Biodiversity definition and concept

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2. Supwat papassarakan 3. (Diversity) .. 1980s (Whittactker, evolution and Measurement of species diversity, 1972) 3 4. 3 (Alpha diversity) (Habitat) 1 (Species Richness) (Beta Diversity) (Between Habitat diversity) (Gamma Diversity) 5. 1980-1985 (Terresteial) (Marine) (Aquatic) 6. (Genes) (Species) (Communities) (Ecosystems) Species Richness Communities Richness Habitat 7. (Hierarchical System) (Kingdom) 6 (animal) (Plantae) (Fungi) (Protista) (Archaea) (Bactaria) 8. Animal Plantae Fungi Protista Archaea Bactaria 9. Kingdom (Class) (Phylum) Phylum Meaning Common name Distinguishing characteristics Chytridiomycota Little pot mushroom Chytrids Cellulose in cell walls, flagellated gametes Deuteromycota Second mushroom Imperfect fungi Unclassified fungi; only asexual reproduction observed no other major distinguishments Zygomycota Yolk mushroom Zygomycetes Blend gametangia to form a zygosporangium Glomeromycota Ball mushroom None Form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants Ascomycota Bag/Wineskin Mushroom Sac fungi Produce spores in an 'ascus'which is a kind of fruiting bud Basidiomycota Basidium Mushroom Club Fungi Produce spores from a 'basidium' which is a kind of fruiting bud Total: 6 10. Chytridiomycot a Deuteromycot a Zygomycota Glomeromycot a Ascomycota Basidiomycota 11. 12. (Class) Name Meaning of prefix Example 1 Example 2 Example 3[1] Superclass () super: above Tetrapoda Class Mammalia Maxillopoda Sauropsida Subclass sub: under Thecostraca Avialae Infraclass infra: below Cirripedia Aves Parvclass parvus: small, Neornithes 13. Tetrapo da Mammalia Thecostraca CirripediaNeornithes Class 14. Order Class FamilyName Meaning of prefix Example 1 Example 2 Magnorder / magnus: large, great, important Boreoeutheria Superorder / super: above Euarchontoglires Parareptilia Grandorder / grand: large Euarchonta Mirorder mirus: wonderful, strange Primatomorpha Order Primates Procolophonomor pha Suborder sub: under Haplorrhini Procolophonia Infraorder infra: below Simiiformes Hallucicrania Parvorder parvus: small, Catarrhini 15. Magnorder Superorder Grandorder Mirorder Order 16. Suborder Infraorder Parvorder 17. Family (Compositae) (head/ capitulum) (Umbelliferae) (umbel) (schizocarp) (Aceraceae) (winged schizocarp) (Rosaceae) 18. Genus Homo sapiens Homo species 19. 20. (Polyploidy) (Gnome) 21. 5-50 mio (miocene ) 1.4 mio - (arthropods) 875,000 - (Flowering Plants) 275,000 22. 800,000 2-3 mio 23. (Biological Community) 24. (Ecosystem) 25. (Niche) 26. (Succession) 27. (Concept of Succession) Succession after disturbance: a boreal forest one (left) and two years (right) after a wildfire. concept of Succession 28. Secondary SuccessionCC BY-SA 3.0 Katelyn Murphy - Own work An example of Secondary Succession by stages: 1. A stable deciduous forest community 2. A disturbance, such as a wild fire, destroys the forest 3. The fire burns the forest to the ground 4. The fire leaves behind empty, but not destroyed, soil 5. Grasses and other herbaceous plants grow back first 6. Small bushes and trees begin to colonize the area 7. Fast growing evergreen trees develop to their fullest, while shade- tolerant trees develop in the understory 8. The short-lived and shade intolerant evergreen trees die as the larger deciduous trees overtop them. The ecosystem is now back to a similar state to where it began. 29. (Functional Diversity); (Community Diversity); (Patchiness; ) (Landscape Diversity) ( ) 30. (Ecosystem diversity) { (Predatoion), (Competition), (Symbiosis)} { (complexity), - (Carrying Capacity), } 31. Populations must not exceed the carrying capacity of their environments!!! If the carrying capacity of the environment is exceeded, organisms die and the environment may be permanently destroyed. 32. (Patchiness) (habitat) (Habitat Patchiness) (Periodic Disturbances) 33. geomorphology and oceanography creating habitat patchiness and limiting long dispersal, as well as past and ongoing human impact. 34. Habitat Patcheness; 35. Periodic Disturbances disturbances in ecosystem 36. (Size and Isolation) (Ecotone) Colorado River viewed from Dead Horse Point, Utah. The canyon depth here is approximately 600 meters, where the river has gradually cut a wide separation of the original continuous habitat of the Colorado Plateau. Temperate zone 37. Transition Zones (Ecotones) Transition Zone - Agricultural Area on Santa Cruz Island. Transition Zone on Floreana Island Transition Zone - disused agricultural area on Floreana Island An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes. 38. Ketstone Species (Pollinators, (Seed dispresers) (Predators) Ketstone Species 39. Seed dispresers Pollinators Predators 40. (Morphological or Physiological traits) (Allilic Diversity) , , 3 41. 3 ; - (Species Richness) - - (Species Abundance Models) - - - (Shannon-Wiener Index) - (Simpsom Index) 42. (Biodiversity Hotspots) 43. Biodiversity Hotspot biodiversity hotspot 1. (vascular plant) (edemic species) 1500 2. (habitat change) 70% (Coastal and Marine resources) 44. Number of butterflies caught in a light trap at Rothamstead, England. The most abundant species (on the right of the diagram) are not illustrated. Total of 6814 individuals, 37 species only with a single specimen, 1799 specimens belonged to one very common species, 6 common species comprised 50% of the catch. Modified after 45. The percentage of wetlands supporting each species is represented by the size of the circle within each richness level (nested structure; observed matrix temperature = 20.47; average null model matrix temperature = 69.13; P|0.87|) on a single principal component (eigenvalue = 3.5, 89% of variation). Images were provided by G. Nafis (A. californiense) and D. Preston (all others). 46. (Spatial Parameter, Wilson, 1963) (Area effect) ; (Distance effect); 47. ; (Dispersal) 48. (Colonization) 49. (Colonization) 50. 51. (Habitat Island) ; 10% 50% 90% 52. ( Tropical Rain Forest) (Fragmentation) 1% (Wilson,1989) 20,000-30,000 / 10 mio 2% 11% 10 53. Estimate and Method of estimation % Global Loss per decade 10 million sp. Annual Loss 30 million sp. Annual Loss Source 0.2-0.3% annually based on tropical deforestation rate of 1% annually 2-3% 20,000-30,000 60,000-90,000 Wilson (1989, 1993) 2-13% loss between 1990 and 2015 using species area curve and increasing deforestation rates 0.8-5.2% 8,000-52,000 24,000-156,000 Reid (1992) Loss of half the species in the area likely to be deforested by 2015 8.3% 83,000 250,000 Raven (1988) Fitting exponential extinction functions based on IUCN red data books 0.6-5% 6,000-50,000 18,000-150,000 Mace (1994 EXTINCTION ESTIMATES MADE IN THE 1990s 54. The greatest loss with the longest-lasting effects from the ongoing destruction of wilderness will be the mass extinction of species that provide Earth with biodiversity. Although great extinctions have occurred in the past, none has occurred as rapidly or has been so much the result of the actions of a single species. The extinction rate of today may be 1,000 to 10,000 times the biological normal, or background, extinction rate of 1-10 species extinctions per year. Rhett Butler | Last updated July 22, 2012 55. (Rappoports Rule), ); (Species Richness) (altitudes) 6-7% 50% 56. Costa Rican Trees Venezuela Birds (Rappoports Rule 57. (Uneven Distribution) (Time); (Productivities); (Seasonality); , (Niches) (Occupying) (Disturbances) 58. 59. (Types of Extinction) 60. 110 10 110 10 1 .. 1600 1700 1 10 .. 1850 -1950 E.O. Willson,( 2007) 27000 74 3 E.O. Willson 61. 62. ( species with Specialized Niche) species with Specialized Nic 63. : (Exploitation) 73 % (Mammal)(80% ) (Pleistocene) 10,000 500 1000 64. () 65. 66. (Habitat Destruction and Degradation) (tropical Rain Forests) (Tropical Dry Forest) (Mangroves) (Temperate Grassland) (Wetland and Lakes) 67. 68. (Edge Area) (Fragmentation) ; (Dispersal) (Mating) (Colonization) 69. (Edge Effect) (Microclimatic) Edge Efect 70. (Degradation and Pollution) (Desertification) (Erosion) (Soil Degradation) 71. ; (Biological Invasion) (Edge Effect) () 72. Habitat Fragmentation Accident from Fragmentation 73. (Ecological Value) (Ecological Value) (Genetic Diversity) 74. 75. (Genetic Diversity) (Species Diversity) 76. (Ethical Values) ; (Stewardship, 2014.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) () 77. o (Ernest Renan,1982) (Right to Exist) (Deep Ecology, 2012. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) (Ethic Value) (Inspirational Value) (Embodiment of God) 78. (Direct Values or Commodity Values) (Indirect Values) 79. (Direct Values or Commodity Values) (Productive Use Value) 80. (Indirect Values) (Seed dispersers) 81. (Existence Values) 82. The End

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