.Theydefinethegeneralpaththeprojectwilltakeanddeterminetheultimatedeliverables.Duringthephaseofidentifyingtheneedsoftheclient,latentorhiddenneedsshouldbeclarified.Itshouldalsobemadecertainthatnocriticalclientneedismissedorforgotten.Overall,theproductshouldbefocusedoncustomerneedsandthespecificationsfortheproductshouldbejustifiedbythecustomer.

    ThisprojectwascommissionedbytheIndustrialandSystemsEngineeringdepartmentatRochesterInstituteofTechnology.AneedfortheservicesoftheprojectteambeganwiththesubmissionofarequestfortheprojecttobecompletedthroughaMultiDisciplinarySeniorDesignProject.Thisrequest,intheformoftheclientstatement,showninFigure1,summarizestheinitialneedsoftheclient.

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    Figure 1. Client Statementi

    ClientStatement:Thestudentteamwilldevelop,design,manufactureandmarketaportfolioofproductsthataretobefabricatedintheBrinkmanManufacturingLabandsoldattheRITbookstoreandthroughuniversitycatalogs.Thestudentswillredesignandoptimizecurrentproducts(businesscardholders,penholders,andpaperweights)aswellasdevelopnewonestoconformacompleteportfoliothatcanbemanufacturedwithcurrentcapabilities.Inadditiontoproductdevelopment,design,andmanufacturing/assemblyplanning,theteamshoulddevelopacompletebusinessplanthatincludesinvestment,costestimates,projectmanagement,marketingstrategy,aswellaspricing.Additionalissuesonpersonnelrequirements,training,fixturedevelopment,productcustomization,etcaretobeconsidered.TheteamisexpectedtodeliverthisportfolioofproductstotheRITbookstorebeforecommencementday(2004)andprovefeasibilityoftheproject.Thedesignteamwillbeprovidedwith

    AppropriateCNCandmanualmachinesforproductmanufacturing(mills,lathes,EDM,etc).Ifneeded,trainingontheseequipmentwillalsobeprovided.

    Abudgetforanyhardwareorsoftwarepurchasesthatarenecessaryforthesuccessfulcompletionoftheproject.

    Thedesignteamshould DevelopmentandDesign:Developaportfolioofseveralproductsthatcanbe

    manufacturedinthelab.Thisincludes

    Designofnewproducts.Redesignandoptimizationofexistingproducts.Marketresearch(demandforecast,etc)andproductfeatures(aesthetics,materialsselection,customizable,DFX,packaging,etc).

    Productdocumentation:drawings,billofmaterials,operationschart,assemblychart,precedencediagram,partslist,etc.

    Processdocumentation:processplan,productionplanning,scheduling,timestudies,personnelrequirements,linebalancing(ifneeded),etc.

    Developacompletebusinessplanaswellasprojectmanagement

    Prototyping:Fabricateprototypesofeachproduct.Incorporatefeedbackfromcustomer(RITbookstore)andfrommanufacturing/assembly.

    FullScaleProduction.

    Designandfabricateappropriatefixtures.

    Purchasematerialsandtrainpeople.

    Productionrun:fabricateandassembleproductstomeetforecast.

    Sales:Prepareallthedocumentationandadministrativeproceduresforcommercializingtheproducts.

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    Asspecified,theclientrequirescompletedocumentationofnewlydevelopedproducts,productionplansforeachproduct,andabusinessplanthatincludesthemarketing,sales,andcommercializationstrategyfortheproducts.

    3.2. Needs of the Project Team Theneedsoftheprojectteamaretheresourcesandtimerequiredtocompletetheworkoftheproject.Theinitialprojectdescriptionincludessomeoftheneedsoftheprojectteam.First,theteamneedsabudgettodevelopandmanufacturetheproducts.Second,theteamneedsaccesstothemeansofproductionthemachinesintheBrinkmanLab.Third,theteamneedsaccesstofacultyadvisorsandstaffmemberstoresolvetechnicalissuesandtolearnhowtoprogramandoperatethemanufacturingequipment.Theteamalsoneedstimetoplantheprogressionoftheproject.

    3.2.1. StatementofWork

    Thefirstmeetingwiththeteammentors,Dr.JamesTaylorandDr.AndresCarrano,clarifiedtherequirementsoftheproject,therequirementsoftheteam,andtherequirementsoftheclient.Theneedsofbothpartieswerediscussedandaformalstatementofworkwasagreedto.Thestatementofworkisreproducedbelow.

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    Figure2.StatementofWork.

    3.2.2. ProblemStatement

    Designaportfolioof35productsthatcanbemanufacturedintheBrinkmanLabandsoldoncampus.Developnewdesignsaswellasredesignandoptimizeexistingproducts.Performmarketresearch,costanalysis,customerexpectations,feasibilityanalysestoverifythesuccessofthedevelopedproducts.

    StatementofWorkBrinkmanLabProductPortfolioDevelopment12/14/03

    Thestudentteamcomposedofthememberslistedbelowwilldevelop,design,manufactureandmarketaportfolioofproductsthataretobefabricatedintheBrinkmanManufacturingLabandsoldattheRITBookstoreandthroughcampuscatalogs.Theteammemberswilldevelopabusinessplanafterevaluatinginvestment,costs,marketingpotential,andpricing.Additionalissuesofpersonnelrequirements,training,fixturedevelopment,andproductcustomizationwillbeevaluatedanddocumented.Fulldocumentationofallproductsandprocesseswillbeincludedinthefinalreport.Thesetaskswillbecompletedbycommencement2004.

