art of teaching spanish
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TEACHING S E C O H B L A N G U A G E A C P U I S I T I O P I F R O M R E S E A R C H TQ P R A X I S
RAFAEL SAIABERRY & BARBARA A. LAFFORD, editors
THE ART OF TEACHING S P A N I S H
THE ART OF TEACHING
S E C O N D L A N G U A G E A C Q U I S I T I O N F R O M R E S E A R C H TO P R A X I S
RAFAEL SALABERRY & BARBARA A. LAFFORD, E d i t o r s
GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY PRESS WASHINGTON. D.C.
Georgetown University Press Washington, D.C.
As of January 1,2007,13-digit ISBN numbers will replace the current 10-digit system. Paperback: 978-1-58901-133-5
Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C. 02006 by Georgetown University Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The art of teaching Spanish : second language acquisition from research to praxis / Rafael Salaberry and Barbara A. Lafford, Editors.
p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-58901-133-3 (alk. paper) 1. Spanish language-Study and teaching-Foreign speakers. 2. Second language acquisition.
I. Salaberry, M. Rafael. 11. Lafford, Barbara Armstrong. PC4127.8.A825 2006 468.0071-dc22
This book is printed on acid-free paper meeting the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence in Paper for Printed Library Materials.
13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 First printing
Printed in the United States of America
To Julihn, Lucas, and Maria Jose -Rafael Salaherry
To the memory of Kathleen A. Glenn (1 923-2003),
beloved mother and friend
and to my husband, Peter, for his unending love and support
-Barbara A. Lafiord
List of Tables and Figures ix Preface xi
1 The State of the Art of Teaching Spanish: From Research to Praxis Rafael Salaberry and Barbara Lafford 1
2 A Content-Based Approach to Spanish Language Study: Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum Carol A. Klee and Gwendolyn Barnes-Karol 23
3 Spanish SLA Research, Classroom Practice, and Curriculum Design Joseph Collentine 39
4 Theoretical and Research Considerations Underlying Classroom Practice: The Fundamental Role of Input Bill VanPatten and Michael Leeser 55
5 Concept-Based Instruction and the Acquisition of L2 Spanish Eduardo Negueruela and James I? Lantolf 79
6 The Effects of Study Abroad and Classroom Contexts on the Acquisition of Spanish as a Second Language: From Research to Application Barbara Lafford and Joseph Collentine 103
7 Online Language Learning: The Case of Spanish Without Walls Robert Blake and Ann Marie Delforge 127
8 Testing Spanish Rafael Salaberry and Andrew D. Cohen 149
vi i i Contents
9 Incorporating Linguistic Variation into the Classroom Manuel J. Gutidrrez and Marta Fairclough 173
10 Making Connections: Second Language Acquisition Research and Heritage Language Teaching Guadalupe Valdds 193
1 1 Spanish Second Language Acquisition: Applications to the Teaching of Professional Translation (and Interpretation) Sonia Colina 213
Contributors 235 Index 239
TABLES AND FIGURES
5.1 Uses of preterit and imperfect according to Dasilva and Lovett (1965) 83 6.1 Spanish study abroad research 113 7.1 SWW students' experience with Spanish in high school 135 7.2 Students' reasons for taking Spanish in the online format 135 7.3 UC Davis students' experience with Spanish in high school 137 7.4 Students' reasons for taking Spanish at UC Davis 137 7.5 T-test comparison between SWW I and SPA 1 grammar scores 139 7.6 T-test comparison between SWW I1 and SPA 2 grammar scores 139 7.7 T-test comparison of written samples from SWW and UC Davis students 140 9.1 Percentages of innovative estar in Houston by generation 177 9.2 Percentages of forms in apodoses in Houston by generation 179 9.3 Percentages of forms in apodoses in MichoacQn and Houston 180 9.4 Southwestern United States: Morphological future, periphrastic future, and
present indicative use in alternation contexts 181 9.5 Mexico City: Morphological future, periphrastic future, and present
indicative use 181 11.1 Basic components of a research-based pedagogy of translation 225 11.2 Activity types 226 11.3 Goals and justifications for activity types 228
3.1 The relationship between focus-on-form, processing instruction, and grammatical development (adapted from VanPatten and Cadierno 1993) 44
5.1 Didactic model constructed by Negueruela (2003) based on Bull (1965) 85 7.1 CHAT interface 135 9.1 Model of Linguistic Interaction: EnglishISpanish in the United States 176
11.1 Cao's Model of Translation Proficiency (1996) 21 4
P RE FACE
T his book serves as a companion volume to Spanish Second Language Acquisition: State of the Science, coedited by Barbara Lafford and Rafael Salaberry and published in 2003 by Georgetown University Press. That work consisted of a critical review of the research done on the products and processes of Spanish second language acquisition (SLA). It was primarily intended as "a reference tool for second language acquisition researchers, graduate students in SLAT (second language acquisition and teaching) or linguistics programs, and practitioners and pedagogues who teach diverse second and foreign languages and want to keep up with current research trends in the field of SLA (with particular attention given to Spanish) ."
