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  • 1.Bean plataspid (Hemiptera: Plataspididae: Megacopta cribraria)John Tooker Penn State University

2. Wayne A. Gardner, Professor Department of Entomology University of Georgia Griffin Campus Griffin, GeorgiaUniversity of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Megacopta Working GroupUniversity of Georgia Georgia Dept of Agriculture Emory University USDA Forest Service USDA-ARS USDA-APHIS-PPQ Clemson University NC State University NC Dept of Agriculture Wingate University Virginia Tech Auburn University Dow AgroScience University of Florida Florida Dept of Agriculture Mississippi State University Mississoppi Dept of Agriculture Tennessee Dept of Agriculture University of Tennessee 3. Halyomorpha halys (Stl), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) 4. Bean plataspid (Hemiptera: Plataspididae: Megacopta cribraria) Plataspididae: Old World family (mostly tropical/subtropical) Megacopta cribraria is only family member in N. America 5. Identification: Scutellum: broader along bottom than it is along top, and much wider than it is long. Tarsi are 2-segmented Round shape, not rather than triangular to semi-elliptical body shape of other stink bugs Distinctive head shape. Size: to (3.5 - 6 mm long) 6. Scutelleridae Shield-backed bugsSymphylus sp.Diolcus sp. 7. Kudzu bug (Plataspididae)Diolcus species (Scutelleridae)Diolcus: head's lateral lobes of are separated ; Diolcus 2nd antennal segment is longer Megacopta: lobes are contiguous, touch at the nose end. 8. Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) Bean plataspid = kudzu bug A type of stink bug or shield bug Defensive chemical emission Strong smell Noticeable to some Smells like natural gas, cucumbers Can cause an occasional skin rash 9. Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea)Lifecycle: 2-2.5 gens in GA Adults overwinter (under bark or in leaf litter) Fly to kudzu or early planted soybeans (can fly to homes) When soybeans senesce, 2nd generation can be nuisance pests 10. Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea)Jeremy Greene, Clemson UniversityEggs masses on kudzu plant stipules Phillip Roberts, University of GeorgiaJohn Ruberson, University of Georgia 11. Development of Megacopta cribraria First InstarsThird instarFourth instar 15 eggs per mass (females: 26-274 eggs) First instar consume symbiont capsules Five nymphal instarsFifth instar 12. Development of Megacopta cribraria Symbiotic capsules 13. Symbiotic capsules 14. Initial Discovery, October 2009 Samples sent to UGA Diagnostics Lab 28 Oct 2009: Jackson Co, 1000s of adult kudzu bugs on homes Kudzu with adults, late-instar nymphs) Adults seeking overwintering Confirmed in 9 counties covering 7050 km2Images by and courtesy of Daniel R. Suiter & Lisa Ames (University of Georgia) & Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, UGA ( 15. Range Expansion 2009 - 2013 Confirmed in 12 states: Alabama Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Kentucky South Carolina Tennessee VirginiaArea Infested by Year: 2010: 13x increase 2011: 27x 2012: 29x 16. Closest populations to PA2011 Confirmed 2012 Confirmed 2013 Confirmed 17. Origin of Kudzu bug Native Range: Southeast Asia, China, Japan, Indi a, northern Australian, Malaysia, et c.. Genetic comparisons: Japan is source Mode of introduction Is unclear 18. Reported Host Plants in Expanded RangeImages courtesy of Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, UGA www.insectimages.orgLegumes Kudzu Soybean Pigeon Pea American Wisteria Chinese Wisteria Japanese Wisteria Lima Bean Pole/String/Green Bean Lablab Bean American Yellowwood Lespedeza Peanut Crimson Clover Clover Alfalfa Sicklepod Black LocustNon-Legumes Alligatorweed Black Willow Banana Cocklebur Cotton Fig Loquat Muscadine Grape Pecan Pine Trees Potato Satsuma Mandarin Tangerine Wax Myrtle Wheat Wild Blackberry 19. Host Preference Testing Choice and No-Choice Preference Testing in 2012 conducted by UGANo adult or nymph feeding: Peanut, Snap bean, Pinto bean, Winter pea Some adult feeding: Lima bean, Black bean, Black-eyed pea, Azuki bean, Lablab, Mung beanReproductive Hosts Soybean, Kudzu (maybe Wisteria) 20. Distribution of kudzu 21. Kudzu bug as a Biocontrol agent for kudzu? Reduced kudzu biomass by: 33% in 1 year 50% over 2 yearsOther plants appear in kudzu patches after 2-3 yr Reduced competition 22. Impact of kudzu bug on soybean Yield loss: ~20% (0%-60%) Untreated beans in 25 tests in GA Indirect injury causes reduction in seeds per pod and seed weight.Infestations are higher in field edges. 