    OrderQualifiers

    DevelopaportfolioofseveralproductsthatcanbemanufacturedintheBrinkmanLab

    Designnewproducts Redesignexistingcardholder Completebusinessplanbasedonmarketresearch,investmentanalysis,

    costanalysis,pricinganalysis,forecasting. CompleteProductDocumentationincludingdrawings,billofmaterials,

    operationschart,assemblychart,precedencediagram,andpartslist CompleteProcessDocumentationincludingprocessplan,production

    planning,scheduling,timestudies,personnelrequirements,andlinebalancing(ifneeded)

    SoftwareandHardwareprototypesofconcepts Fullscaleproductionofconcepts.Includingdesignandfabricationof

    fixtures,materialpurchases,andoperatortraining,andproductiontomeetforecasteddemand.

    Prepareallthedocumentationandadministrativeproceduresforcommercializingtheproducts

    OrderWinners

    ProfitablebusinesstoprovideincometotheBrinkmanLab Provideproductsthatcanserveascasestudiesforcoursework

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    3.2.3. ProjectScope

    Theportfolioof35productswillbefabricatedintheBrinkmanLabandsoldoncampus.TheprojectdeliverableswillbecompletebytheendofMay2004.

    3.2.4. Stakeholders

    Thestakeholdersforthisprojectarelistedbelow.Stakeholdersareallofthepartieswithadirectinterestandinfluenceontheproject.

    PrimaryStakeholders

    o Dr.JacquelineMozrall,Client/ProjectCoordinator

    o Dr.AndresCarrano,ProjectAdvisor

    o Dr.JamesTaylor,ProjectAdvisor

    SecondaryStakeholders

    o CampusConnections

    o RITDepartmentsandOffices

    TertiaryStakeholdersEndUsers

    o UltimateConsumers

    3.2.5. BudgetaryParameters

    Asourceofstartupfundingforthisprojectisrequired.TheagreementreachedbetweentheclientandtheprojectteamisthatfundswouldbemadeavailablefromtheISEdepartmentasneeded.Therequirementwasthatjustificationbeshownpriortoanyexpenditures,andthatallpurchasesbeapprovedbyDr.Mozrall.Thereisnotabudgetsetbytheclientforthisproject.However,theprojectteamdevelopedastartupcostmodel.Thisinformationisincludedinthefinancialsectionofthebusinessplandocument.

    3.3. Product Need Evaluation Theinformationfromtheclientprovidedtheprojectteamwithastartingpointforassessingtheneedsoftheprojectandtheneedsfortheproductstobedeveloped.Itistheresponsibilityoftheprojectteamtoassesstheneedsinthemarketfortheconceptsthatwerebeingdeveloped.Itshouldbenotedthattheconceptdevelopmentphaseofthe

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    projectwasrunningconcurrentlytotheneedsassessmentphase.Thesetwophasesprovidedinputtoeachother,andconcurrentactivitiesacceleratetheproductdevelopmentprocess.

    Apreliminarymeeting,atthispoint,wasmadewithJohnRomans,DirectorofStoresforCampusConnections.CampusConnectionswillbeoneoftheprojectswholesalecustomers.Itwasimportanttogettheinputfromthisclientassooninthedesignprocessaspossible.Theresultsofthismeetingwerethattherewasanopportunityforthesaleofproductsoncampus,andpossiblyaneedforcustomizedproducts.

    3.3.1. MarketAnalysis

    Theneedfortheproductsthatwillbedevelopedbytheteamisestablishedthroughmarketresearch.MarketresearchforthisprojectincludesresearchofexistingsimilarproductsforsaleinCampusConnections,aswellascustomersurveysperformedspecificallyregardingtheconceptsdevelopedforthisproject.

    Theteamcollecteddataongiftanddesktopproducts,suchasbusinesscardholders,pensets,andpictureframescurrentlysoldincampusconnections.Datawasalsocollectedonlowerendproductssuchaskeychainsandmagnets.TheCampusConnectionsresearchisincludedinAppendixA.

    Theinitialsurveyquestionedcustomerwillingnesstopurchaseproducts,orthedesiretoreceiveproductsasagift.Theresultsofthesurveyvalidatedthedemandinthemarketfortheconceptsspecified.ThesummaryofthesurveydataisincludedinFigure3andFigure4.

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    Products they would consider buying as a gift

    17%

    27%

    27%

    21%

    8%

    12345

    Business Card Holder

    Pict ure Frame

    Plexiglas diploma f rame

    desk clock

    book ends

    Figure 3. Chart of survey responses. What product would you consider buying as a gift for someone else?

    Products they want as a gift or they would buy themselves

    20%

    37%

    18%

    9%16%

    12345

    Business Card Holder

    Picture Frame

    Plexiglas Diploma Frame

    Desk Clock

    Book ends

    Figure 4. Chart of survey responses. What product would you buy for yourself or like to receive as a gift?

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    Thissurveywascompletedby87graduatingengineeringseniors.Accordingtotheinformationfromthesurvey,thereissignificantinterestintheseproducts.AmoredetaileddiscussionofthesurveydataandresultsisfoundintheBusinessPlandocument.

    4. ConceptDevelopment

    Thepurposeoftheconceptdevelopmentprocessistogeneratepotentialproductideasbasedoncustomerneeds,targetspecifications,andteamexperience.Thefocusofthisprocessisongeneratingideasandnotonselectingideas.Thedevelopmentprocessutilizesasetoftools,ormethods,tofacilitatethegenerationofproductconcepts.Aconceptisaroughidearepresentingonesolutiontotheneedsandrequirementsoftheproject.

