Ancient Conquest Accounts - A Study in Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical History Writing

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<p>JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT SUPPLEMENT SERIES</p> <p>98Editors David J.A. Clines Philip R. Davies</p> <p>JSOT Press Sheffield</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>ANCIENT</p> <p>CONQUEST ACCOUNTSA Study in Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical History Writing</p> <p>K. Lawson Younger, Jr</p> <p>Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 98</p> <p>Copyright 1990 Sheffield Academic Press Published by JSOT Press JSOT Press is an imprint of Sheffield Academic Press Ltd The University of Sheffield 343 Fulwood Road Sheffield S10 3BP England Printed in Great Britain by Billing &amp; Sons LtdWorcester</p> <p>British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data available</p> <p>ISSN 0309-0787 ISBN 1-85075-252-4</p> <p>TO MY FATHER AND MOTHER: KENNETH AND DORIS YOUNGER</p> <p>(Ex. 20:12; Lv. 19:3)</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>CONTENTSPreface List of abbreviations Illustration: Verso of the Narmer Palette 11 13 21</p> <p>INTRODUCTION "THEUNDERPINNINGS"Chapter One PRELIMINARY ISSUES Part I: History: Cultivating an Idea Removing 'Old Roots' Nurturing 'New Shoots' Part II: IdeologyUnmasking of the Concept Part III: Method: Obtaining Comprehension Establishing the Framework Performing the Reading 25 26 35 47 52 52 55</p> <p>STAGE ONE ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN CONQUEST ACCOUNTSChapter Two ASSYRIAN CONQUEST ACCOUNTS Assyrian Ideology: How Do You Spell Torture' Type and Nature Ideological Patterns: The Enemy Literary Structures: The Stereotyping Department Syntagmic Valency Introduction The Syntagms of the Assyrian Texts Syntagmic Analysis Annalistic Texts Tiglath-Pileser I Ashur-Dan II ASSur-nasir-pal II Shalmaneser III Sennacherib Letters to the God 61 65 65 67 69 70 70 72 79 79 79 90 94 99 111 115</p> <p>8Sargon II Summary or Display Texts ASSur-nasir-pal II Adad-nirari III Conclusion Chapter Three HITTITE CONQUEST ACCOUNTS Hittite Ideology: Feeling a Little Vengeful Today? Literary Structures: "And the Sungoddess of Arina, my Lady ..." Syntagmic Analysis Hattuslli I Muriili II Ten Year Annals Detailed Annals The Deeds of Suppiluliuma Conclusion Chapter Four EGYPTIAN CONQUEST ACCOUNTS Past Studies Some Generic Considerations (It Depends on Your Purpose) Texts Nbtw; The Daybook Reports Nfytw: The Literary Reports Conclusion Egyptian Ideology (Just Being Better Than Everyone Else!) Royal Ideology The Enemy Administration Diffusion of the Ideology Literary Aspects (Never Any Embellishments Here!) Hyperbole Metonymy Conclusion 115 120 120 121 122 125 128 130 132 136 140 158 160 163 165 167 168 168 170 172 173 175 175 177 185 189 189 190 192 194</p> <p>9 STAGE TWO ISRAELITE CONQUEST ACCOUNTSChapter Five JOSHUA 9-12 197</p> <p>Literary Structures (Writing It Just Like Everyone Else) 199 Chapter 9 200 Chapters 10 and 11 204 The Code: Joshua 10:11-15 208 The Hailstones 206 The Long Day 211 The Code: Joshua 10:16-27 220 Chapter 10:28-42 226 Chapter 11 228 Chapter 12 230 Israelite Ideology (What You Can Do Through the Right 'Connections') 232 Type 233 Jural Aspect 236 Conclusion 237</p> <p>STAGE THREE SYNTHESISsChapter Six IMPLICATIONS AND ENTAILMENTS The Notion of a 'Complete Conquest* The Notion of an 'All Israel' Redaction Sources, Structure and Composition Ideological Aspect An Entailment Concerning 'Holy War* Other Entailments Conclusion CONCLUSION NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY 241 241 247 249 253 258 260 263 265 267 333</p> <p>10APPENDIX The Syntagms of Joshua 9-12 Text and Translation Notes INDEX Author Index Subject Index Scripture Ancient Texts 359 359 361 377 385 385 388 390 391</p> <p>PREFACEWorks on Old Testament historiography, the 'Conquest', and the origins of ancient Israel have mushroomed