Baroque Art

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Baroque Art. Characterized by movement, intensity, tension, energy, vivid color, theatre, use of intense light, stark contrasts Rejects the limits of previous styles of art Shocks audience Seeks to restore power to the church of Rome Variations in style due to three catagories of supporters: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Baroque ArtCharacterized by movement, intensity, tension, energy, vivid color, theatre, use of intense light, stark contrastsRejects the limits of previous styles of artShocks audienceSeeks to restore power to the church of RomeVariations in style due to three catagories of supporters:Church in Counter ReformationAristocratic Court of Louis XIVBourgeois merchants of Holland

  • 17th century trendsDuring the Renaissance, wealth and conspicuous consumption become very coolDuring the Middle Ages, the wealth of the church was seen as corrupt, the church was too powerful, abuses of the church began to be recognizedTherefore, the Reformation.New churches were formedLuther-LutheranismCalvin-CalvinismKnox- PresbyterianHenry VIII- Anglicanism

  • 17th century trendsThe Roman Catholic Churchs response was the Counter ReformationThey try to reformIts too latePeople already left the churchChurch sends out missionariesChurch also starts the Inquisitionterrorburning people at the stake

  • 17th century trendsPeople wanted very rich decoration, flamboyant, lots of emotion, very showy, wanted to decorate homesThere was a rise in secular art and music because of increase in wealthSome areas have no religious art because of religious beliefs (Calvinism)Church loses grip over peopleIndividuals become more powerful with choices involving religion and educationPeople begin to take pride in their countriesthe beginning of NationalismKings and queens become more powerful over people especially if it is a Protestant country because the Popes power has dwindled

  • Baroque-Counter Reformation ArtCaravaggio, Gentileschi, and BerniniDynamic, colorful, often violent, flamboyant, emotional , intenseThe focus with this style is an answer or counter-attack by the Roman Catholic Church

  • Architecture: IL GESU- CHURCH OF JESUS

  • Il GesuCounter Reformation Baroque styleFounded in 1534 by Ignasius LoyolaChurch became a model for Roman Catholic churchesStrong accents of double paired pilastersCentral portal of double cornice

  • CaravaggioShocking subject matterUnbalanced; opposed to balance and restraintNonrealisticDramatic lightingPaintings have intense psychological impactCaravaggio said nature would be his only teacherHis life is as dramatic as his artHe killed a man in a fight, nearly fatally wounded in another fight, died during a violent rage over a misunderstanding

  • The Martyrdom of St. PeterCaravaggio

  • Caravaggios DepositionHow many people?Who is half-nude?Actual or implied light?

  • Caravaggios Conversion of St. Paul

  • The Flagellation of Christ

  • The Crucifixion of Saint Peter

  • GentileschiViolent subject matterUsed same style as CaravaggioA womanHeroic women were her preferred subjectIn the next painting, Gentileschi chooses the exact moment of the executionThe extreme contrast between light and dark emphasizes the horror of the scene

  • Gentileschis Judith Slaying Holofernes

  • BerniniProbably the last artist to fully represent the Counter ReformationA sculptor and an architectProduced very emotional art with intense energyRome was his city and he left his stamp everywhere, especially the piazza of St. Peters and the Baldacchino, canopy over St. Peters tomb

  • BerniniThe piazza of St. Peters

  • Berninis Baldacchino

  • Berninis David

  • Berninis Ecstasy of St. TheresaSaint is in state of raptureOvercome by love for GodArrow in hand of smiling angel represents pain of love for God

  • VelasquezConcerned with nature and optical effects of lightNot interested in religious subjectsHis Maids of Honor is one of the most celebrated works of the centuryPage 354Enormous depth in painting: people are in all areas of the room, mirror shows people where the audience is, the door opening goes farther into the backgroundA painting about space and light

  • Velasquez Maids

  • Aristocratic BaroqueRegal style- glamour, grandeur, and gloryRubens and van Dyck were leading paintersVersailles is the supreme example of architectureArtists made money working in the courts of kings and queens: Fredrick the Great of Prussia, Maria Theresa of Austria, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great of Russia, Louis XIV, XV, and XVI of France

  • RubensLived in an exciting time of new changes as people like Galileo and Kepler help change peoples vision of the worldLived in a bloody time of misogynistic witchcraft trials and the InquisitionNevertheless, Rubens praised the human spirit and the beauty of the natural worldHis temperament was wholly positive and sunny

  • Rubens The Assumption of the Virgin

  • Rubens The Raising of the Cross

  • Rubens Massacre of the Innocents

  • Anthony van DyckPortrait painter for courtElegant portrayals always improved upon the modelCame under patronage of Charles I of England

  • Van Dyck

  • Baroque ClassicalGrand manner but a style that emphasized line and natural color.Leading artist was PoussinStands in direct contrast to Rubens

  • Nicolas PoussinEmphasized line, lucidity, and controlLofty subject matter from ancient history, mythology, and biblical storiesHe believed Caravaggio treated religious subjects in a base and vulgar mannerClassicistObjectivity, balance, control, rationalityPainted in the style of Raphael with a triangular arrangement of subjects

  • Holy Family on the Steps

  • Rape of the Sabine Women

  • The story of The Rape of the Sabine WomenLivy tells another story about Romulus in the story of "The Rape of the Sabine Women." It seems that Romulus needed wives for the men who had joined his city. The Roman state had become strong enough to hold its own in war with all the peoples along its borders, but a shortage of women meant that its greatness was fated to last for a single generation, since there was no prospect of offspring at home nor any prospect of marriage with their neighbors. Then, in accordance with the decision of the senate, Romulus sent messengers to the neighboring peoples to ask for alliance and the right of marriage for the new people. . . But nowhere were the emissaries given a fair hearing. Some scorned, others feared the great power growing in their midst, both for themselves and for their descendants. . . Romulus, to gain time till he found the right occasion, hid his concern and prepared to celebrate the Consualia, the solemn games in honor of equestrian Neptune. He then ordered that the spectacle be announced to the neighboring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Many people came, some simply out of curiosity to see the new city, and especially the nearest neighbor, from Caenina, Crustuminum and Antemnae; the entire Sabine population came, wives and children included. Received with hospitality in the houses, after having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marveled that Rome had grown so fast. When it was time for the show, and everybody was concentrating on this, a prearranged signal was given and all the Roman youths began to grab the women. Many just snatched the nearest woman to hand, but the most beautiful had already been reserved for the senators and these were escorted to the senators' houses by plebeians who had been given this assignment. The Romans drove off the men, and took the women for their wives. The Sabine men did not give in so easily however. There was war between the Romans and the Sabines led by their king Titus Tatius. It was the women who finally brought peace to Rome. They persuaded their fathers not to fight their new husbands and the Romans accepted Titus Tatius as joint ruler with Romulus.

  • Versailles

  • Versaillesroyal style: The Age of KingsReinforced and enhanced the absolute rule of the kingLouis XIV said, I am the state and It is legal because I wish it. He became king at five years of age.

  • Vigee-LebrunPortrait of Marie Antoinette and Her ChildrenShows no hint of the danger just before herThat her husband would lose her crown and she her head

  • Bourgeois BaroqueRealistic styleArt concerned with everyday subjectsStill lifes, landscapes, moral lessons, group portraitsRembrandt, Hals, Leyster, and VermeerNew patrons of art were all people who could afford a painting to hang in their living roomSignified the coming age of world trade, free enterprise, industrial development, and democratic societiesThe focus here is in Holland with the hard-working and pre-dominantly middle-class

  • Frans HalsDutch portraitist

  • Judith LeysterGenre paintingsEspecially liked to paint musicians

  • Judith LeysterThe Proposition

  • RembrandtWorked with ease on portraits, genre paintings, and history or landscape paintingsConcerned with the human drama of the Old Testament, the loving and forgiving God of the New Testament, and the life and passion of ChristShakespeare of seventeenth-century paintersBest known for use of light for dramatic purposes, number of self-portraits

  • Rembrandts Descent from the Cross

  • Rembrandts Nightwatch

  • NightwatchA group of people like to dress up and play war gamesLight plays an important role (the girl, the man next to the Captain, the drummer)The shape is a V

  • Self-Portrait of Rembrandt

  • Another Rembrandt self-portrait

  • Jan VermeerVermeer did for ordinary rooms what renaissance artists did for ordinary human bodiesSpecialized in light-natural light streaming into an interior

  • Vermeers The Girl