biomes. instructional objectives 1.describe how plants determine the name of a biome. 2.explain how...
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BIOMES Slide 2 INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES 1.Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. 2.Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants grow in an area. 3.Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area. 4.Describe the characteristics of the worlds ten biomes. 5.Name and describe plant and animal adaptations unique to each biome. 6.Describe threats to each biome. 7.Name two threats to the forest biomes. Slide 3 VOCABULARY 1. Biome 2. Climate 3. Latitude 4. Altitude 5. Polar ice 6. Tropical rain forest 7. Taiga 8. Temperate forest 9. Tropical savanna 10. Temperate grassland 11. Chaparral 12. Desert 13. Tundra 14. Mountains 15. Emergent layer 16. Canopy 17. Epiphyte 18. understory 19. Temperate rain forest 20. permafrost 21. Temperate deciduous forest 22. deforestation 23. slash and burn 24. Debt-for-nature swap 25. Ecotourism Slide 4 WHAT DEFINES A BIOME? Biomes are large groupings of ecosystems. Biomes are characterized by; 1. type of climate 2. type of plants 3. type of animals 4. many individual ecosystems. Slide 5 TWO MAJOR TYPES OF BIOMES 1.Terrestrial (continental) 2.Aquatic (fresh and salt water) In this unit we will study terrestrial biomes. Slide 6 PLANTS MAKE A DIFFERENCE Which plants grow in a biome determine which animals have adapted to use those plants. Plant adaptations include; 1. size tundra, desert, rainforest 2. shape small leaves, large leaves, water storage ability 3. color green, brown, bright, dull Slide 7 CLIMATE Climate includes; 1. temperature 2. precipitation 3. humidity 4. winds Temperature and precipitation are the most important. Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 HOW DOES LATITUDE AND ALTITUDE AFFECT A BIOME? Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator and is measured in degrees. Altitude is the height of an object above sea level. Climate varies with latitude and altitude. Climate get colder as latitude and altitude increase and the opposite as they decreas. Slide 11 ALTITUDE VS LATITUDE ALTITUDE Low to high Tropical- temperate-taiga-tundra-mountains LATITUDE Equator to polar Tropical- temperate- taiga-tundra-polar Slide 12 TYPES OF BIOMES As classified by latitude. Arctic or subarctic - tundra Subarctic or boreal - taiga Temperate cold broadleaf and coniferous Temperate warm or sub-tropical moist broadleaf and warm coniferous Tropical moist broadleaf Note that desert areas are not included in this classification. Slide 13 BIOMES BY TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL 1.Polar ice 2.Tundra 3.Taiga 4.Temperate forest 5.Temperate grassland 6.Mountains 7.Chaparral 8.Desert 9.Tropical savanna 10.Tropical rainforest Slide 14 TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS 1.All are located near the equator 2.All help regulate world climate 3.All play vital roles in nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles 4.All are warm, humid, wet, and get sunlight year round. 5.Rainfall can be 200 450 cm per year 6.All have ideal climate for wide variety of organisms. 7.2.5 acres of tropical rain forest can contain more than 250 species, whereas in a temperate forest may contain several species. Slide 15 RAIN FOREST CHARACTERISTICS 1.Nutrient poor soil, rapid decay causes most nutrients to be in plants. 2.Trees form buttress roots (above ground roots) used for extra support in thin soil. 3.Forest Layers a. emergent layer b. canopy c. understory Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 UNIQUE SPECIES IN A RAIN FOREST 1.Epiphytes orchids 2.Sloth 3.Poison dart frogs 4.Parrots, spoonbills, macaws 5.Coatimundi- raccoon 6.Cappibarra rodent 7.anaconda Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 RAINFOREST THREATS 1.Land clearing a. slash and burn farming b. oil exploration c. mineral exploration gold, gems, coal 2. Skins and feathers 3. Pet trade 4. Exotic woods Slide 29 TEMPERATE RAIN FORESTS 1.Are found in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. 