architectural styles

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Architectural Styles. Art Deco. (1925-1940) Identifying Features: Smooth wall surface, often stucco Smooth-faced stone and metal Polychrome, often with vivid colors Forms simplified and streamlined Geometric designs including zigzags, chevrons - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Architectural Styles

  • Art Deco(1925-1940) Identifying Features:

    Smooth wall surface, often stucco

    Smooth-faced stone and metal

    Polychrome, often with vivid colors

    Forms simplified and streamlined

    Geometric designs including zigzags, chevrons

    Towers and other vertical projections, presenting a vertical emphasis

  • Machined and often metallic construction materials for decorative features. These were the buildings of the future: sleek, geometric, dramatic. embraced the machine age.

  • GreekOriginal Structures:The first Greek structures were built very primitive and basic The houses were mainly built with a circular shapeoval shapeapsidal shaperectangular shape mostly square, but some were oblonghad the entrance at one of the short end used mud bricks and stones in the mud with reeds or brush to help build the house most of the houses had one room, there were very rarely two

  • The Original Structure (cont)..The next group of settlers were the Minoan architects

    Their towns were mostly residential with little or no temples and public places.

    their houses were private and had many rooms

    To separate rooms, they would use only pillars The stairways were a very prominent feature for these massive homes.

  • The Three Orders: (known for column style)DoricStarts with some wood shafts, which was replaced by stone. top of the shaft, were circular pads with a square block of wood over it. The vertical columns were used to support the beams called architraves. To form the ceiling, other beams were laid across the building with their ends on these architraves.On the end of these beams, they could be channeled to make a triglyph.

    On the top of a triglyph there would be another beam which would be placed for the overhanging rafters. These type of beams were referred as to a mutules.

  • Doric (cont)The finishing touches for the roof had to have a flat gables called pediments. The gutter ran along the top of the pediments and ended at a lion's mouth. This acted like a drain. The materials that were used for the roofs were thatch and the terra-cotta and marble.

    Columns dimensions were 4-5 meters high

  • The Three Orders (cont.)Ionic Columns were more slender Their dimensions were eight to nine meters highThe columns had a molded base placed under them and then sculpted figures on the lower part of the shaft were added. At the top of the shafts, were rectangular blocks of stone, which were carved in the shape of hair or other wave and line shapes.

  • Three Orders (cont)Corinthian (not widely used due to its detail. Too fancy, to much)

  • GreekGreek Revival:IDENTIFYING FEATURES: Gable or hipped, low-pitch roofDentil cornice emphasized with wide band of trim -- cornice represents classical entablature (includes cornice, frieze, architrave)Porches: square or rounded columns (usually Doric)First style to use gable-front floor plan (gable end facing the street, representing Greek temple)Temple-front entryway with entry door surrounded by rectangular transom and sidelights (never rounded like federal).

  • Greek RevivalDominant style in America, 1820-1850 Also called "national style" due to popularityfirst American architectural style to reach West Coast The Greek Revival movement becomes widely accepted throughout the early U.S. as a symbol of the new democracy.

  • RenaissanceItalian:Architects based their theories and practices on Classical Roman examples. Study the ancient buildings and ruins, especially the Colosseum and PantheonClassical orders and architectural elements:Columns PilastersPediments Renaissance architecture is characterized by: Harmonious form Mathematical proportion A unit of measurement based on the human scale.


  • French:The characteristics of the style:ashlar masonry accentuated with rusticated quoinsarchitrave framed windows doors supporting entablatures or pediments, a belt or string course that may divide the ground or first floor from the upper floorssmall square windows that indicate the top story. imported from Italy during the early 16th century and developed in the light of local architectural traditions

    French Renaissance" is a term often used to describe a cultural and artistic movement in France from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.

    The French Renaissance traditionally extends from (roughly) the French invasion of Italy in 1494 during the reign of Charles VIII until the death of Henri IV in 1610.

  • Jacobean style: blended medieval and renaissance styles characteristic of formal structures transition from Elizabethan to Pure Renaissance Predominant after Queen Elizabeth's reign Tends to be more unified and consistent Elizabethan style:blended Medieval and Renaissance styles characteristic of large noble houses transition from Medieval to Renaissance Predominant during Queen Elizabeth's reign from 1558-1603 English:In England the Renaissance was potent force in England during the 16th century During this period two distinctive styles emerged:

  • ModernEmerged in the decade after World War I, the mid-nineteenth century to the 1970s Also known as International style, Neue Sachlichkeit, and functionalismAn emphasis on shape, form, light, and transparencyideological faith in utopian rationalism and functionalism, as the core elements of this movement. From the outcome of the humanist belief in individual reason: foundations of the movement lie in earlier Renaissance and Enlightenment thought. The modernist objective to understand and master nature

  • Modern cont..Intellectual basis that shaped the aesthetic program of high modernist architecture: Beauty lies in the ability of the rational mind to extract formal rules from the surrounding world, making transparent the universal mechanics of the perfect machine. The emphasis on geometry and form follows, with surface decoration and style at best irrelevant, at worst deceitful. functionality becomes the clearest expression of rationalism.

  • ModernThe style features:smooth stucco wall surfacesrounded cornersa flat roof with copingan asymmetrical facadecorner, glass blockand round windows horizontal grooves or lines to emphasize a streamline quality.

  • MedievalSpanned from 1066-1603Romanesque Period:Norman eraCopied the pattern and proportion of the architecture of the Roman Empire Chief characteristics:barrel vaultsround archesthick piersfew windows Extremely uncomfortable dark, dank and cold

  • Tudor: English Country Imitate English architecture from the early 16th century.

    Some Tudor houses mimic humble Medieval cottages -- They may even include a false thatched roof. Other Tudor homes borrow ideas from late Medieval palaces.

    They may have overlapping gables, parapets, and beautifully patterned brick or stonework. These historic details combine with Victorian or Craftsman flourishes.

  • Gothic:Began in 12th century France"The French StyleRenaissance critics appalled at the abandonment of classical line and proportion called it "GothicIn reference to the imagined lack of culture of the barbarian tribesLight, spacious, and gracefulAdvances in architectural technique learned from Arab world during the CrusadesLed to innovations such as:The pointed archRibbed vaultThe buttress Heavy Romanesque piers were replaced by slender clusters of columnsWindow sizes grewHeight of vaults and spires grew

  • Gothic cont..Free standing sculpture instead of being incorporated in columnsWindows filled with colorChurches have elaborate decoration, especially the "tracery", or stonework supporting the stained glass windows.1200 to 1300 - Early English Gothic Style (also called Lancet)1300 to 1400 - Decorated Gothic Style 1400 to 1500 - Perpendicular Gothic Style

  • Some Other Styles:PrehistoricAncientBamanesqueBaroqueRococoGeorgian

    American ColonialNeoclassical/Idealist VictorianArt + Craft MovementArt Nouveau

  • ApsidalA semicircular of polygonal termination or recess in a building, usually vaulted and used at the end of a choir in a church

  • Bibliography: