Ancient Religions and Beliefs Buddhism Christianity Confucianism Hinduism Islam Judaism Zoroastrianism Daoism.
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Ancient Religions and BeliefsBuddhismChristianityConfucianismHinduismIslamJudaismZoroastrianism
ZoroastrianismFounded by Zoroaster. Persian prophet and religious reformer offered an answer to the basic question, Why should so much suffering and chaos exist in the world?
Purpose to rid the world of suffering and chaos.
ZoroastrianismRelationships:Followers of Ahura Mazda, the God of Truth and Light also called the Supreme God, would receive paradisefollowers of Ahriman, the God of Evil and Darkness, would suffer forever in a fiery pit.
Process Peoples own choices control their fate.
ZoroastrianismTeachings Avesta Teachings of ZoroasterGathas Hymns and poetry Two spiritual armies fight for possession of a persons soul.Developed ideas about heaven & hell, God & Satan, human soul and final judgment that had a great impact on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.1st Monotheistic religion, 6000-1500BCE"Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed world-religions, and it has probably had more influence on mankind, directly and indirectly, than any other single faith." Mary Boyce.
JudaismFounded by Abraham was chosen as the father of the chosen Hebrew people.Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery.
Purpose To be made a great nation, protected by god and blessed by him.
Relationships Obey God, YahwehLive justly with one another
JudaismProcess Monotheism, a belief in a single god.A covenant was formed between God, Yahweh, and the Hebrew people that if they obeyed Him, they would be protected.Teachings Torah 1st 5 books of the Old TestamentTalmud Laws given to Moses by YahwehThe Ten Commandments were given to the Hebrews as civil and religious laws which regulated social and religious behavior.
DefinitionsThe Ten CommandmentsI am the Lord, thy God and Thou shalt not have any other gods before me.Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image.Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.Honor thy father and thy mother.Thou shalt not kill.Thou shalt not commit adultery.Thou shalt not steal.Thou shalt not bear false witness.Thou shalt not covet.
IslamFounded by Muhammad
Relationships Belief in one God - Allah.
Muslim One who follows Islam
Process Life long acts of worshipThe Five Pillars
IslamTeachings Five Pillars of IslamFaith One God, Allah, Muhammad is his messenger.Prayer 5 times a day, facing Mecca (the east)Alms or Charity to the poor, a religious taxFasting Month of Ramadan, one meal at the end of the day.Pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in their life.Believe in the Bible and the prophets of Judaism and ChristianityQuran Words revealed to Muhammad by the angel GabrielShariah Laws based on principles of the Quran, regulates religious, political and social aspects of life.
IslamTwo Main DivisionsSunni People of Tradition, quietists. Leaders are elected, not blood related, majority
Shiite Activists/radical, True leadership is passed through bloodlines, minority.
Belief in final judgment Paradise or hell.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpcbfxtdoI8
ChristianityFounded by Jesus Christ
Purpose To reach salvation by following the teachings of Christ
Relationships Belief in one GodOften refer to God in three ways: God the Father, creator and Father of all humankindGod the Son, Jesus the ChristGod the Holy Spirit.;power of God experienced by people in their lives, inspiring human beings all over the world. This is not suggesting that there are three different Gods but one God working in three different ways. It is how Christians explain that Jesus was God and a human.
ChristianityProcess Live a good life, free of sins. Repent of sins that you have/do.Through Jesus, it is possible for humanity to turn back to God and to be saved from sin. Those who live a Christian life, believe in Jesus and turn back to God, can look forward to a further life of happiness after death, as they will be received into heaven.
ChristianityTeachings Teachings of Christ as recorded in the New Testament of the Bible.Nicene Creed - It is in three sections, states beliefs about God, Jesus and other aspects of Christianity. Belief in the resurrection. The Bible states that the resurrection of Jesus Christ was a sign that he had gained victory over the power of death. Because of this, death is not the end, and that after death there is eternal life.After death, the physical body dies but the spirit lives on. This spirit, or soul, is reunited with God (in heaven) and then finds eternal rest.
Branches of Christianity
BuddhismFounded by Siddhartha Gautama
Purpose Through meditation, find Nirvana, a refuge from inevitable suffering through living a moral and religious life. Avoid Extremes/conflicts.
Relationships None, except with self, right thinking and good deeds.
BuddhismProcess By understanding the Four Noble Truths, and mastering the Eightfold Path through a series of reincarnations, one could achieve nirvana.
Teachings Four Noble TruthsEightfold PathFive Precepts
DefinitionsNirvanaState of bliss, free from suffering and dissatisfaction. The release of selfishness and pain.AhimsaNon-violenceDharmaReligious and Moral dutiesKarmagood or bad deeds how you live in one life, will determine your path in the next life
DefinitionsFour Noble TruthsEverything is suffering and sorrow.Caused by selfish desires of temporary pleasures of the world.To end suffering, end desires.To overcome desires and attain enlightenment, follow the Eightfold Path called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial.