    4.1. Concept Development Process Therearefivestepsintheconceptdevelopmentprocessclarifytheproblem,searchexternally,searchinternally,exploresystematically,andreflectontheresultsandtheprocess.

    4.1.1. Clarifytheproblem

    Tobegintheprocessofgeneratingconceptideas,theprojectteammustfirstunderstandtheproblemstatement,thecustomerneeds,andthepreliminaryproductspecifications.Thesedocumentsarestillbeingrefinedinthebeginningofthedevelopmentphase.Understandingtheproblemtobesolvedwillguidetheprojectteamtowardssolutionstotherightproblem.

    Inthecaseofthisproject,theteamreviewedtheClientStatement,showninFigure1,andagreeduponaStatementofWork,showninFigure2.Examiningthisdocumentguidedtheteamonthefollowingstepsoftheconceptdevelopmentprocess.

    4.1.2. SearchExternally

    Beforegeneratingconceptideasfromscratch,theteamshouldresearchthepossibilityofexistingsolutionsorproducts.Thisstepisessentiallygatheringresearchtowardscompetitiveproducts,technologiesandprocesses,andproductswithrelatedfunctions.

    Forthisproject,thisstageincludespatentresearch,existingproductresearch,andclientinput.

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    4.1.3. Searchinternally

    Thisprocessusespersonalandteamknowledgeandcreativitytogenerateconceptsolutions.Itisanopenendedcreativeactivityfornewproductdevelopment.Theprocesscaninvolvegroupactivitiessuchasbrainstorming,groupdrawing,andempathysessions.Individualactivitiesincludesketchingand3Dmodels.

    Forthisproject,severalmethodswereusedtodevelopasmanyproductconceptsaspossible.Brainstormingwasthefirstmethodusedtodevelopideas.Brainstormingisbasedonsuspendingjudgmentandstrivingforalargenumberofideaswithoutweighingthefeasibilityofeachidea.Theprocessencouragesindividualstobecreativeandstretchestheboundariesofthesolutionspace.ThelistofproductconceptsdevelopedduringthisphaseisincludedinAppendixB.

    Theactivitiesoutlinedbelowwereusedtobothdevelopnewdesignconceptsandtofurtherrefinetheexistingdesigns.Theprocessforthedetaileddesignoftheseconceptsisdiscussedinalatersection.

    Graphicalmediawasusedtoclarifyandrefinetheideasdevelopedinthebrainstormingsession.Thesemethodswereusedtomakeupfortheinaccuracyofverbalandtextualdescriptionsofideas.Teammemberswereassignedseveralconceptsandaskedtodrawatleastthreesketchesforeach.Thesesketchesformedthebasisforthenextactivity,whichis3Dsoftwaremodels.

    Thephysicalmediaincludingclayandfoamboard3Dmodelsenabledtheteamtoreevaluatethedesignsthroughhandsonexperience.Creatingphysicalmodelsreinforcedthesuccessfulfeaturesofeachdesign,andalsoleadtoimprovementsofinferiorfeatures.Thisactivityalsogeneratednewdesignsandleadtothenextstageofdevelopment.

    4.1.4. Reflectonresults

    Theseideageneratingactivitiesresultedinpreliminaryengineeringdrawingsandhighfidelityprototypes.

    Duringtheconceptdevelopmentphase,itwasdecidedtogrouptheconceptsintotwocategorieshighendproductsandlowendproducts.Highendproducts,soldatapricegreaterthan$10,willappealmostlytoaprofessionalcustomergroup,andwillbeproducedinlowvolumestobesoldasgiftitems.Lowendproductswillfillthenicheforlessexpensiveproducts.Theseproductsareintendedtobepurchasedbystudents,orbyRITdepartmentsaspromotionalgifts.Thesepartswillbeproducedinahighervolumethanthehighendproducts.

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    4.2. Material Selection Materialswereselectedfortheproductconceptsbasedonknowledgeofmaterialproperties,expertrecommendations,researchintosuppliersandcost,anddesignrequirements.Formachinedparts,aluminumwaschosenforitseaseofmachining,relativelylowcost,andcorrosionresistance.6061Aluminumwasselectedbasedonitslowcost,availability,andwiderangeofuse.

    Acrylicplasticwaschosenforthediplomaframebasedonitslowcost,clarity,durability,andavailability.Theplasticforinjectionmoldedpartswillbeselectedtoresultinhigherqualityparts.However,aspecifictypeofplastichasnotbeenselectedatthistime,duetocontinuingmaterialandprocessresearch.

    5. DesignObjectivesandPerformanceSpecifications

    Thepurposeofthisfacetistoestablishtheintentionandscopeofeachproductdesignactivity.Thedesignobjectivesarethehigherlevelrequirementsofthedesigns.Inthecaseoftheproductsdevelopedforthisproject,thesamedesignobjectiveswillapplytoallproducts.Theperformancespecificationsdefinequantifiableaspectsofthefunctionalityofeachconcept.

    5.1. Design Objectives/Critical Performance Parameters Thedesignobjectivesfortheproductstobedevelopedandproducedforthisprojectarelistedbelow.

    5.1.1. OrderQualifiers

    Productsshallbeaestheticallypleasingtoendcustomers.

    Highendproductsshallhaveasubstantiallookandfeel.

    Productsshallbeofhighquality.

    Productsshallsellforapricethatwillallowformoderatesalesvolumeoftheproduct.

    Productsshallbedesignedwithmanufacturingefficiencyinmind.

