《an introduction to igneous and metamorphic petrology》winter,2001

Download 《An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology》Winter,2001

Post on 29-Oct-2014

1.805 views

Category:

Documents

19 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

AN INTRODUCTION TO

IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY

OHN D. WINTER

An Introduction to

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

An Introduction to

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

John D. WinterDepartment of Geology Whitman College

EB00062387

Prentice HallPrentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Winter, John D. (John DuNann) An introduction to igneous and metamorphic petrology/by John D. Winter. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-13-240342-0 1. Rocks, Igneous. 2. Rocks, Metamorphic. I. Title. QE461 .W735 2001 552'.l-dc21 00-049196

Senior editor: Patrick Lynch Senior marketing manager: Christine Henry Production editor: Pine Tree Composition Assistant managing editor: Beth Sturla Art director: Jayne Conte Cover design: Bruce Kenselaar Cover photo: Kennan Harvey Manufacturing manager: Trudy Pisciotti Manufacturing buyer: Michael Bell Assistant editor: Amanda Griffith About the cover: Mt. Waddington is a net-veined agmatite. Marginal to a granite, this consists of metamorphed country rock shot through by granitic veining. 2001 Prentice-Hall Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 0-13-21*03142-0Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S. A., Mexico Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd. Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Lda., Rio de Janeiro

This effort is dedicated to the faculty and my fellow graduate students at the University of Washington in the early 1970's. They made geology interesting, and often downright fun. It is also dedicated to my wife, Deborah, and all the families deprived by those who attempt to write a book.

Brief Contents

Preface Part I

xvii Igneous Petrology 1 Chapter 1 Some Fundamental Concepts 2 Chapter 2 Classification and Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks 17 Chapters Textures of Igneous Rocks 27 Chapter 4 Igneous Structures and Field Relationships 46 Chapter 5 An Introduction to Thermodynamics 75 Chapters The Phase Rule and One-and Two-Component Systems 84 Chapter 7 Systems with More than Two Components 105 Chapter 8 Chemical Petrology I: Major and Minor Elements 128 Chapter 9 Chemical Petrology II: Trace Elements and Isotopes 155 Chapter 10 Generation of Basaltic Magmas 181 Chapter 11 Diversification of Magmas 200 Chapter 12 Layered Mafic Intrusions 219 Chapter 13 Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanism 242 Chapter 14 Oceanic Intraplate Volcanism 260 Chapter 15 Continental Flood Basalts 277 Chapter 16 Subduction-Related Igneous Activity Part I: Island Arcs 293 Chapter 17 Subduction-Related Igneous Activity Part II: Continental Arcs 316 Chapter 18 Granitoid Rocks 343 Chapter 19 Continental Alkaline Magmatism 362 Chapter 20 Anorthosites 401 Metamorphic Petrology 409 Chapter 21 An Introduction to Metamorphism 410 Chapter 22 A Classification of Metamorphic Rocks 433 Chapter 23 Structures and Textures of Metamorphic Rocks 440 Chapter 24 Stable Mineral Assemblages in Metamorphic Rocks 477 Chapter 25 Metamorphic Facies and Metamorphosed Mafic Rocks 496 Chapter 26 Metamorphic Reactions 513 Chapter 27 Thermodynamics of Metamorphic Reactions 535 Chapter 28 Metamorphism of Pelitic Sediments. 562 Chapter 29 Metamorphism of Calcareous and Ultramafic Rocks 586 Chapter 30 Metamorphic Fluids, Mass Transport and Metasomatism 606 Appendix A: Units and Constants Appendix B: Abbreviations and Acronyms Appendix C: The CIPW Norm References 581

Part II

VI

Contents

Preface I Igneous PetrologyChapter 1

xvii Part 1Some Fundamental Concepts 2

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Introduction 2 The Earth's Interior 4 Origin of the Solar System and the Earth 6 Differentiation of the Earth 7 How Do We Know All This? 8 Meteorites 10 Pressure and Temperature Variations with Depth 1.7.1 The Pressure Gradient 12 1.7.2 The Temperature Gradient 13 1.8 Magma Generation in the Earth 14 Suggested Further Readings 15Chapter 2 Classification and Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks

12

17

2.1 2.2 2.3

Introduction 17 Compositional Terms 17 The IUGS Classification 18 2.3.1 Calculations and Plotting 18 2.3.2 Phaneritic Rocks 21 2.3.3 Modifying Terms 22 2.3.4 Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks 22 2.4 Aphanitic Rocks 22 2.5 Pyroclastic Rocks 25 Suggested Further Readings 26Chapter 3 Textures of Igneous Rocks 27

3.1

Primary Textures (Crystal/Melt Interactions) 27 3.1.1 Rates of Nucleation, Growth, and Diffusion 28 3.1.2 Nucleation at Preferred Sites 29 3.1.3 Compositional Zoning 31 3.1.4 Crystallization Sequence 32 3.1.5 Magmatic Reaction and Resorption 34VII

viii

Contents3.1.6 Differential Movement of Crystals and Melt 3.1.7 Cumulate Textures 34 3.1.8 Primary Twinning 35 3.1.9 Volcanic Textures 36 3.1.10 Pyroclastic Textures 38 Secondary Textures: Post-Magmatic Changes 38 3.2.1 Polymorphic Transformation 39 3.2.2 Secondary Twinning 40 3.2.3 Exsolution 40 3.2.4 Secondary Reactions and Replacement 41 3.2.5 Deformation 45 A Glossary of Igneous Textural Terms 45 46 34