This volume explores the extent to which the art of teaching L2 Spanish has been informed by the scientific (theoretical and empirical) research on SLA (and other relevant fields) referred to in the first volume. It also investigates the types of chal- lenges that follow from initiatives to transfer findings from research to teaching and how to overcome practical problems associated with the implementation of new approaches to teaching.
This collection of contributions from respected SLA researchers and applied lin- guists is first and foremost a resource for foreign language practitioners and peda- gogues wanting to benefit from the expertise of colleagues who have experience with the types of linguistic issues and applications treated by the authors-for example, FLAC (foreign language across the curriculum programs), various peda- gogical approaches, the effect of study abroad versus classroom contexts on the learning process, testing issues, online learning, the incorporation of linguistic vari- ation into the classroom, courses for heritage language learners, and the teaching of translation.
The increasing demographic visibility of Spanish speakers in the United States and the impact their presence has had on public policy have created a great demand for Spanish classes throughout our educational system, from primary-level bilingual pro- grams to university-level and continuing education courses. In turn, this situation has generated a demand for courses for future teachers of Spanish at both the undergradu- ate and graduate levels on the application of Spanish SLA (and related) research to the classroom. This book, which brings together more different theoretically grounded per- spectives on teaching Spanish than any other single published volume, could easily serve as a basic text in those courses.
As always, we owe a debt of gratitude to family, friends, and colleagues for their personal support and encouragement during this project. We would also like to express our gratitude to the reviewers (established publishing SLA scholars and applied linguists who must remain anonymous) of each of the chapters. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the assistance of Gail Grella of Georgetown University Press for her exceptional patience and wisdom regarding the preparation of this research project.
The State of the Art of Teaching Spanish From Research to Praxis
Rafael Sala berry Uniz~ersity of Texus-Atlstir~ Barbara Lafford Arizorln Stutc Uniz~ersity
T his volume explores the extent to which the "art" of teaching of Spanish as a second language (L2) is informed by Spanish second language accluisition (SLA) in particular and research on SLA and language-related fields (e.g., psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics) in general. It also investigates the types of challenges that accompany applied linguistics initiatives to transfer findings from research to teaching and how to overcoille practical probleills associated with the implementation of new approaches to teaching.
Some of the specific issues we asl
2 Salaberry and Lafford
later termed Languages Across the Curriculum (LAC), courses. As the authors explain, FLAC courses provide learners with several benefits, among which they high- light the following: they enhance and expand specific disciplinary knowledge, they deepen the understanding of a given culture and its documents and artifacts, and they improve cross-cultural competence. According to Klee and Barnes-Karol, improve- ment in second language skills, while desired, is not necessarily a primary objective of FLAC courses.
The development of FLAC courses, the authors note, was prompted by several aca- demic ventures, such as the writing across the curriculum movement of the 1970s and 1980s, the immersion school programs in Canada and the United States, and the implementation of Language for Special Purposes (LSP) programs. The advent of FLAC courses has been substantiated through important research stran