# chapter 11 modern atomic theory practice problems

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• Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory

Practice Problems

• *All atoms of the same element have the same number of ProtonsNeutronsElectronsProtons and NeutronsProtons and Electrons

• *All atoms of the same element have the same number of Protons this is a good choice, but not the best choice.NeutronsElectronsProtons and NeutronsProtons and Electrons

• *In the symbol below, the number 33 is the Atomic massMass numberAtomic numberChargeNumber of X atoms attached to each other.X33

• *In the symbol below, the number 33 is the Atomic massMass numberAtomic numberChargeNumber of X atoms attached to each other.X33

• *In the symbol below, the number 60 is the __ which tells us this is Atomic mass, NiMass number, NiMass number, Ni or CoMass number, possibly any element in the Ni & Cu neighborhood.Atomic number, Ni or Co

• *In the symbol below, the number 60 is the __ which tells us this is Atomic mass, NiMass number, NiMass number, Ni or CoMass number, possibly any element in the Ni & Cu neighborhood.Atomic number, Ni or CoMass number can not be used to identify which element, only atomic number can.

• *The number of neutrons can be known byDividing the mass number in half.Subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.Subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass.Looking at the atomic number.It can not be known exactly because of isotopes.

• *The number of neutrons can be known byDividing the mass number in half.Subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.Subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass.Looking at the atomic number.It can not be known exactly because of isotopes.

• *The element represented by [Ar] 4s23d104p2 is20Ca22Ti32Ge50Sn35Br

• *The element represented by [Ar] 4s23d104p2 is20Ca22Ti32GeAll that you really need to look at is the 4p2 to be able to identify.50Sn35Br

• *The element represented by [Kr] 5s24d9 is29Cu27Co79Au47Ag45Rh

• *The element represented by [Kr] 5s24d9 is29Cu27Co79Au47Ag45Rh

• *The element represented by 5p3 is(assuming all lower energy orbitals are filled)39Y51Sb33As21Sc83Bi

• *The element represented by 5p3 is39Y51Sb33As21Sc83Bi

• *Give highest energy orbital to describe 74W6d67d66p46d45d4

• *Give highest energy orbital to describe 74W6d67d66p46d45d4

• *How many valence electrons in 15P15 8345I dont know what the word valence means.

• *How many valence electrons in 15P15 8345I dont know what the word valence means.Valence means outermost electrons - the s and p electrons in the last energy level.

• *When atoms turn into a positive ionProtons are gained.Protons are lost.Electrons are gainedElectrons are lost.Either protons are gained or electrons are lost.

• *When atoms turn into a positive ionProtons are gained.Protons are lost.Electrons are gainedElectrons are lost.Either protons are gained or electrons are lost.

• Fluorine (F) Does 9F want to lose or gain electrons? How many?What will the new charge be?Lose 6 e-, 6+, cationGain 6 e-, 6-, anionLose 1 e-, 1+, cationGain 1 e-, 1-, anion Lose 7 e-, 7+, cationGain 7 e-, 7-, anionWill not lose or gain. It is happy(stable)!

*

• Fluorine (F) Does 9F want to lose or gain electrons? How many?What will the new charge be?Lose 6 e-, 6+, cationGain 6 e-, 6-, anionLose 1 e-, 1+, cationGain 1 e-, 1-, anion Lose 7 e-, 7+, cationGain 7 e-, 7-, anionWill not lose or gain. It is happy(stable)!

*

• Gallium (Ga)Does 31Ga want to lose or gain electrons? How many?What will the new charge be?*Lose 4 e-, 4+, cationGain 3 e-, 3-, anionLose 1 e-, 1+, cationGain 1 e-, 1-, anion Lose 3 e-, 3+, cationGain 4 e-, 4-, anionWill not lose or gain. It is happy(stable)!

• Gallium (Ga)Does 31Ga want to lose or gain electrons? How many?What will the new charge be?*Lose 4 e-, 4+, cationGain 3 e-, 3-, anionLose 1 e-, 1+, cationGain 1 e-, 1-, anion Lose 3 e-, 3+, cationGain 4 e-, 4-, anionWill not lose or gain. It is happy(stable)!

• Radon (Rn)Does 86Rn want to lose or gain electrons? How many?What will the new charge be?*Lose 2 e-, 2+, cationGain 3 e-, 3-, anionLose 1 e-, 1+, cationGain 1 e-, 1-, anion Lose 3 e-, 3+, cationGain 2 e-, 2-, anionWill not lose or gain. It is happy(stable)!

• Radon (Rn)Does 86Rn want to lose or gain electrons? How many?What will the new charge be?*Lose 2 e-, 2+, cationGain 3 e-, 3-, anionLose 1 e-, 1+, cationGain 1 e-, 1-, anion Lose 3 e-, 3+, cationGain 2 e-, 2-, anionWill not lose or gain. It is happy(stable)!