3.2

3.3 45 Suggested Further Readings Chapter 4

Igneous Structures and Field Relationships 4.1

4.2

4.3 72 Suggested Further Readings Chapter 5

Extrusive, or Volcanic, Processes, Products, and Landforms 46 4.1.1 Properties of Magma and Eruptive Styles 46 4.1.2 Central Vent Landforms 48 4.1.3 Fissure Eruptions 52 4.1.4 Lava Flow Features 53 4.1.5 Pyroclastic Deposits 56 Intrusive, or Plutonic, Processes and Bodies 59 4.2.1 Tabular Intrusive Bodies 59 4.2.2 Non-Tabular Intrusive Bodies 62 4.2.3 Contact Relationships of Plutons 64 4.2.4 Timing of Intrusion 66 4.2.5 Depth of Intrusion 66 4.2.6 Multiple Injection and Zoned Plutons 68 4.2.7 The Process of Magma Rise and Emplacement, and the "Room Problem" 68 Hydrothermal Systems 73 75

An Introduction to Thermodynamics 5.1 5.2 5.3

5.4

Energy 75 Gibbs Free Energy 76 Gibbs Free Energy for a Phase 77 5.3.1 Variations in the Gibbs Free Energy for a Phase with Pressure and Temperature 78 Gibbs Free Energy for a Reaction 79 5.4.1 Variation in the Gibbs Free Energy for a Reaction with Pressure and Temperature 80 5.4.2 The Equilibrium State 81 5.4.3 Thermodynamic Evaluation of Phase Diagrams 83

82 Suggested Further Readings Problems 83 Chapter 6

The Phase Rule and One- and Two-Component Systems 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Introduction: Melting Behavior of Natural Magmas Phase Equilibrium and the Phase Rule 86 Application of the Phase Rule to the H2O System One-Component Systems 90

84 84 87

Contents6.5 Two-Component (Binary) Systems 92 6.5.1 Binary Systems with Complete Solid Solution 6.5.2 Binary Eutectic Systems 95 6.5.3 Binary Peritectic Systems 98 6.5.4 The Alkali Feldspar System 102 Suggested Further Readings 104 Problems 104 Chapter 7 Systems with More than Two Components 7.1 105 92

ix

Three-Component (Ternary) Systems 105 7.1.1 Ternary Eutectic Systems 105 7.1.2 Ternary Peritectic Systems 109 7.1.3 Ternary Systems with Solid Solution 110 7.2 Systems with More than Three Components 115 7.3 Reaction Series 117 7.4 The Effects of Pressure on Melting Behavior 119 7.5 The Effects of Fluids on Melting Behavior 120 7.5.1 The Effects of H2O 120 7.5.2 The Effects of CO2 126 Suggested Further Readings 127 Problems 127 Chapters Chemical Petrology I: Major and Minor Elements 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 128

Analytical Methods 128 Analytical Results 132 Major and Minor Elements in the Crust 133 Normative Minerals 135 Variation Diagrams 136 8.5.1 Bivariate Plots 136 8.5.2 Triangular Plots: The AFM Diagram 140 8.6 Using Variation Diagrams to Model Magmatic Evolution 140 8.6.1 Pearce Element Ratios (PER) 140 8.6.2 Graphical and Mathematical Models of Magmatic Evolution 8.7 Magma Series 146 Suggested Further Readings 151 Problems 152 Chapter 9 Chemical Petrology II: Trace Elements and Isotopes 9.1 9.2 155

142

Element Distribution 155 Models for Solid-Melt Processes 157 9.2.1 Batch Melting 157 9.2.2 Rayleigh Fractionation 160 9.3 The Rare Earth Elements: A Special Group of Trace Elements 160 9.4 Spider Diagrams 163 9.5 Application of Trace Elements to Igneous Systems 164 9.6 Geochemical Criteria for Discriminating Between Tectonic Environments 9.7 Isotopes 167 9.7.1 Stable Isotopes 168 9.7.2 Radioactive and Radiogenic Isotopes 169 Suggested Further Readings 178 Problems 179

166

ContentsChapter 10 Generation of Basaltic Magmas 10.1 10.2 181

Petrology of the Mantle 182 Melting of the Mantle 185 10.2.1 Raising the Temperature 185 10.2.2 Lowering the Pressure 186 10.2.3 Adding Volatiles 186 10.2.4 A Brief Summary of Mantle Melting 188 10.3 Generation of Basalts from a Chemically Uniform Mantle 10.4 Primary Magmas 192 10.5 A Chemically Heterogeneous Mantle Model 194 Suggested Further Readings 198 Chapter 11 Diversification of Magmas 11.1 11.2 200

189

11.3 11.4 11.5 214 11.6 Mixed Processes 217 11.7 Tectonic-Igneous Associations Suggested Further Readings 218 Problems 218 Chapter 12 Layered Mafic Intrusions 12.1 12.2 219

Partial Melting 200 Magmatic Differentiation 202 11.2.1 Fractional Crystallization 202 11.2.2 Volatile Transport 207 11.2.3 Liquid Immiscibility 208 Magma Mixing 210 Assimilation 211 Boundary Layers, In Situ Crystallization, and Compositional Convection

218

12.3 232

Igneous Layering 219 Examples of Layered Mafic Intrusions 221 12.2.1 The Bushveld C

Recommended

View more >