aula 4 - vancouver style how to cite references
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How To Cite References - Vancouver Style
The Vancouver (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) Style is used
primarily for publications in medicine, biomedicine, medical technology and allied
When using EndNote bibliographic software, please use the following output style -
Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting
your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented
Updated February 2008
Citation Within The Text
o Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text
o Citing More Than One Reference at a Time
o Including Page or Figure Numbers
o Personal Communications
The Reference List or Bibliography
o Print Documents
Parts of a Book
o Electronic Documents
o Non-Book Formats
o A Reference List: what should it look like?
o Other sources of information
The Vancouver style was first defined by a meeting of medical journal editors in
Vancouver, Canada, in 1978. These guidelines follow the principles given in the
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals:
Writing and editing for biomedical publication published by the International
Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 2004 and the American
Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition, 1998. These publications
constitute authoritative international guides to Vancouver publication standards
and style.http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Citation Within The Texthttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#indicatehttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#morehttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#pagehttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#personalhttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#The Reference List or Bibliographyhttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Print Documentshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Bookshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Partshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Journal Articleshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Electronic Documents Ref Listhttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#E-Bookshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#E-Journalshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#World Wide Web Documentshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Non-Book Formatshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Podcastshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Otherhttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#A Reference Listhttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Abbreviationshttp://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Other sources of information
Vancouver Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a
source of information within the text of a document. In its simplest form, a
citation is given consisting of a number in superscript format or enclosed by
Citation Within The Text
Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text
A number in superscript format eg. 6 or enclosed in round brackets, eg. (1) or
(26), placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference. Citations
are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and
each citation corresponds to a numbered reference containing publication
information about the source cited in the reference list at the end of the
publication, essay or assignment. Once a source has been cited, the same number
is used in all subsequent references. No distinction is made between print and
electronic references when citing within the text.
Here are some examples of this kind of referencing :
The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm.13
The theory was first put forward in 1987.1
Scholtz2 has argued that...
Several recent studies3,4,15,16
have suggested that...
For example, see 7.
The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm (13).
The theory was first put forward in 1987 (1).
Scholtz (2) has argued that...
Several recent studies (3,4,15,16) have suggested that...
For example, see (7).
It is not necessary to mention either the author(s) or the the date of the reference
unless it is relevant to your text.
It is not necessary to say "in reference (26) ...", "In (26) ..." is sufficient.
Citing More Than One Reference at a Time
When citing more than one source at a time, the preferred method is to list each
reference number separately with a comma or dash (without spaces) between
Including Page or Figure Numbers
Page number references are rarely included when citing within the text of an
assignment or essay when using Vancouver style. However, if you wish to be
specific regarding the source of information, quotations or statistics, page or
figure numbers may be given in the following format:
reported 8 cases where vomiting occurred.
These patients showed no sign of nausea.3(p21),4
The incidence of the syndrome was rare.12(fig4)
Personal communications should be included in the text of your document, but
they should not be included in your reference list. It is recommended that
permission is sought from the source/author of a personal communication if you
wish to include quotes in your text. The details you need to include when
referencing in text are:
o the date of the communication;
o whether the communication was in oral or written form;
o the affiliation of the person might also be included to better establish the
relevance and authority of the citation (recommended).
In a conversation with a colleague from the School of Population Health
(Jameson LI 2002, oral communication, 7th August)...
As stated in a letter from B.J. Samuels, MD, in July 2002...http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Contents
Smith P. New research projects in gastroenterology [online]. E-mail to Matthew
Hart (firstname.lastname@example.org) 2000 Feb 5 [cited 2000 Mar 17].
The Reference List or Bibliography
A numbered list of references must be provided at the end of the paper. The list
should be arranged in the order of citation in the text of the publication,
assignment or essay, not in alphabetical order. List only one reference per
reference number. It is very important that you use the correct punctuation and
that the order of details in the references is also correct.
The following examples demonstrate the format for a variety of types of
references. Included are some examples of citing electronic documents. Such
items come in many forms, so only some examples have been listed here.
Note: Only the first word of in the title of a book or conference should be
capitalised, except for proper nouns or acronyms. Capitalise the "v" in Volume
for a book title.
#. Author/editor AA. Title: subtitle. Edition(if not the first). Vol.(if a
multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. page
number(s) (if appropriate).
Single author or editor
1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: Wiley-
2. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation.
Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.
Two or more authors or editors
3. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park
(NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.
4. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics.
2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/citation/vancouver.html#Contents
5. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University
Press; 2003. p. 26.
6. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology.
4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.
7. Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, editors. Wintrobes
clinical hematology. 9th ed. Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993.
8. Unwin E, Codde JP, Bartu A. The impact of drugs other than alchohol and
tobacco on the health of Western Australians. Perth: Dept of Health;
2004. Epidemiology occasional papers series, No. 20.
Corporate author (ie: a company or organisation)
9. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination
Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination : bulletin