Eightfold PathRight viewSeeing things as they really are, the truth of things.Right thoughtThink good things, free from selfish desires and ill will towards others.Right speechWords have consequences; therefore, every time a person speaks, they could be the cause of either good or evil. Avoid harsh words & lying, and try to say good things.
Eightfold PathRight actionDeeds have consequences. Actions are performed because they help a person attain Nirvana. Give up wanting anything.Right way of lifeA persons way of life must be the right one or else it will be difficult to follow all the paths. Example - certain types of jobs would interfere with a persons striving for freedom, some occupations are morally wrong. In order to have a chance, a person must have the right job and lifestyle.
Eightfold PathRight effortEffort to rejecting anything which would interfere with a persons progress towards right meditation.Right mindfulnessPay full attention to what you are doing. Be aware of what is going on and give attention to what is happening at present rather than thinking about the past or the future.Right concentrationMeditation. Concentrate the mind entirely on one thing. The way to enlightenment is through attention not through fantasy.
Five PreceptsBasic rules for the lay personFive PreceptsRefrain from destroying life Dont KillRefrain from taking what is not given Dont StealRefrain from impurity Stay Morally CleanRefrain from LyingRefrain from using intoxicating substances
Both Buddhism and Hinduism involve a break from the chain of reincarnations once a perfect state of understanding is achieved. For Buddhism this is called Nirvana, in Hinduism, this is called Moksha.
HinduismFounded by No single founder
Brahman (or the world soul) has three main functions called the gods, Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu.Sometimes these are referred to as the supreme gods.Brahma - Creator and source of all creation.Vishnu - Preserver and keeps all good things on earth.Shiva - Destroyer and is needed because some things are harmful and change is necessary for the creation of new things.Each of the supreme gods has a female partner (consort)
HinduismPurpose To liberate the soul from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday life. Attain Moksha. Non-violence
Relationships When one understands the relationship between atman (the individual soul) and Brahman (the world soul), that person will achieve perfect understanding and release from life in this world (moksha).
HinduismProcess Understanding does not come in one lifetime, but through reincarnation (rebirth), until moksha is achieved. Three different paths may be chosen to achieve moksha.Path of Knowledge. Through meditation, possible to know the truth and be released from the attachments of this world. Path of Self-Realization. Living free from selfish gain and dedicating everything one does to God.Path of Devotion. It is devotion to God, is achieved through daily worship, in prayer and in offerings. This path is God-centred, where a person's actions performed for God and not for themselves.
HinduismTeachings Karma - every action has an effect, and that there is a cause for everything that happens in life. A person's karma will affect their future lives: evil or selfish actions will result in an unhappy future while unselfish or good actions will bring benefits in the next life.Belief that every Hindu is born into a particular caste (varna/social status) as a result of their behavior in a previous life. Ahimsa non violence, especially cowsMother cow Source of food and material goodsVedas Prayers and HymnsUpanishads Collection of writings, learn about Brahman and the Universe.
DefinitionsAtman - the individual soulBrahman the world soul that contains and unites all atmans.Karma good or bad deeds follows from one reincarnation to another.Ahimsa - Non-violenceDharma - Religious and Moral duties
HinduismHindus today are free to choose the deity they worship or to choose none at all.
Most choose to try and achieve moksha by following the Path of Devotion.
ConfucianismFounded by Confucius
Purpose Ethics, to improve oneself morally, socially and politically.Relationships Social and Civic responsibility, order and harmonyProcess Education, Filial Piety.
ConfucianismTeachings The AnalectsThe Five ClassicsSocial order, harmony, and good government could be achieved if society was organized by the Five Basic RelationshipsEducation can transform a humbly born person into a gentleman.
ConfucianismEducation became critically important to career advancement in the bureaucracy.
About 6 million (26,000 in US)
If a ruler himself is upright, all will go well without orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders, they will not be obeyed.
Golden Rule : Do not unto others what you would not want other to do unto you.
DefinitionsFilial Piety - Children should respect their parents and elders.Five Basic Relationships: Ruler and SubjectFather and SonHusband and WifeOlder Brother and Younger BrotherFriend and Friend.Shows importance of FAMILY and the individuals responsibility to community
DaoismBased on the philosophy of Laozi.A universal force called Dao, meaning the Way, refers to the power that envelops, surrounds and flows through all living and non-living things (Animism).Purpose To gain knowledge and understanding of nature. Achieve balance in the universe, harmony of opposites (love/hate).About 20 million, Taiwan.Relationships Nature, scientific studies. Reject Conflict.
DaoismProcess If you seek order and harmony, go up into the hills, and observe that nothing in nature strives for fame, power, or even wisdom.
Influences Acupuncture, Meditation, Tai Chi, Holistic Medicine.
Teachings Its search for knowledge and understanding of nature led followers to pursue scientific studies such as alchemy, astronomy, and medicine.