bİyolojİk temel İŞlemler

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BYOLOJK TEMEL LEMLER DERS NOTLARI

Yrd. Do. Dr. Eyp DEBK Ar. Gr. Neslihan MANAV Ar. Gr. Tamer COKUN

STANBUL, 2008

BYOLOJK TEMEL LEMLER DERS DERS NOTLARI

Yrd. Do. Dr. Eyp DEBK Ar. Gr. Neslihan MANAV Ar. Gr. Tamer COKUN

Bu ders notlar, arlkl olarak Metcalf ve Eddy (2003) ve Crites ve Tchobanoglous (1998) kitaplar baz alnarak hazrlanmtr. i

NDEKLER LSTES NDEKLER LSTES ........................................................................................................... ii EKL LSTES ........................................................................................................................ vi TABLO LSTES ....................................................................................................................... x 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6 2.7 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 GR ..................................................................................................................... 1 MKROBYAL METABOLZMA VE BYME ............................................... 2 Bakteri Metabolizmas ........................................................................................... 2 Enzimlerin Rol ..................................................................................................... 3 Enzim Aktivitesine Scaklk Etkisi ........................................................................ 5 Enzim Aktivitesine pH Etkisi................................................................................. 5 Enerji ve Karbon Kaynaklar.................................................................................. 6 Ntrient htiyac ..................................................................................................... 7 Bakteriyel Byme................................................................................................. 7 Bakteri Says Bakmndan Byme ...................................................................... 8 Bakteri Ktlesi Bakmndan Byme .................................................................... 9 Biyoktle retimi ve Bakteriyel Bymenin lm......................................... 10 Biyolojik Enerji Mekanizmalar........................................................................... 11 BYOLOJK ARITMA KNETKLER .............................................................. 22 Hcre Bymesi ................................................................................................... 22 Substrat Snrl Byme ....................................................................................... 22 Hcre Bymesi ve Substrat Kullanm............................................................... 24 sel Solunum Etkisi............................................................................................. 25 Toplam Uucu Askda Kat (VSS) ve Aktif Biyoktle........................................ 26 Scakln Etkisi ................................................................................................... 27 BYOLOJK ARITMA KNETKLERNN MODELLENMES ...................... 28 Geri Dnmsz ve Tam Karml Askda Byyen Prosesler ........................ 28 Mikroorganizma iin Ktle Dengesi .................................................................... 28 Substrat in Ktle Dengesi.................................................................................. 29 Geri Devirli ve Tam Karml Askda Byyen Prosesler.................................. 30 Biyoktle in Ktle Dengesi............................................................................... 30 Substrat in Ktle Dengesi.................................................................................. 31 MLSS, MLVSS ve Biyoktle............................................................................... 32 MLVSS Konsantrasyonu ve amur retimi ....................................................... 32 Gerek Dnm Oran (Yobs) ............................................................................. 36 Oksijen Gereksinimi............................................................................................. 36 ii

4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 4.3 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.2.1 6.3.2.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.6.1 6.3.6.2 6.3.6.3 6.3.7 6.3.8 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.1.1

F/M (Food/Microorganism) Oran ....................................................................... 40 Spesifik Substrat Kullanm Oran (U).................................................................. 40 Hacimsel Organik Yk (Lorg) ............................................................................... 41 Proses Performans ............................................................................................... 41 Piston Akm Modeli ............................................................................................. 42 Geri Dnmsz Bal Byyen Artma Prosesleri iin Ktle Dengesi............ 43 Kinetik Katsaylarn Tayini.................................................................................. 45 Aktif amur Modelleri (ASM) ............................................................................ 49 BYOLOJK NTRENT GDERM................................................................. 50 Biyolojik Yolla Azot Giderimi............................................................................. 50 Biyolojik Nitrifikasyon ........................................................................................ 51 Biyolojik Denitrifikasyon..................................................................................... 58 Birleik Karbon OksidasyonNitrifikasyonDenitrifikasyon Prosesi ................. 60 Biyolojik Yolla Fosfor Giderimi .......................................................................... 61 Birleik Azot ve Fosfor Giderimi......................................................................... 64 AEROBK ASKIDA BYYEN PROSESLER ................................................ 66 Proses Tanm ....................................................................................................... 66 Aktif amur Proseslerinin Snflandrlmas........................................................ 66 Pratik Proses Tasarm Kriterleri........................................................................... 72 Proses Yk Kriterleri............................................................................................ 72 Besin/mikroorganizma Oran (F/M)..................................................................... 72 Ortalama amur Bekletme Sresi (SRT)............................................................. 73 Hacimsel Organik Yk......................................................................................... 73 Reaktr Boyutlandrmas ve Konfigrasyonu...................................................... 74 amur Geri Devri................................................................................................. 74 amur retimi...................................................................................................... 75 Oksijen htiyac ve Salanmas ............................................................................ 75 Mekanik Havalandrma ........................................................................................ 77 Difzrl Havalandrma....................................................................................... 79 Saf Oksijen ........................................................................................................... 80 Kartrma in Enerji htiyac.............................................................................. 80 Son ktrme....................................................................................................... 80 letme Problemleri .............................................................................................. 83 amur Kabarmas................................................................................................. 83 Atksu Karakteristikleri ........................................................................................ 87 iii

6.4.1.2 6.4.1.3 6.4.1.4 6.4.1.5 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 8 8.1 8.2 8.3

znm Oksijen Konsantrasyonu .................................................................... 87 Proses Yk / Reaktr Konfigrasyonu............................................................... 87 ktrme Tank letmesi .................................................................................... 88 Geici Kontrol Yntemleri................................................................................... 88 amur Yzmesi.................................................................................................... 88 Nocardia Kp................................................................................................. 88 Selektr Aktif amur Prosesleri .......................................................................... 89 Dk Hzl Aktif amur Proseslerinin Tasarm ................................................ 91 Temel Bilgi........................................................................................................... 91 Oksidasyon Havuzlar .......................................................................................... 92 Ters Akl Havalandrma Sistemi ....................................................................... 93 Biolac Proses ........................................................................................................ 94 Kesikli Boaltma Yaplan Uzun Havalandrma ................................................... 95 Ardk Kesikli Reaktr........................................................................................ 96 AEROBK BYOFLM PROSESLER ............................................................. 104 Proses Snflandrlmas ve Karakteristikleri..........................................

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