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Armenian AlphabetFrom Armeniapedia.org - - - a a b p g k d t e, ye e, ye z z e e t' t' jh jh i i l l kh kh ts dz k g h h dz ts gh gh . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ch m y n sh o, vo ch' p j rr s v t r ts' u p' k' yev, ev o f j m h n sh o, vo ch' b ch rr s v d r ts' v p' k' yev, ev o f 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

2 , (, , , , , , , )..

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, army, .., (Aram) - , (ashun) - , (sar) - , (tari) , (kanach) - , (na) /. : Na nkarum e matitov. . Note: while pronouncing the auxiliary verb (e) it combines with the previous word and is never stressed. (Question: is this also true of its other forms (, , etc.)?)

Ex. 1Read aloud the following English and their corresponding Armenian words. massage Aloha arm park

Ex. 2Read and memorize the following words.

(anun) (azganun) (azat) (asel) (tal) (lav) (pat) (namak) (dasaran) (das)

name surname free to say to give good wall letter classroom lesson

Section 4Vowel , in any position is pronounced like the English o(r). The sound o in the beginning of the word is reproduced by the letter o, e.g., (or) - day, (opera) - opera, (organ) - organ, (orinak) - example, etc., and in the middle and in the end of the word by the letter , e.g., (bolor) - all, (sovorel) - to study, (khot) - grass, (ogostos) - august, etc. Letter in the beginning of a word is read

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like (vo), i.e., it designates two sounds, e.g., (voski) - gold, (vors) - hunting, (vorak) - quality, etc. Exception makes the word (who) where the letter is read like . : Bolore voroshel en sovorel otar lezuner. Everybody decided to learn foreign languages. Note: In the middle of the word the letter o is written only in derivative words, e.g., (aysor) - today, (anogtakar) - useless.

Ex. 3Read the following words and notice the difference between pronunciation of letters and . - maid - opera - organism - day - foreign - example - cradle - leg - gold - to decide nothing - enemy - hunter - to look for

Ex. 4Copy out the following words inserting the missing letters or . __ to praise ____ doctor __ bean __ who __ cow __ nothing where __ air __ new __ evening __ day ____ to rock to sleep __ auxiliary __ foreign

Section 5Vowel is pronounced like the English u (puma), e.g., (uzh) - strength, (tun) house, (garun) - spring, (katu) - cat, etc. : Garune motenum e. Spring is coming.

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Ex. 5Read aloud the English and corresponding Armenian words. Course - Uzbek - Ukraine - Pushkin -

Ex. 6Read and remember the following words. - to have - another - glad - name - autumn - spring - study - you - animal - dog

Section 6Vowel corresponds to the English e(vening), e.g., (imanal) to know, (imast) - meaning, (gini) - wine, (sirt) - heart, (sirel) - to love, etc. : Ginin karmir e. Wine is red.

Ex. 7Read and remember the following words. - kind - lovely - year - red - to know - always - thick - barley

Section 7Vowel is pronounced like the English e(verybody). This sound is reproduced by the letter in the beginning of a word, e.g., (etap) - stage, (eli) - again, (eguts) tomorrow. In the middle and at the end of a word it is normally written by means of the letter , e.g., (mek) - one, (berel) - to bring, (ser) - love, (utel) - to eat, (baze) - falcon, etc. Letter at the beginning of a word is always read like ye, i.e.,

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like two sounds, e.g., (Yerevan) - Yerevan, (yerekha) - child, (yes) I, (yerek) - yesterday, (yerkir) - country, etc. : Yerku yerekha yekan tun. Two children came home. Note: In the middle and at the end of words is written only in derivative words, e.g., (the most important), (some). Ex. 8. Read and explain similarities and differences of pronunciation of and . - cheap - ass - screen - electron - country - long - two - thirty - face

Ex. 9Read and remember how is pronounced at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of a word. - child - face - evening - iron - to prolong - falcon - Mane - ox - dream

Ex. 10Copy out the following words inserting the missing . __ - our __ - image ____ - to bring __ - falcon __ - to run __ - to eat __ - to make __ - to do __ - burden __ - crop