2.Heavy precipitation (200 350cm/ yr), high humidity, moderate temperatures (influenced by the closeness of the ocean) 3.Big coniferous trees Douglas fir, Western red cedar, Mountain hemlock. 4.Mosses, lichens, epiphytes, fungi 5.Animals include large mammals and lots of snails and slugs. 6.More nutrients in the soil due to cooler temperatures slowing decomposition. Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 THREATS 1.Logging 2.Silting of water sources from logging. Slide 35 TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTS 1.Deciduous loses leaves each year. 2.Once covered large parts of North America, Europe, and Asia 3.Located between 30 0 and 50 0 north latitude. 4.Growing season 4 6 months 5.Weather can be extreme 0 0 to 35 0 C. 6.75 125 cm of rain each year 7.Commonly have deep rich soils 8.Plants grow in stories, but more light reaches the ground. Tall trees, shrubs, bushes, ferns, herbs, and mosses 9.All plants adapt to seasonal changes. 10.Animals many migrate to avoid winter, others adapt to winter. Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 ADAPTATIONS 1.Plants adapt to survive the winter bulbs, seeds, rhizomes. 2.Animals migrate to warmer climates or put on fat to survive the winter and find areas where food can be found. 3.Activity reduction to require less food. Slide 40 TAIGA 1.Northern coniferous forest that is just below the arctic circle. 2.Winters are 6 10 months 3.Average temperature 20 0 C 4.Forest floor is dark with little vegetation 5.Plants conifer trees w/ narrow shaped, waxed leaves that do not lose water 6.Acidic soil Slide 41 Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Slide 45 Slide 46 THREATS 1.Oil exploration 2.Commercial hunting Slide 47 GRASSLANDS 1.Found in areas with less rain fall than forests. 2.Less rainfall means less diversity 3.Numbers of individuals of a specific species may be very large 4.Two types tropical and temperate grasslands. Slide 48 TROPICAL GRASSLANDS 1.Commonly called SAVANNAS. 2.Most have wet and dry seasons 3.Most growth and reproduction take place during wet season 4.Dry season usually includes fires that return nutrients to the soil 5.Usually found in tropical and subtropical areas near the equatior Slide 49 Savanna plants 1.Large horizontal roots systems 2.Vertical leaves or lose leaves 3.Adapted for rapid water absorption and retention during wet season 4.Adapted for rapid growth after fires. 5.Many have sharp thorns to ward off herbivores Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Savannah animals 1.Typically many individuals of one species; elephants, antelope, giraffes, kangaroos, capybaras, tapirs, (herbivores). 2. Various types of carnivores that feed on the herbivores usually types that hunt in groups. 3. Many insects and animals that feed on insects. Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS 1.A biome dominated by grasses. 2.Hot summers and cold winters 3.50 88 cm of rain per year 4.Most fertile soil of any biome 5.Most have been replaced with farms 6.Found in the interior of continents 7.Normally have mountains surrounding them Slide 56 Slide 57 GRASSLAND GRASSES 1.Rain determines type of grass a. Short grass prairie 25 cm of rain b. Mixed grass prairie 50 cm of rain c. Tall grass prairie 88 cm of rain 2. Wild flowers are abundant in grasslands Slide 58 Slide 59 Slide 60 GRASSLAND ANIMALS 1.Antelope, bison (animals with large back teeth for chewing tough grasses) 2.Burrowing animals prairie dogs, badgers, owls Slide 61 Slide 62 Slide 63 Slide 64 THREATS TO GRASSLANDS 1.Farming 2.Overgrazing Slide 65 CHAPPARAL 1.A type of temperate woodland biome 2.Dominated by broad-leafed evergreen shrubs. 3.Located in the mid-latitudes about 30 0 north and south of the equator. 4.Found mostly in coastal areas with a Mediterranean climate 5.Warm dry summers, mild wet winters. Slide 66 Slide 67 Slide 68 CHAPARRAL PLANTS 1.Low lying evergreen shrubs and trees that tend to grow in patches. 2.Chamise, manzanita, scrub oak, olive trees, herbs (sage, bay) 3.Trees have small leathery leaves that retain water and produce oil helps in fires that keep out taller trees. Slide 69 Slide 70 Slide 71 Slide 72 ANIMALS OF THE CHAPARRAL 1.Camouflage,