23. Impact of kudzu bug on soybean Location of bugs on soybeans: Eggs laid on leaves (or pods) Nymphs and adults feed mostly on stems Occasionally on petioles and undersidesof leaves Rarely seen feeding on podsAlso decreases yield of edible beans but no details available 24. Kudzu bug Management in Soybean Risk & planting Date: April > May > June > JulyThreshold: One nymph per sweep (single application may be sufficient to eliminate yield loss) Easily killed with insecticides, but reinfestation occurs quickly Endigo ( cyhalothrin, thiamethoxam) and Brigade (bifenthrin) perform best 25. Impact of Adult Feeding on Non-reproductive Hosts Large numbers of adults found on American Wisteria before leaf out. Adult feeding clearly affects the vine when leafed out. No egg-laying found (some reports of nymphs) Green beans: Adults can be found on plants Like in soybeans, they do not feed on pods Thus far, no evidence of yield loss Contamination in fresh produce? 26. Other impacts of kudzu bug Nuisance Pest Urban areas, abundance and activity of adults, staining, odor Smell of natural gas (do not call 911) Adults attracted to light-colored surfaces but NOT to lights They do not overwinter in homesLocalized Skin Reactions Some individuals are sensitive Usually folks that deal with big pops.Chemical does not burn through screens 27. Kudzu bug as a nuisance pest Homeowner often call pest control operatorsAlpine: Excellent knockdown and residual control of adults up to 48 hours on treated surfaces a.i. = dinotefuran Neonic labeled for indoor use, tree fruit, leafy vegetables, etc. 28. Kudzu bug in international trade HondurasFebruary 2012 7 dead kudzu bugs adults in the container of poultry meat products from Georgia. 2 dead adults in a container of live eggs Honduran Servicio de Proteccion Agropecuaria Agricultural protection service Halted all ag. imports from GA, AL, SC & NCMarch 2012: Eased restrictions to begin inspecting and unloading individual containers Continue to inspect 10% of arriving containers at ports in Central America. 29. Kudzu bug in international trade Airline Travel: Live adults found in passenger compartments of jets leaving Atlanta Dead adults have been intercepted in luggage compartments Delta try hard to keep them out of planes 30. Potential for Biological Control Some generalist predators attack upon nymphs and adults, but impact is mimimal. Entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana found naturally infecting adults. No known nymphal or adult parasitoidsBest candidate for importation: Egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis Wide distribution in native range (Japan) High host specificity Currently in quarantine in Stoneville Release permit was in development Has since been found across the southParatelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) 31. Potential Range Expansion Will kudzu bug expand its range to match soybean and/or kudzu?Soybean Yield per Harvest Acre by County Kudzu Distribution by County 32. Potential Range Expansion Using correlative niche modeling, high potential for invasion in these shaded areas of U.S. and World. Annual mean temperature annual temperature range Temperature seasonality Precipitation seasonality Solar radiation levels, Topographic elevationDid not account of presence of reproductive host plants.(Zhu et al. 2012) 33. University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health