Section 8

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Vowel is a specific sound of the Armenian language. While pronouncing the mouth is half open, the middle of the tongue is somewhat raised. It sounds like 'i' in the English word bird. [The name of this sound in linguistics is "schwa".] For speakers of American English, is closest to the last vowel in "sofa" or the second vowel in "butter". In contrast with the other Armenian vowels, is not always written. To write and pronounce vowel correctly, the following should be remembered. is heard in many Armenian words, but is written only in some of them, e.g., at the beginning of a word (enker) - friend, (entir) perfect, the sound is heard and written, but in words '(zgal) - to feel, ' (skizb) - beginning, it is heard but not written. As a rule a word or a syllable cannot begin with two or more vowels (consonants?) in the Armenian language. Very often at the beginning or in the middle of a word is pronounced between two consonants, but is not written, e.g. Is written Is pronounced l'sel - to listen g'nel - to buy g'rel - to write m'tnel - to enter Note: the sound, which is heard at the beginning and in the middle of words, is written only while transferring, e.g., - - (to feel), - - (to find), - (to listen), - - (to wash), etc. At the end of a word is always a definite article and is always written, e.g., (house), (the house), (wall), (the wall), etc. : Im enkere gnum e dprots. My friend is going to school.

Ex. 11Read the following words and correctly pronounce the sound : - friend - friendly - to fall - domestic - to choose - selected - Aram - my textbook - my clothes - our lesson - everybody, all - nobody Add article and read the words. - autumn - mountain - grass - spring

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- dog - name - study - country

Ex. 12Copy out and translate into English. : : : : : Vocabulary - - studies - course (year in University) - lives - every - I see - in Yerevan - day - friendly - everybody - they love Text for reading : : : : Vocabulary - - I am nineteen - worker - boy, son Questions - : : : : :

Consonants * All the consonants of the Armenian language are hard.

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Ex. 13Copy out and read the following words. - cup - yard - worker - mouth - knife - empty - to praise - barley - child - mouse - dog - a lot, many - to saw - axe - dried fruits - raisin - wall - grandfather - hunger - bell - child, son, baby - to be surprised at - soldier - hour - time - good - to be - new - letter - heart - bad - to run - to give - house - wheat - hurt - faculty, department - physics

Ex. 14Translate into English. 8

Ex. 15Translate into English. 1. : 2. : 3. : 4. : 5. : - Vocabulary - begin, start - auditorium - enters - goes to - wants to study, learn - well tells Text For Reading Our family : , , : , : : , : : Vocabulary - - family - father - mother - brother - brothers - sister - works - at a factory - serves - in Soviet Army - at school Questions - :

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: : , : :

Section 12Consonant Consonant is a voiceless glottal sound. It corresponds to the English h (he). This sound in the Armenian language occurs at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of a word, e.g., (hav) - hen, (hasarak) - simple, (shahel) - to win, (sahman) - border, (ah) - fear, (gah) - throne, etc. Hakobe im hin harevann e. Hakob is my old neighbor. In a row of words after consonant sound is written, but not pronounced. Is written Is read (ashkhar) - world (ashkhar) (khonar) - submissive (khonar) (arhamarel) - to despise (arhamarel)

Ex. 16Pronounce the following sounds and sound-combinations a couple of times. a-ha o-ho e-he u-hu

Ex. 17Read and compare. - (to take off - to do) - (genius - helpless) - (criminal - passing) - (to cross - to hate) - (straw - so) - (blow - made, done).

Ex. 18Read following words and correctly pronounce sound . thousand Armenian to persuade to undress University now to remember 10

to admire ill fire here fear contented to sacrifice death president profit to protect storage border

Section 13Sound Sound is the voiced pair of voiceless . While pronouncing , the back of the tongue touches the back part of the soft palate. The difference between making and is that while pronouncing there is voice, but there is none while pronouncing , e.g., (Ghukas) - Ghukas (name), (ghek) rudder, (ghoghanj) - peal, (khaghal) - to play, (koghm) - side, (agh) - salt, etc. Note: In a row of words (in order of words) is pronounced like . : Khaghoghe shat hamegh mirg e. Vine is a very tasty fruit.

Ex. 19Read the following words with sound . steersman Crimea ice-cream scream noise yellow strong flower cabbage pretty oak play to correct straight

Ex. 20Read the following sentences. 11

: : : - :

Section 14Sounds , , Consonants , , are aspirates. They are pronounced like t(able), p(orch), c(ool), e.g., (tut) - kind of fruit, (tat) - paw, (tiv) - number, (oot) - eight, (ator) - chai