atomic theory practice
Post on 18-Jan-2016
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONAtomic Theory Practice. Name the element: Na 23 11 ? 32 16 ? 14 6 ? 39 19 + Group IIA, Period 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5. Sodium. Sulfur. Carbon-14. Potassium ion. Magnesium. Fluorine. MOLECULAR MADNESS. Bonding, Shape, Polarity & Reactions. ATOMIC THEORY. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Atomic Theory PracticeName the element:Na2311
Group IIA, Period 3
MOLECULAR MADNESSBonding, Shape, Polarity & Reactions
ATOMIC THEORY Atoms composed of subatomic particles
ProtonsNeutronsElectrons+0-NucleusNucleusOrbitalsAtomic #Atomic mass atomic #Atomic #UnchangeableIsotopesIons Cation +Less e- Anion More e-
Exothermic (heat emitting, i.e. chem warm up :) Exercise #1A. Draw the Lewis structure for Carbon.
B. Why do atoms bond with one another?
C. What are the 2 main types of intramolecular bonds?
To fill their valence shell (Octet Rule)Ionic transfer electronsCovalent share electrons
BONDINGIonic Bonds Transferred electronsFormed between metals & nonmetalsMetals = + cations w/full valenceNonmetals = - anions w/full valenceOpposing charges attract STRONGLY
Ionic Compounds High melting ptsGood electrical conductors in solution
Ionic Bonding - Lewis Dot structureshttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html
BONDINGNon-polar Covalente- shared equallyatoms w/similar electronegativities
Polar Covalente- shared Unequallyatoms w/different electronegativities
Covalent Bonds shared electrons http://iws.collin.edu/biopage/faculty/mcculloch/1406/outlines/chapter%202/chap02.html
Covalent Bonding - Lewis Dot structureshttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.htmlPolar or Nonpolar?
Polar or Nonpolar?
Polar or Nonpolar?
Polarity in MoleculesNonpolar MoleculesVery little attraction between themGenerally gases @ room tempEx: CO2
Polar MoleculesHave dipoles (ends with opposite charges)Electrons pulled toward more electronegative atomAttraction between dipoles of adjacent moleculesEx: H2Ohttp://www.chem.umass.edu/genchem/whelan/class_images/Structure_of_Water.jpghttp://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/interact.htmlCO2http://www.exo.net/~pauld/workshops/Greenhouse%20Effect/greenhouse.html
VSEPR TheoryValence Shell Electron Pair RepulsionOuter shell e- pair upArrange themselves as far apart from other pairs as possible since they repel other neg. chargesResponsible for molecular shapeSample ShapesBentchemistry.gcsu.edu
Bond LengthPeriodic Trendas you move down group and right to left within a period, bond length increases
Same as atomic radius
Double & triple bonds are shorter than singleRadius & bond length increasehttp://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Theoretical_Chemistry/Chemical_Bonding/Bond_Order_and_Lengthshttp://www.chem.latech.edu/~upali/chem101/101MSJc8.htm
Intermolecular ForcesHydrogen BondsFormed between molecules whose atoms have extremely different electronegativitiesMost electronegative atoms: F, O, Nbonded toLeast electronegative atom: HStrong intermolecular force, causing high boiling pointsNot nearly as strong as INTRAmolecular bonds like covalent
Endergonic (chem energy INTO your brain :) Exercise #1In textbook, Read p.275Answer the following questions from p.276-77:MC 1,2,6,10T/F 13,18CM 22,24,26
Chemical ReactionsSubstances converted into NEW substances w/NEW properties
Reactants What goes inProducts What comes out
Reactants ProductsGlucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l) WordsFormulasBalanced EquationComplete Equation
Writing & Balancing Chemical EquationsGoing from word formula to balancedRemember your naming rules!Ionic compounds cation (+) first then anion (-)# of + charges must equal # of - chargesEx: Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride Na+ + Cl- NaClEx: Aluminum nitrate + Iron chloride Iron Nitrate + Aluminum Chloride Al(NO3)3 + FeCl2 Fe(NO3)2 + AlCl3Covalent compounds use the number prefixes to indicate numbers of atomsCarbon + Chlorine Carbon Tetrachloride C + 2Cl2 CCl4
Ions & ChargesCations+1Group 1 atoms AmmoniumNH4+1
+2Group 2 atoms
Anions-1Group 7 atoms Chlorate = ClO3-1Nitrate = NO3-1Hydroxide = OH-1-2Group 6 atomsSulfate = SO4-2Carbonate = CO3-2-3Group 5 atomsPhosphate = PO4-3
Naming & Writing Gases & AcidsGasesThe name of the element followed by the word gas is always a diatomic moleculeEx: Oxygen gas = O2Ex: Chlorine gas = Cl2Ex: Hydrogen gas = H2
AcidsThe name of an ion followed by the word acid means you add the appropriate # of Hs in front of the ionThe # of Hs equals the - charge of the anionEx: Hydrochloric acid = HClEx: Sulfuric acid = H2SO4Ex: Phosphoric acid = H3PO4
Types of Chemical ReactionsSynthesis Reactionaka direct combination reaction2 or more reactants come together to form a single productA + B AB2Na + Cl2 2NaClDecomposition ReactionSingle compound broken down into 2 or more smaller productsAB A + B2H2O 2H2 + O2
Single Replacement ReactionUncombined element takes the place of another element within a compoundA + BX AX + BMg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + CuMore active elements replace less active onesActivity level shown in activity seriesIf uncombined element NOT more active, then no reaction takes place
Types of Chemical Reactions
Double Replacement ReactionAtoms or ions from 2 different compounds replace each otherAX + BY AY + BXCaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2CO3
Types of Chemical Reactions