• Forming Bonds

*1. Sodium Chloride NaCl

2. Magnesium OxideMgO

3. Calcium IodideCaI2

4. Aluminum Oxide Al2O3

• *Which light has the most energy?RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue

• *Which light has the most energy?RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue - most energy, highest frequency, shortest wavelength.

• *Which light has the highest frequency?RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue

• *Which light has the highest frequency?RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue

• *Which light has the longest wavelength?RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue

• *Which light has the longest wavelength?RedOrangeYellowGreenBlue

• *Which light has the least energy?infraredmicro wavesgreen lightgammaultraviolet

• *Which light has the least energy?infraredmicro wavesgreen lightgammaultraviolet

• *In a hydrogen atom, an electron undergoing the transition between which energy levels would emit the most energy?3 - 25 - 21 - 24 - 54 - 12 - 1

• *In a hydrogen atom, an electron undergoing the transition between which energy levels would emit the most energy?3 - 25 - 21 - 24 - 54 - 1energy is emitted only for transitions from higher to lower energy levels.transitions to the first energy level are always more energy than to other energy levels2 - 1

• *Which graph best represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency for light aka EMR (ElectroMagnetic Radiation)?

1234lamba, , wavelength nu, v, frequency

• *Which graph best represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency?

ABCDWavelength () and frequency () are inversely related.

• *Select the largest atom from the group:3Li, 11Na, 38Sr, 53IBe ready to explain your choice.3Li11Na38Sr53I Cannot be determined since they are in different families and different periods

• *Select the largest atom from the group:3Li, 11Na, 38Sr, 53I3Li11Na38Sr Since Sr and I both have a 5th energy level, yet Sr has a lower effective nuclear charge, so it has larger size.53I Cannot be determined since they are in different families and different periods

• *Select the largest particle from the group: 54Xe, 53I-1, 56Ba+2, 52Te-2 Be ready to explain your choice.54Xe53I-156Ba+252Te-2 They are all the same size because they are isoelectronic.I cant choose because I dont know what isoelectronic means and I dont know about the size of charged particles.

• *Select the largest particle from the group: 54Xe, 53I-1, 56Ba+2, 52Te-2 54Xe53I-156Ba+252Te-2 This ion has less protons, only 52 to hold the 54 electrons, thus the e- repel each other and cause larger sizeThey are all the same size because they are isoelectronic.I cant choose because I dont know what isoelectronic means and I dont know about the size of charged particles.

• *16S is smaller than 11Na because 16S has more protons and more electrons.16S has more electrons.16S has more protons pulling on electrons in the same energy level.16S has fewer energy levels.16S has more neutrons to allow the atom to squeeze in more.

• *16S is smaller than 11Na because 16S has more protons and more electrons.16S has more electrons.16S has more protons (blocked by the same core of 10 e- electrons that the Na nucleus is shielded by) pulling on electrons in the same energy level.16S has fewer energy levels.16S has more neutrons to allow the atom to squeeze in more.

• *Select the atom below with the lowest first ionization energy. Be ready to explain your choice.11Na12Mg13Al14Si15P

• *Select the atom below with the lowest first ionization energy.11Na because it is largest in size12Mg13Al14Si15P

• *The atom that has a really large increase for its 3rd ionization energy would be11Na12Mg13Al14Si15P

• *The atom with the largest increase for its 3rd ionization energy would be11Na (for Na it would be the 2nd IE) 12Mg because it has 2 valence electrons and stealing the third electron comes from a full energy level.13Al (for Al it would be the 4th IE) 14Si (for Si it would be the 5th IE) 15P (for P it would be the 6th IE) All successive IE are larger than the previous, however,the really large increase occurs for the electron that is one more than the number of valence electrons.

• *In which set of elements would all the atoms have very similar chemical properties? (Choose all that apply.)11Na, 12Mg, 13Al14Si, 32Ge, 50Sn90Th, 91Pa, 92U26Fe, 27Co, 28Ni7N, 8O, 9F16S, 34Se, 52TeI have no idea how to even begin to answer this question.

• *In which set of elements would all the atoms have very similar chemical properties?11Na, 12Mg, 13Al14Si, 32Ge, 50Sn this family crosses the metal nonmetal barrier and thus would have different chemical properties90Th, 91Pa, 92U26Fe, 27Co, 28Ni7N, 8O, 9F16S, 34Se, 52Te These elements are all in the same chemical family which all have the same number of valence electrons.I have no idea how to even begin to answer this question.

• *When rubidium (37Rb) turns into its preferred ion by losing an electron, (Select all that apply.)It is isoelectronic

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