    Productsshallfullyperformtheirintendedfunctions.

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    5.1.2. OrderWinners

    Productsshouldbeabletobecustomengravedpercustomerrequests.

    Productsshouldbeappealingasgiftitems.

    Productsshouldhavesufficientqualitytocompetewithexistingproductsinthemarket.

    5.2. Performance Specifications Theperformancespecificationsfortheproductstobedevelopedarelistedbelow.Thislistwasdevelopedconcurrentlywiththeprogressoftheconceptdevelopmentactivities.Atthistime,notallspecificationsarecompletelyquantified.

    1. CurvedBallCardHolder

    a. Shallholdatleast50standardbusinesscards.

    b. Angleofballrollingdownhillshallbebetween26.

    c. Cardsshallbeheldintheholderatananglebetween7585.

    2. CylindricalCardHolder

    a. Shallholdatleast50standardbusinesscards.

    b. Shallnotrollforwardorbackwardeasily.

    3. BottleOpener

    a. Bottleopenershallwithstandtheforcerequiredtoopenastandardbottle(about10lbsappliedatkeyringhole).

    4. Bookends

    a. Bookendsshallwithstandahorizontalforcerequiredtoholdup5averagesizebooks.

    b. Bookendsshallnottipoverundertheweightofalargesizedbook.

    5. PictureFrame

    a. Pictureframeshallholda4x6in.picture.

    b. Frameshallstandsolidlyunderitsownsupport.

    6. DiplomaFrame

    a. DiplomaFrameshallholdastandardRITdiploma(10x12in.)

    b. Frameshallbeabletomountonawall.

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    7. Magnet/Keychain/Coaster

    a. Thestrengthofthemagnetshallbesufficienttosupporttheweightofthemagnetonarefrigeratordoor.

    b. Thefinishontheseproductswillbedurableenoughforuseasakeychainandacoaster.

    5.3. Evaluation Criteria Alldesignswillbeconsideredadequateandcompletewhenthemajorityofgroupmembersagreethatthedesignisfinal.Finaldesignsaremeasuredagainstdesignobjectivesandperformancespecifications.Whendesignsmeetallspecificationsandexpectations,theyarereleasedformanufacturing.However,designswillcontinuetobeeligibleforrevisionduetounforeseenmanufacturingissues.

    6. AnalysisofProblemsandSynthesisofDesign

    Forthepurposesofthisproject,theAnalysisofProblemsandSynthesisofDesignfacetwasnotperformedexplicitlyduetothenatureoftheproject.However,themethodsrecommendedbythisphasewereusedelsewhereinthedevelopmentoftheproject.Thecostandpriceanalysesperformedinthebusinessplanusedthestructuredproblemsolvingmethodcommonlyusedinthisphase.Additionaldesignandmanufacturingproblemsmaybeanalyzedforthisfacetinthefuture.

    7. DetailedDesignProcess

    Oncetheconceptdevelopmentphaseoftheprojectisunderway,theideasforproductsbegintoevolveintoincreasinglymoredefineddesigns.Thedevelopmentofthedetaileddesignsisguidedbyconsiderationsintothefunctionalityoftheproducts,aestheticappeal,andthemanufacturingeaseofeachcomponent.

    7.1. Design for Functionality Thefunctionofeachproductwasdeterminedduringtheconceptdevelopmentprocess.Thefunctionalityreferstohowwelltheproductwillperformthisfunction.Thedesignphilosophyofthisprojectisthatthefunctionismoreimportantthandesign.Allofourproductsperformsimplefunctionsandareexpectedtoperformthesefunctionsflawlessly.

    Thefunctionalityofourproductsareevaluatedwithrespecttothedesignobjectivesandperformancespecificationsdiscussedintheprevioussection.However,functionalityisassessedincommonsensetermsaswell.

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    7.2. Design for Aesthetics Everyrevisionofeverydesignwasdevelopedwithboththefunctionandlookoftheproductinmind.Therefore,oncethefunctionhasbeenincorporatedintothedesign,theaestheticappealoftheproductisthenextareaofimportance.

    Aestheticappealisimportantduetothenatureofsellingconsumerproducts.Consumersvaluethevisualappealofaproductwhendecidingonpurchasingtheitem.Theproductsdevelopedforthisprojectfeatureanelegantandboldlook.Theshapeandsizeofeachdesignwasgeneratedtoachievethedesiredappearance.Thesoliddesignmotifservesasacompetitiveadvantageforourproducts.

    Duringthedesignprocess,theshapeandsizeofeachconceptwascarefullyselectedwiththeoverallappearanceinmind.

    7.3. Design for Machinability Thethirdconsiderationmadeduringthedetaileddesignphaseoftheprojectismachinability.Themachinabiltyanalysiskeepstheaestheticandfunctionalfeaturesoftheproductincheckwiththecostofmanufacturingthesefeatures.Thegeneralcategoryofmachinabilityincludesmachiningtime,materialholdingandfixturing,andthetoleranceplacedonthegeometricfeaturesofthecomponent.Materialselectionisalsoaconcernofmachinability.MaterialselectionwaspreviouslydiscussedintheConceptDevelopmentsection.

    Themachiningtimeofapartisbasedonthecomplexityofthegeometry,theamountofmaterialremoved,andthenumberofsetupsrequiredtomachineallofthefeaturesofthepart.Duringthedetaileddesignprocess,theeaseofmachiningwas,consideredbythedesigner,andestimatedbyconsultingwithexperts.

