aula 4 - vancouver style how to cite references

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  • How To Cite References - Vancouver Style

    The Vancouver (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) Style is used

    primarily for publications in medicine, biomedicine, medical technology and allied

    health sciences.

    When using EndNote bibliographic software, please use the following output style -


    Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting

    your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented


    Updated February 2008


    Citation Within The Text

    o Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text

    o Citing More Than One Reference at a Time

    o Including Page or Figure Numbers

    o Personal Communications

    The Reference List or Bibliography

    o Print Documents


    Parts of a Book

    Journal Articles

    o Electronic Documents



    Internet Documents

    o Non-Book Formats


    Other Formats

    o A Reference List: what should it look like?

    o Abbreviations

    o Other sources of information

    The Vancouver style was first defined by a meeting of medical journal editors in

    Vancouver, Canada, in 1978. These guidelines follow the principles given in the

    Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals:

    Writing and editing for biomedical publication published by the International

    Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 2004 and the American

    Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition, 1998. These publications

    constitute authoritative international guides to Vancouver publication standards

    and style. Within The Text Reference List or Bibliography Documents Articles Documents Ref List Wide Web Documents Formats Reference List sources of information
  • Vancouver Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a

    source of information within the text of a document. In its simplest form, a

    citation is given consisting of a number in superscript format or enclosed by

    round brackets.


    Citation Within The Text

    Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text

    A number in superscript format eg. 6 or enclosed in round brackets, eg. (1) or

    (26), placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference. Citations

    are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and

    each citation corresponds to a numbered reference containing publication

    information about the source cited in the reference list at the end of the

    publication, essay or assignment. Once a source has been cited, the same number

    is used in all subsequent references. No distinction is made between print and

    electronic references when citing within the text.

    Here are some examples of this kind of referencing :

    Superscript Format

    The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm.13

    The theory was first put forward in 1987.1

    Scholtz2 has argued that...

    Several recent studies3,4,15,16

    have suggested that...

    For example, see 7.

    Bracket Format

    The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm (13).

    The theory was first put forward in 1987 (1).

    Scholtz (2) has argued that...

    Several recent studies (3,4,15,16) have suggested that...

    For example, see (7).

    It is not necessary to mention either the author(s) or the the date of the reference

    unless it is relevant to your text.

    It is not necessary to say "in reference (26) ...", "In (26) ..." is sufficient.

    Citing More Than One Reference at a Time

    When citing more than one source at a time, the preferred method is to list each

    reference number separately with a comma or dash (without spaces) between

    each reference:
  • Superscript Format




    Bracket Format




    Including Page or Figure Numbers

    Page number references are rarely included when citing within the text of an

    assignment or essay when using Vancouver style. However, if you wish to be

    specific regarding the source of information, quotations or statistics, page or

    figure numbers may be given in the following format:


    reported 8 cases where vomiting occurred.

    These patients showed no sign of nausea.3(p21),4

    The incidence of the syndrome was rare.12(fig4)


    Personal Communications

    Personal communications should be included in the text of your document, but

    they should not be included in your reference list. It is recommended that

    permission is sought from the source/author of a personal communication if you

    wish to include quotes in your text. The details you need to include when

    referencing in text are:

    o the date of the communication;

    o whether the communication was in oral or written form;

    o the affiliation of the person might also be included to better establish the

    relevance and authority of the citation (recommended).


    In a conversation with a colleague from the School of Population Health

    (Jameson LI 2002, oral communication, 7th August)...


    As stated in a letter from B.J. Samuels, MD, in July 2002...
  • E-mail

    Smith P. New research projects in gastroenterology [online]. E-mail to Matthew

    Hart ( 2000 Feb 5 [cited 2000 Mar 17].


    The Reference List or Bibliography

    A numbered list of references must be provided at the end of the paper. The list

    should be arranged in the order of citation in the text of the publication,

    assignment or essay, not in alphabetical order. List only one reference per

    reference number. It is very important that you use the correct punctuation and

    that the order of details in the references is also correct.

    The following examples demonstrate the format for a variety of types of

    references. Included are some examples of citing electronic documents. Such

    items come in many forms, so only some examples have been listed here.

    Print Documents


    Note: Only the first word of in the title of a book or conference should be

    capitalised, except for proper nouns or acronyms. Capitalise the "v" in Volume

    for a book title.

    Standard format

    #. Author/editor AA. Title: subtitle. Edition(if not the first). Vol.(if a

    multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. page

    number(s) (if appropriate).

    Single author or editor

    1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: Wiley-

    VCH; 2003.

    2. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation.

    Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.

    Two or more authors or editors

    3. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park

    (NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.

    4. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics.

    2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
  • No author

    5. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University

    Press; 2003. p. 26.

    Later edition

    6. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology.

    4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.

    Multiple volumes

    7. Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, editors. Wintrobes

    clinical hematology. 9th ed. Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993.


    8. Unwin E, Codde JP, Bartu A. The impact of drugs other than alchohol and

    tobacco on the health of Western Australians. Perth: Dept of Health;

    2004. Epidemiology occasional papers series, No. 20.

    Corporate author (ie: a company or organisation)

    9. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination

    Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination : bulletin

    of informatio


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