in recent days. To that end this book is just one more addition. But while others have been issuing forth 'new' reconstructions and modelsmany times ignoring the biblical text, this work will emit a 'new close reading* of the biblical text. The work will be concerned with the literary techniques employed by the ancient writers in order to come to a better understanding of these ancient texts in their context. It is our conviction that it is in this area that biblical scholars have not always taken into account the results of two important disciplines: the philosophy of history and literary criticism. Obviously, there are exceptions, but many biblical scholars still function in these areas with out-moded literary approaches and a historicist view of history. This work will attempt to wrestle with some of these issues and apply them to biblical study. I owe particular gratitude to Dr. Philip Davies at the Univer sity of Sheffield for his encouragement and enthusiasm, his suggestions were always constructiveas time and reflection have shown. Others who, in one way or another, seasoned the work are: Mark Brett, Danny Carroll, David Clines, Steve Fowl, Kenneth Kitchen, Alan Millard, Stan Porter, John Rogerson, and Donald Wiseman. Substantial financial assistance was provided by a number of individuals and institutions. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the British Government through their Overseas Research grants. I am indebted to a number of members of Christchurch, Fulwood in Sheffield: Dr. and Mrs. Ian Manifold, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Dunigan, and Mr. and Mrs. Steven Tynan. I also gratefully acknowledge the backing that I received from the Tyndale House Fellowship. My family was a constant source of support and encouragement. Without the sacrificial efforts of my parents, Kenneth and Doris Younger, I could never have begun this study; without the support of my aunt, Mrs. George Bickerstaff, I would not have been able to continue; and without the love and</p> <p>12</p> <p>Preface</p> <p>tolerancethroughout the entire workof my wife, Patti, and my children, Kenneth, Andrew and Rebecca, I could never have completed it. Finally, I must give thanks to Him who has given me life and purpose. Longview, November 8, 1989 K.L.Y.</p> <p>ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLSAAA ABC AEL AEO AfO AHR AHw AJSL AKA Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology (University of Liverpool). A.K. Grayson. Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles. Locust Valley, N.Y., 1975. M. Lichtheim. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1973-1980. A.H. Gardiner. Ancient Egyptian Onomastica. 3 Vols. Oxford, 1947. Archiv fur Orientforschung. The American Historical Review. W. von Soden. Akkadisches Handworterbuch. Wiesbaden, 1959-1975. American Journal of Semitic Languages. L.W. King (and E.A.W. Budge) Annals of the Kings of Assyria. Vol. I. London, 1902. [No subsequent volumes appeared. J.B. Pritchard. Editor. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd Ed. with supplement. Princeton, N.J., 1969. Analecta Biblica. Analecta Orientalia. Alter Orient und Altes Testament. D.D. Luckenbill. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. 2 Vols. Chicago, 1926-27. Archoeologia. A.K. Grayson. Assyrian Royal Inscriptions. 2 Vols. Wiesbaden, 1972-76.</p> <p>ANET3</p> <p>AnBib AnOr AOAT ARAB Arch. ARI</p> <p>14ARINH</p> <p>Ancient Conquest AccountsF.M. Fales. Editor. Assyrian Royal Inscriptions: New Horizons in Literary, Ideological and Historical Analysis. [Orientis Antiqvi Collectio, 17]. Rome, 1981. Archives royales de Mari. Archiv Orientdlni. Anatolian Studies. Annales du Service des antiquite"s de ITSgypte. Le Gac, Les Inscriptions D'ASSur-Nasir-Aplu III. Paris, 1906. Assur. [Monographic Journals of the Near East]. Malibu, Ca. A. Spalinger. Aspects of the Military Documents of the Ancient Egyptians. [Yale Near Eastern Researches, 9]. New Haven and London, 1983. Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute. The Biblical Archaeologist.2</p> <p>ARMT ArOr AS ASAE Asn. Assur Aspects.</p> <p>ASTI BA J5AL BAR BASOR BBSt BES BIFAO BiOr BJRL BM B-McL</p> <p>R. Borger. Babylonische-assyrische Lesestilcke. 2nd Ed. [AnOr 54]. Rome, 1979. J.H. Breasted. Ancient Records of Egypt. 5 Vols. Chicago, 1906-1907. Reprint New York, 1962. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. L.W. King. Babylonian Boundary-Stones and Memorial Tablets in the British Museum. London, 1912. Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar. Bulletin de I'Institut Francais d'Arche'ologie Orientale. Bibliotheca Orientalis. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. British Museum. A.E. Brooke and N. McLean, with H. St. John Thackeray. Editors. The Old Testament in Greek: Vol. /, The Octateuch. Cambridge, 1906-1940.</p> <p>Abbreviations and SymbolsBoSt BoTU BWANT BZ BZAW CAD CAH3 CBQ CdE CHD Boghazkoi-Studien.</p> <p>15</p> <p>E. Forrer, Die Boghazhoi-Texte in Umschrift.Berlin, 1929. Beitrage zur Wissenschaft vom Alien und Neuen Testament. Biblische Zeitschrift. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur die Mttestamentliche Wissenschaft. A.L. Oppenheim et al. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 1956-. The Cambridge Ancient History. 3rd Ed. Cambridge, 1973-75. Catholic Biblical Quarterly. Chronique d'Egypte. H.G. Giiterbock and H.A Hoffner. The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Chicago, 1980-. Acade'mie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Comptes rendus des stances. Comparative Studies in Society and History. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum. D. Winton Thomas. Editor. Documents from Old Testament Times. London, 1958. J.A. Knudtzon, et al. Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. [Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 2]. Leipzig, 1915. Einleitung in die assyrischen Konigsinschriften. Borger, Vol. I. W. Schramm, Vol. II. Eretz-Israel, Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testament. R.</p> <p>CRAI CSSH CT DOTT EA EAK El FRLANT</p> <p>16FT GAG GKC</p> <p>Ancient Conquest AccountsFaith and Theology. W. von Soden. Grundriss der Akkadischen Grammatik. [AnOr 33]. Rome, 1952. W. Gesenius. Hebrew Grammar. Ed, E. Kautzsch, 2nd Eng. Ed., revised in accordance with 28th German Edition by A.E. Cowley. Oxford, 1966. Gottinger Miszellen. Grace Theological Journal. Handbuch zum Alten Testament. J. Puhvel. Hittite Etymological Dictionary. [2 Vols. in 1]. Paris, 1984. H. Tadmor and M. Weinfeld. Editors. History, Historiography and Interpretation. Jerusalem, 1983. R. Borger. Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur. 3 Vols. Berlin, 1967-1973. Havard Semitic Studies. Havard Theological Review. Hebrew Union College Annual. J. Friedrich. Hethitisches Worterbuch. [Indogermanische Bibliothek 2]. Heidelberg, 1952. E. Ebeling, B. Meissner, and E.F. Weidner. Die Inschriften derAltassyrischen Konige. [Altorientalische Bibliothek 1], Leipzig, 1926. [No subsequent volumes appeared]. International Critical Commentary. The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. by G.A. Buttrick. 4 Vols. New York, 1962. Israel Exploration Journal. The Interpreter's Bible. 12 Vols. Nashville, 1951-57. Journal of the Near Eastern Society. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt.</p> <p>GM GTJ HAT HED HHI HKL HSS HTR HUCA HW IAK</p> <p>ICC IDS IEJ IntB JANES JAOS JARCE</p> <p>Abbreviations and SymbolsJBL JCS JEAJEOL Journal of Biblical Literature. Journal of Cuneiform Studies. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.</p> <p>17</p> <p>Jaarbericht ban het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap: Ex Oriente Lux. Journal of Jewish Studies. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Journal of the Palestinian Oriental Society. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Journal for the Study of Old Testament. Journal of Semitic Studies. Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquity, H. Donner and W. Rollig. Kanaanaische und aramaische Inschriften. 3 Vols. Wiesbaden, 1962-64. Kommentar zum Alten Testament. L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner. Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros. Leiden, 1958. Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkoi. K.A. Kitchen. Ramesside Inscriptions, Historical and Biographical. Oxford, 1969-. Keilschrifturkunden aus Boghazkoi. Loeb Classical Library. Lexikon der Agyptologie (Wiesbaden, 1972- ). H.G. Liddell and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. New York, 1878. Mitteilungen der Altorientalischen Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen des deutschen archaologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft.</p> <p>JJSJNES JPOS JRAS JSOT</p> <p>JSSJSSEA</p> <p>KAIKAT</p> <p>KBL KBo KRI HUBLCL</p> <p>LdA L-S</p> <p>MAOG MDAIK MDOG</p> <p>18MIO MVAG Nin.A</p> <p>Ancient Conquest AccountsMitteilungen des Institute fur Orientforschung. Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen / Vorderasiatisch Agyptischen Gesellschaft. R. Borger. Die Inschriften Asarhaddons Konigs von Assyrien. [Archiv fur Orientforschung, Beiheft 9]. (Graz, 1956), pp. 39-64. Oriens Antiquus. Old Greek. The University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Publications. Orientalistische Literaturzeitung. Orientalia. The Old Testament Library, Westminster Press. Oudtestamentische Studien. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Palestine Exploration Quarterly. Revue d'Assyriologie et d'Arch^ologie Orientale. Revue d'Hittite et Asianique. Revue Biblique. Revue d'Egyptologie. Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd editions. H. and A. Smith. "A Reconstruction of the Kamose Texts." ZAS 103 (1976): 48-76. Reallexikon derAssyriologie. Ed. by Ebeling and Meissner etal. "Studies on the Annals of As^urnasirpal II: I. Morphological Analysis." VO 5 (1982-83): 13-73. Studien zur altdgyptische Kultur.</p> <p>OA OG OIP OLZ Or OTL OTS PAPS PEQ RA RHA RB RdE RGG RKT RLA SAAMA SAK</p> <p>Abbreviations and SymbolsSARI</p> <p>19</p> <p>Jerrold S. Cooper. Summon and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions. Vol. I. [The American Oriental Society Translation Series, 1] New Haven, Conn.: The American Oriental Society, 1986. Society of Biblical Literature. Studies in Biblical Theology. Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Journal. J.C.L. Gibson. Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. 3 Vols. Oxford, 1973-79. The Social World of Biblical Antiquity Series. Tyndale Bulletin. Musee du Louvre, Departement des Antiquit4s orientales, Textes cuntiformes. Texts from Cuneiform Sources. G. Johannes Botterweck and H. Ringgren. Editors. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Revised Edition. Trans, by J.T. Willis. Grand Rapids: 1974-. E. Weidner. Die Inschriften Tukulti-Ninurtas I. und seiner Nachfolger.[AfO Beiheft, 12]. Graz, 1959. 0. Kaiser. Editor. Texte aus der Umwelt des Alien Testaments. Gutersloh, 1984. Theologische Zeitschrift. Ugarit-Forschungen. Urkunden des agyptischen Altertums, Abteilung IV: Urkunden der 18. Dynastic. Ed. by K. Sethe and W. Helck. Fascicles 1-22. Leipzig and Berlin, 1906-1958. Vicino Oriente. Vetus Testamentum, Supplements to Vetus Testamentum. Worterbuch der agyptische Sprache. Ed. by A. Erman and H. Grapow. 7 Vols. Leipzig, 1926-1963.</p> <p>SBL SET SSEAJ SSI SWBAS TB TCL TCS TDOT</p> <p>TN TUAT TZ UF Urk. IV</p> <p>VO VT VTS Wb.</p> <p>20WMANT WO YOS ZA ZAS ZAW ZDMG ZDPV ZThK</p> <p>Ancient Conquest AccountsWissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alien und Neuen Testament. Die Welt des Orients. Yale Oriental Series. Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie und vorderasiatischeArchaologie. Zeitschrift fur agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Mo...</p>