    Themeansofholdingtherawmaterialandtheinprocesscomponentsisalsoaconsiderationofthedetaileddesignprocess.Whiledesigningapart,understandinghowthepartwillbeheldinthemachine,willpreventthedesignerfromincludingfeaturesthatarenotfeasibletomachine.

    Thetolerancesplacedonthegeometricfeaturesofthecomponentwillaffectthemachiningtimeofthepart.Thetolerancesspecifiedbythedesignerontheengineeringdrawingshouldrepresentthewidestrangepossibletomaintainthefunctionalityoftheproduct.

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    8. ConceptSelection&FeasibilityAssessment

    Conceptselectionandfeasibilityanalysiswereimportantphasesofthisproject.Itwascriticaltobeabletosystematicallyselecttheconceptsthatwouldbedevelopedinfurtherdetail.Therearelimitedresourcesfordeveloping,prototyping,andmanufacturingproductideas.Thisrequiresthataselectfewconceptscontinuethrougheachstageofdevelopment.Structuredandinformalselectionandevaluationtechniquesallowedtheteamtofocusontheconceptsthathavethebestchanceofsuccess.

    Conceptselectionistheprocessofnarrowingdownabroadlistofconceptswithrespecttocustomerneedsandattributesbycomparingtherelativestrengthsandweaknesses.Oneormoreconceptsareselectedforfurthertestinganddevelopment.FeasibilityAssessmentisalsoperformedduringthisstage.Feasibilityassessmentreferstoeliminatingdesignsthatarenotfeasibleaccordingtoschedule,economic,technical,orresourceconstraints.

    8.1. Methods of Concept Selection Thefollowingconceptselectionmethodswereusedtonarrowdownthelistofinitialconceptsthatweredevelopedduringbrainstormingactivities.

    Externaldecisions:Conceptsarepresentedtothecustomerfortheirselection.ThecustomersuggestedthattheprojectteamcontinuethedevelopmentoftheconceptsthatwerecurrentlymanufacturedbytheBrinkmanLab.

    ProductChampion:Aninfluentialmemberofthegroupchoosesaproductpersonalpreference.Severalteammembersvoicedopinionspositivelyandnegativelytowardsomeconcepts.Although,theiropinionsdidnotautomaticallyaffectthestatusofaconcept,itdidinfluenceotherselectiondecisions.

    Intuition:Whenoneconceptjustseemsbetter.Thismethoddoesnottakeintoconsiderationanycriteriaortradeoffs.Someoftheideasdevelopedintheearlystagesofconceptdevelopmentmadesensetobedevelopedfurther.

    Multivoting:Eachmemberoftheteamvotesandtheconceptwiththemostvotesischosen.Thismethodwasusedrightafterthebrainstormingtonarrowdownthelonglistofproductideastoamanageablelistofconcepts.

    Afterthisinitialselectionprocess,thenarroweddownlistwasdevelopedtothestageofpreliminaryengineeringdrawings.Atthispoint,astructuredconceptselectionmethodwasusedtochoosethepotentiallymostsuccessfulideasfromthisgroupofproducts.

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    8.2. Structured Concept Selection Thepurposeofaformaldiscussionanddocumentationofconceptselectionistocarefullycompareeachproductconceptagainsttheperformanceattributesandtocompelthegrouptocarefullyconsidereachconceptagainstthesemetrics.Therearetwostagesoftheconceptselectionprocess.Thefirststepistoscreenoutobviouslyinferiorconcepts.Thisstepisusedtoproduceafewviablealternatives.Thesecondstageinvolvesthescoringofalternatives.Thisstageisamorecarefulanalysisofconceptstochoosethemostsuccessfulproductconcepts.

    Duringthedevelopmentoftheengineeringdrawings,severalversionsofsomeoftheconceptsevolved.ThePughsmethodwasusedtoscreenoutthelessdesirableversionsoftheconceptdrawings.ThismethodwasperformedontheBusinessCardHolderandtheBookendconceptvariations.TheresultsofthePughsmethodanalysisareshownbelow.

    Attribute S-Curve Front Bookend Angular Design

    Bookend Curved Design

    Bookend

    Aesthetics 0 + + -Low Profile 0 0 0 -Unique Design 0 0 + Functionality 0 0 0 Manufacturing ease 0 - 0 Material Cost 0 0 0 Processing Cost 0 0 0 Sum of + 0 1 2 Sum of - 0 1 0 Sum of 0 7 5 5 Net Score 0 0 2 Rank 3 2 1

    Table 1. Pughs Method Design Selection for Bookends.

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    Attribute Baseline -

    Origional Card Holder (Vertical)

    Straight Ball Bearing Card

    Holder Two-piece Horizontal

    Trapezoidal Card Holder

    Cylindrical Card Holder

    Aesthetics 0 + 0 0 + -Low Profile 0 + 0 + + -Unique Design 0 + 0 - - Functionality 0 + + + + Manufacturing ease 0 + + + + Material Cost 0 + 0 + + Processing Cost 0 0 + + + Sum of + 0 6 3 5 6 Sum of - 0 0 0 1 1 Sum of 0 7 1 4 1 0 Net Score 0 6 3 4 5 Rank 1 4 3 2

    Table 2. Pughs Method Design Selection for Business Card Holders.

    Theconceptselectionmethodusedforthisprojectwastheweightedcomparisonmethod.Thismethodusesaratingscaleformeasuringtheimportanceofthedesignattributesforeachconcept.Thefirststepofthismethodistodefinetheattributesthateachconceptwillbemeasuredagainst.TherelativeimportanceofeachattributeisevaluatedusingtheAttributeImportanceMatrixshowninTable1.Thematrixtotalstheresultsofpairwisecomparisonsofallattributes.Theresultisarelativeweightingonascaleofzerotoone.

