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Atomic Theory Practice. Name the element: Na 23 11 ? 32 16 ? 14 6 ? 39 19 + Group IIA, Period 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5. Sodium. Sulfur. Carbon-14. Potassium ion. Magnesium. Fluorine. MOLECULAR MADNESS. Bonding, Shape, Polarity & Reactions. ATOMIC THEORY. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Atomic Theory PracticeName the element:Na2311

    ?3216

    ?146

    ?3919+

    Group IIA, Period 3

    1s22s22p5SodiumSulfurCarbon-14Potassium ionMagnesiumFluorine

  • MOLECULAR MADNESSBonding, Shape, Polarity & Reactions

  • ATOMIC THEORY Atoms composed of subatomic particles

    ProtonsNeutronsElectrons+0-NucleusNucleusOrbitalsAtomic #Atomic mass atomic #Atomic #UnchangeableIsotopesIons Cation +Less e- Anion More e-

  • Exothermic (heat emitting, i.e. chem warm up :) Exercise #1A. Draw the Lewis structure for Carbon.

    B. Why do atoms bond with one another?

    C. What are the 2 main types of intramolecular bonds?

    To fill their valence shell (Octet Rule)Ionic transfer electronsCovalent share electrons

  • BONDINGIonic Bonds Transferred electronsFormed between metals & nonmetalsMetals = + cations w/full valenceNonmetals = - anions w/full valenceOpposing charges attract STRONGLY

    Ionic Compounds High melting ptsGood electrical conductors in solution

  • Ionic Bonding - Lewis Dot structureshttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html

  • BONDINGNon-polar Covalente- shared equallyatoms w/similar electronegativities

    Polar Covalente- shared Unequallyatoms w/different electronegativities

    Covalent Bonds shared electrons http://iws.collin.edu/biopage/faculty/mcculloch/1406/outlines/chapter%202/chap02.html

  • Covalent Bonding - Lewis Dot structureshttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.htmlPolar or Nonpolar?

    Polar or Nonpolar?

    Polar or Nonpolar?

    NonpolarNonpolarPolar

  • Polarity in MoleculesNonpolar MoleculesVery little attraction between themGenerally gases @ room tempEx: CO2

    Polar MoleculesHave dipoles (ends with opposite charges)Electrons pulled toward more electronegative atomAttraction between dipoles of adjacent moleculesEx: H2Ohttp://www.chem.umass.edu/genchem/whelan/class_images/Structure_of_Water.jpghttp://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/interact.htmlCO2http://www.exo.net/~pauld/workshops/Greenhouse%20Effect/greenhouse.html

  • VSEPR TheoryValence Shell Electron Pair RepulsionOuter shell e- pair upArrange themselves as far apart from other pairs as possible since they repel other neg. chargesResponsible for molecular shapeSample ShapesBentchemistry.gcsu.edu

  • Bond LengthPeriodic Trendas you move down group and right to left within a period, bond length increases

    Same as atomic radius

    Double & triple bonds are shorter than singleRadius & bond length increasehttp://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Theoretical_Chemistry/Chemical_Bonding/Bond_Order_and_Lengthshttp://www.chem.latech.edu/~upali/chem101/101MSJc8.htm

  • Intermolecular ForcesHydrogen BondsFormed between molecules whose atoms have extremely different electronegativitiesMost electronegative atoms: F, O, Nbonded toLeast electronegative atom: HStrong intermolecular force, causing high boiling pointsNot nearly as strong as INTRAmolecular bonds like covalent

  • Bonding Review

  • Endergonic (chem energy INTO your brain :) Exercise #1In textbook, Read p.275Answer the following questions from p.276-77:MC 1,2,6,10T/F 13,18CM 22,24,26

  • Chemical ReactionsSubstances converted into NEW substances w/NEW properties

    Reactants What goes inProducts What comes out

    Reactants ProductsGlucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l) WordsFormulasBalanced EquationComplete Equation

  • Writing & Balancing Chemical EquationsGoing from word formula to balancedRemember your naming rules!Ionic compounds cation (+) first then anion (-)# of + charges must equal # of - chargesEx: Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride Na+ + Cl- NaClEx: Aluminum nitrate + Iron chloride Iron Nitrate + Aluminum Chloride Al(NO3)3 + FeCl2 Fe(NO3)2 + AlCl3Covalent compounds use the number prefixes to indicate numbers of atomsCarbon + Chlorine Carbon Tetrachloride C + 2Cl2 CCl4

  • Ions & ChargesCations+1Group 1 atoms AmmoniumNH4+1

    +2Group 2 atoms

    Anions-1Group 7 atoms Chlorate = ClO3-1Nitrate = NO3-1Hydroxide = OH-1-2Group 6 atomsSulfate = SO4-2Carbonate = CO3-2-3Group 5 atomsPhosphate = PO4-3

  • Naming & Writing Gases & AcidsGasesThe name of the element followed by the word gas is always a diatomic moleculeEx: Oxygen gas = O2Ex: Chlorine gas = Cl2Ex: Hydrogen gas = H2

    AcidsThe name of an ion followed by the word acid means you add the appropriate # of Hs in front of the ionThe # of Hs equals the - charge of the anionEx: Hydrochloric acid = HClEx: Sulfuric acid = H2SO4Ex: Phosphoric acid = H3PO4

  • Types of Chemical ReactionsSynthesis Reactionaka direct combination reaction2 or more reactants come together to form a single productA + B AB2Na + Cl2 2NaClDecomposition ReactionSingle compound broken down into 2 or more smaller productsAB A + B2H2O 2H2 + O2

  • Single Replacement ReactionUncombined element takes the place of another element within a compoundA + BX AX + BMg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + CuMore active elements replace less active onesActivity level shown in activity seriesIf uncombined element NOT more active, then no reaction takes place

    Types of Chemical Reactions

  • Double Replacement ReactionAtoms or ions from 2 different compounds replace each otherAX + BY AY + BXCaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2CO3

    Types of Chemical Reactions