    Theattributesusedforanalysiswerechosenbythegrouptorepresentthedecisioncriteriatoeliminatetheconcepts.Theattributesusedformeasuringfeasibilityoftheconceptswereestimatedsalescostratio,manufacturability,estimatedsalesvolume,sufficientdesignandproductionskills,sufficientnumberofproductionpersonnel,overallaestheticsofthedesign,andsurveydatasupport.However,theskillsandnumberofpersonnelmetricswerelaterfoundtohavelittlerelativeimportancecomparedtotheotherattributes.

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    Attribute Importance Matrix

    Manufacturing Ease

    Estimated Sales Volum

    e

    Sufficient S

    kills

    Sufficient Num

    ber of People

    Aesthetics

    Survey Data Support

    Estimated Sales - C

    ost Ratio

    Row

    Total

    Colum

    n Total

    Row

    + Colum

    n

    Relative W

    eights

    Manufacturing Ease 2.0 0.0 2.0 0.10Estimated Sales Volume 3.0 1.0 4.0 0.19

    Sufficient Skills 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.05Sufficient Number of People 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00

    Aesthetics 0.5 3.5 4.0 0.19Survey Data Support 0.0 4.0 4.0 0.19

    Estimated Sales - Cost Ratio 0.0 6.0 6.0 0.29

    Column Total 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 4.0 6.0 21.0

    Table 3. Relative Attribute Importance Matrix

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    Table 4. Concept Selection and Feasibility Assessment.

    Attribute Factor

    BASELINE - Exisitng

    Business Card Holder

    Business Card Holder

    Business Card Holder Pen Holder Desk Clock

    Picture Frame

    Diploma Frame Book Ends

    Letter Opener

    Bottle Opener

    Ball Bearing Design

    Cylendrical Design

    Common Base Plate

    Common Base Plate

    One Piece - Aluminum

    One Piece - Aluminum

    "Curvy" Design "Sword type" Flat Design

    Judgement Based

    Estimated Sales - Cost Ratio 0.29 4 5 3 3 2 2 3 3 5Manufacturing Ease 0.10 3 3 2 2 4 1 4 5 2

    Estimated Sales Volume 0.19 4 3 1 1 2 4 2 1 5Sufficient Skills 0.05 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5

    Sufficient Number of People 0.00 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5Aesthetics 0.19 5 5 4 3 4 4 5 2 4

    Survey Data Support 0.19 2 2 3 4 4 5 2 3 3

    Rating 3.76 3.86 2.81 2.81 3.10 3.38 3.19 2.67 4.14Ranking 3 2 7 7 6 4 5 9 1

    Continue Development ? ? ? ? ? ?Com

    ments

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    Table5.ConceptSelectionRadarChart

    Concept Selection Radar Chart

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Sufficient SkillsEstimated Sales Volume

    Manufacturing EaseEstimated Sales - Cost Ratio

    Sufficient Number of People

    Aesthetics

    Survey Data Support

    Business Card Holder Horizontal - Common BasePlateBusiness Card Holder Ball Bearing Design

    Business Card Holder Trapezoid Design

    Business Card Holder Cylendrical Design

    Desk Clock Common Base Plate

    Picture Frame One Piece - Aluminum

    Diploma Frame One Piece - Aluminum

    Book Ends "Angular" Design

    Book Ends "Curvy" Design

    Letter Opener "Sword type"

    Bottle Opener Flat Design

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    TheAttributeImportanceMatrixyieldedtheweightsofeachoftheattributes.Theseweightingswereusedintheconceptselectiontable,Table3.Thebaselineconceptforthisanalysiswastheexistingtwopiecebusinesscardholder.Thiscardholderwasbeingproducedattherateofabout50unitsperyearfordistributionasgiveawaysbytheISEdepartment.

    Theratingsarebasedonascaleof1to5,whereavalueof5representsahighrating.Ascoreof3representsacomparablevalueoftheattributetothatofthebaselineconcept.TheattributeratingsaremultipliedbytherelativeweightscalculatedinTable4andsummed.Thedesignconceptsarethenorderedbytheirranking.

    Thetopsixproductsaccordingtothisanalysiswillcontinuetobedevelopedthroughthemanufacturingandproductionphases.Thedesignsthatwereeliminatedbythisstudywillbeheldatthepreliminaryengineeringdrawingstage.

    Ifnewconceptideasarise,theconceptselectionprocesswillberepeatedandupdatedtoevaluatethestandingofthenewconceptscomparedtotheexistingconcepts.

    9. PreliminaryDesignDocuments

    Thepreliminarydesigndocumentshavebeenpreparedforthereviewofthepreliminarydesignreviewpanel.Thesedocumentsincludeengineeringdrawings,billsofmaterial,andthebusinessplan,allofwhichareincludedintheTechnicalDataPackage.Thesecollectivedocumentsdemonstratethedevelopmentandselectionactivitiesoftheprojectteam.Alldocumentrevisions,andbackgroundresearchiscontainedintheTechnicalDataPackage.

    9.1. Engineering Drawings ThemajorityoftheproductsdevelopedforthisprojectweredevelopedusingCADsoftwarefromtheearlystagesofdevelopment.Thesesoftwaremodelsanddrawingswerecreated,reviewedandrevisedtogeneratethecurrentpackageofassemblyandcomponentdrawings.ThecurrentrevisionoftheengineeringdrawingsareattachedinAppendixC.

    9.2. Bill of Materials TheBillofMaterialsforeachproductlistsalloftherawmaterial,components,pricesandvendorsrequiredformanufactureoftheproduct.

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    9.3. Technical Data Package (Project Notebook) Thetechnicaldatapackageconsistsofallofthedrawings,sketches,analyses,andbackgroundresearchproducedduringtheprogressionoftheproject.

    9.4. Products Fromourcustomerspointofview,ourhighendproductsprovideanelegantitemforuseontheirdeskorelsewhereintheiroffice.Thebold,soliddesignthemewillappealtothetechnicalandfunctionalmindedpopulationofRIT.OurlowendproductswillappealtothewholeRITcommunityandtovisitors.TheselessexpensiveitemswillallcarryanRITlogotodisplaycollegiateidentityandschoolspirit.

    TheproductslistedbelowarethosethatwerechosenbytheConceptSelectionProcess.Theseproductshavecompletedesigndocumentation,includingengineeringdrawingsandabillofmaterial.

    9.4.1. BallBearingBusinessCardHolder

    Figure 5: 3-D rendering of Ball Bearing Business Card Holder 04017-092

    o Features:Ballbearingorlargemarblerollsdowntowardsthebusinesscardsthroughthesemicirculargroovetoholdthecardsup.Theproductismadefrommachinedaluminumandanodizedblack.AnRITlogoisengravedonthecenterofthebase.AlogowillbeselectedfromtheapprovedRITlogosfoundinAppendixD.

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    9.4.2. CylindricalCardHolder

    Figure 6: 3-D rendering of Cylindrical Card Holder 04017-110

    o Features:Thecylindricalstylecardholderissolidaluminumdeskaccessorywithroomtohold50businesscardsandhastheRITlogodisplayedonthefrontsurface.

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    9.4.3. PictureFrame

    Figure 7: 3-D rendering of Picture Frame 04017-030

    o Features:Designedtoholda4x6picture.Machinedfromasinglepieceofaluminum.Thefinishwilleitherbeanodizedblack,orpolishedaluminum.TheframewillfeatureanengravedRITlogo.Customengravingwillbepossibleforanextracost.Alsoincludedaretheglassandeaselstandback.

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    9.4.4. BookEnd

    Figure 8: 3-D rendering of Book End 04017-002

    o Features:Thefeaturesofthebookendsincludetwopiecealuminumconstructionwithablackanodizedsurface.BothsidesofthebookendfeaturesanRITlogo.

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    9.4.5. FlatBottleOpener

    Figure 9: 3-D rendering of Flat Bottle Opener 04017-020

    o Features:Thebottleopenerfeaturesalightweightaluminumconstructionstrongenoughtowithstandtheforcesofopeningbottles.ThedesignalsoincludesspaceforanengravedRITlogo.

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    9.4.6. PlexiglasDiplomaFrame

    Figure 10: 3-D rendering of Plexiglas Diploma Frame 04017-041

    o Features:Thisdiplomaframefeaturessolidclearacrylicconstruction.Thedesignissizedtofita10x12RITdiploma.ThefrontisengravedwithanRITlogo.Additionalengravingswillbeatanextracost.

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    9.4.7. InjectionMoldedConcepts

    Theinjectionmoldedpartsthatwillmakeupthelowerendpartofourportfolioarecurrentlyintheearlydevelopmentstages.Researchisbeingdoneintheareasofmaterials,processparameters,andmolddesigns.Theresultsofthisresearchwillprovideanestimateofthecapabilitiesandqualityofoutputoftheinjectionmoldingprocess.Basedonthisanalysis,theprojectteamcanevaluatetheoverallsuccessofinjectionmoldedparts.Also,understandingthecapabilitiesofthisprocesswillfeedintotheconceptanddesigngenerationforthisclassofproducts.

    Theconceptscurrentlyunderdevelopmentinthelowendcategoryaremagnets,keychains,coasters,andpokerchips.Thesedesignswillbebasedonacommondesignmotif,andthescalewillbeadjustedtomatchthefunctionoftheproduct.

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    10. EngineeringModels:HardwareandSoftware

    Engineeringmodelsareusedtorepresentandvalidatethedetaileddesigns.Softwareandhardwaremodelsareusedtogeneratemoreaccuraterevisionsofeachconcept.Thesemodelswerealsousedformarketanalysisactivities,suchassurveydatacollection.

    10.1. Prototypes Prototypesarephysicalandanalyticalapproximationsoftheproducts.Theyareusedforcommunicationofideas,learning,andintegrationofcomponents.Physicalprototypesareusedtoinvestigategeometricissuesandunforeseenmanufacturingproblems.Buildingprototypesinearlystagesofproductdevelopmentilluminatesissuesthatneedtoberesolved.Thiscansignificantlyreducethenumberandcostofadditionaliterations.

    10.2. FEA Afiniteelementanalysiswasperformedontheflatbottleopenerdesign.Thisanalysisverifiedthatthestrengthofdesignwassufficienttowithstandtheforcesinvolvedinopeningabottle.TheFEAanalysisoutputdocumentisincludedinAppendixE.

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    11. BusinessPlan

    TheBusinessPlanisaseparatedocumentoutliningthebusinesssideofthisproject.Thisplanlaysouttheanalyses,forecasts,andrecommendationsforconvertingthisdesignprojectintoaprofitablebusiness.Theintendedaudienceforthisdocumentistheclient,orinvestorsoftheproject.

    12. Appendix

    A. CampusConnectionsNotes

    B. ListofProductConcepts

    C. EngineeringDrawings

    D. ApprovedRITLogos

    E. FEAAnalysisforBottleOpener

    References:

    Ulrich,Karl;Eppinger,Steven.ProductDesignandDevelopment,SecondEdition.McGrawHillHigherEducation.Boston.2000.

    Nahmias,Steven;Production&OperatiosnAnalysis,3rdEdition.McGrawHillCompaniesInc.,1989.

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    A. CampusConnectionsNotesMEETINGWITHCAMPUSCONNECTIONS01/15.2004JohnRomanandEllen??ActionItems:

    Evaluateconceptdesigns/prototypesintermsof:1. Asthetics2. Qualitylevel3. ExpectedSalesvolume4. Expectedsalesprice

    Discussadvertisementoptions1. anypublicationsbyCampusConnections?2. Contactwithadmissions/coopoffice3. website

    Volumeordering1. theirinventorypolicy2. orderquantities

    Discussofficial/approvedRITlogosConceptDesigns:CardHolder

    Needstobemorepolishedandshiny Logoshouldstandoutmore Nosharpedges Anodizedonenotasclassy Wideangleonthesideslooksbetter Thehorizontaldesignisnicer,wouldsellmore(mostcardsarehorizontal)

    RetailPrice:$9.95Theirbuyingprice:$4.50$5Quantitytobesold:24or36/yrBookEnd

    Notabigseller(existingwoodenoneissoldasasethasalaserengravedseal) Doublethesizeoftheprototype

    RetailPrice:$19.95(set)Theirbuyingprice:$10Quantitytobesold:6setsDeskClock

    Looksbulky,needstobesmalleraboutofcurrentheight RITlogoonthebottomplate

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    Clocksizeshouldbesmall,maybeasbigasthelogodiameter OneoptioncanbetohavetheRochesterInstituteofTechnologywrittenaround

    theclockface Clockmechanismhastobeadecentone

    1. notbrakeinafewweeks2. easytochangethebattery,haveitsimilartothecurrentonewherethefront

    facecomesout3. clockmechanismhastobemadeoutofgoodmaterial,shouldntlookcheap

    (currentonessellfor:acrylic$15,marble$40,cherrywood$65)RetailPrice:$15.95$20Theirbuyingprice:$8$10Quantitytobesold:12/yrPenHolder

    Verypoorseller,peopledontusethemanymore,especiallyyoungpeopledontusethem

    Theyhaveamarbleandawoodone,theysell2/yrPictureFrame

    Currentoneissilverin2sizes:4X6and5X7 Currentonesnotabigseller,customengravingcanbeawinnerforusbutCampus

    Connectionsdoesntwanttobeinvolvedinthelogisticsofit.AlltheycandoisgivetheaddressforCIMSandhavethembringthereceiptwiththem(thatshouldbeanadvantageforus,sinceengravingcostwouldbeincludedinourprice,iftheydontbringitforengraving,wecanmakemoremoney)

    Classof2004shouldonlybeputoncustommadeones,otherwiseleftoverproduct??

    RetailPrice:$10$25Theirbuyingprice:$5$10Quantitytobesold:12/yr(maybe6withgraduationyear)Bottleopener

    thelongthinonescomewithmanydifferentdesignsandtheyaremostlygivenaway

    theflatdesignisnice,oneswithtigerheadandtigerdesignwouldsell currentone,Bevkeyissmallerthanourdesign

    RetailPrice:$5.95Theirbuyingprice:$3Quantitytobesold:50100/yrAdvertisementOptions:

    CampusConnectionshaveabrochure,but4vendorscontributeforthepublicationforadvertisementpurposes

    Websiteisagoodidea

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    Dependingontheproducttheyhaveworkedwithadmissionsinthepast.Ex.Sometimestheycombinedorderstogetadiscount.Otherwiseadmissionsgetsitoutsourced

    Volume/Ordering Ifconsignmentpurchasetheyarewillingtoorderall36(asanexample)atonce,

    otherwisetheywouldbuy6atatimeuntiltheproductholds Theykeepsmallquantitiesofinventoryinthebackroom,morequantitieswith

    biggersizesarekeptinthestorageinthebasement Shehaslimiteddisplayare,largeitemscanbeaproblem

    LogoRequirements Theygavedocumentationonalreadyapprovedlogos Anythingotherthanthatwillneedtobeapproved,JohnRomanwillhelpusget

    themapproved IfwedecidetosellthemoutsideRIT,afeeneedstobepaidtoCampus

    Connections(henceRIT)forusingtheirlogos.Additionalnotes:

    Plastickeychains:volumeabout50100/yr,retailpriceabout$3.95 Metalmagnets:goodseller,retailprice$5.95 Highvolumesellersaremugs,keychains,glassware Steelwindowscraperwouldbeabigseller.Seasonalsalesareabout36.plasticone

    89incheslongsellsfor$1.95,butnotagooddesign.

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    B. ListofProductConcepts BallCardHolder PictureFrame/DiplomaFrame TigerBottleOpener DeskClock Rings LetterOpener(swordtype) Pen/DeskComboSet WallClock ToolKit MetalClip/PaperHolder FreshmanSurvivalKit StorageLockBox Lamps DoorStop Pin LicensePlateFrame CDCase GlassesCase NamePlaque PortableCardHolder KeyChains PaperWeight TwoMetalStripPictureHolder MoneyClip PhotoAlbum Necklace CupStylePenHolder

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    C. EngineeringDrawings

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    D. ApprovedRITLogos

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    E. FEAAnalysisforBottleOpenerTopView:

    BottomView: