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  • Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic PetrologySecond Edition

    This textbook provides a basic understanding of the formative processes of igneous andmetamorphic rocks through quantitative applications of simple physical and chemicalprinciples. The book encourages a deeper comprehension of the subject by explaining thepetrologic principles rather than simply presenting the student with petrologic facts andterminology. Assuming knowledge of only introductory college-level courses in physics,chemistry, and calculus, it lucidly outlines mathematical derivations fully and at an elementarylevel, and is ideal for intermediate and advanced courses in igneous and metamorphicpetrology.The end-of-chapter quantitative problem sets facilitate student learning by working through

    simple applications. They also introduce several widely used thermodynamic softwareprograms for calculating igneous and metamorphic phase equilibria and image analysissoftware. With over 500 illustrations, this revised edition contains valuable new material onthe structure of the Earths mantle and core, the properties and behavior of magmas, recentresults from satellite imaging, and more.

    Anthony Philpotts is a visiting fellow at Yale University and an adjunct professor atthe University of Massachusetts, and has had over 40 years of teaching experience. He hasworked on Precambrian massif type anorthosites, pseudotachylites, alkaline rocks, liquidimmiscibility in FeTi oxide systems and in tholeiitic magmas. He has been awarded thePeacock Memorial Prize of the Walker Mineralogical Club of Toronto and the Hawley Awardof the Mineralogical Association of Canada. He has served as an editor for the CanadianMineralogist and the Journal of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

    Jay Ague is a Professor at Yale University and has been teaching for more than 20 years. Hestudies fluid flow, chemical reactions, mass transfer, and heat transfer in Earths crust,focusing on the metamorphic and igneous rocks comprising the deep roots of mountain belts.He was the Senior Editor of the American Journal of Science from 1998 to 2008, and hasserved on the editorial board of the journal Geology. He is also Curator of Mineralogy at theYale Peabody Museum of Natural History.

    www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Gray Ordovician Trenton limestone intruded by aphanitic basalt at the margin of the Cretaceous alkalinegabbro intrusion in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The intrusion of the network of small basaltic dikes causedbrittle failure of the limestone, with fragments frozen in the act of detaching from the walls to form xenoliths inthe basalt. Surrounding the igneous rock is a prominent contact metamorphic halo of white marble, wherehydrocarbons in the gray limestone were converted to minute crystals of graphite (black specks) inrecrystallized calcite. Width of field, 8 cm.

    www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Principles of Igneous andMetamorphic Petrology

    Second Edition

    ANTHONY R . PH I L POTTSYale University

    J AY J . AGUEYale University

    www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • www.cambridge.org

    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521880060

    # Prentice-Hall Inc., now known as Pearson Education Inc., 1990

    # A.R. Philpotts and J. J. Ague 2009

    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

    and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

    no reproduction of any part may take place without the written

    permission of Cambridge University Press.

    First published by Prentice-Hall Inc. 1990

    Second edition 2009

    Printed in the United Kingdom by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall

    A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

    Philpotts, Anthony R. (Anthony Robert), 1938

    Principles of igneous and metamorphic petrology / Anthony R. Philpotts, Jay J. Ague.

    p. cm.

    ISBN 978-0-521-88006-0

    1. Rocks, Igneous. 2. Rocks, Metamorphic. 3. Petrology. I. Ague, Jay J. II. Title.

    QE461.P572 2009

    552.1dc22

    2008040943

    ISBN 978-0-521-88006-0 Hardback

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or

    accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to

    in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such

    websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

    University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

    8th printing 2015

    www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Anthony Philpotts dedicates this book to his wife, Doreen,

    who in the meantime learned to play the piano.

    Jay Ague dedicates this book to his family for making everything possible.

    www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Contents

    Preface page xiiiAcknowledgments xviList of units xvii

    1 Introduction 11.1 Petrology and its scope 11.2 Major structural units of the Earth 21.3 Pressure distribution within the Earth 41.4 Temperature gradients and heat flow in the lithosphere 61.5 Heat sources in the Earth 101.6 Temperatures in the lithosphere: the steady-state geotherm 111.7 General outline of the origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks 131.8 Problems 17

    2 Physical properties of magma 192.1 Introduction 192.2 Magmatic temperatures 192.3 Magma densities 212.4 Magma viscosities 232.5 Problems 26

    3 Intrusion of magma 283.1 Introduction 283.2 Buoyant rise of magma 283.3 Volume expansion on melting 323.4 Vesiculation 333.5 Tectonic pressure on magma 353.6 Intrusion rates of Newtonian magma in laminar flow 353.7 Flow rate of a Bingham magma 393.8 Intrusion rates of turbulent magma 413.9 Flow through a porous medium 413.10 Channel flow 433.11 Diapiric intrusion of magma 453.12 Factors in source affecting the supply of magma 473.13 Evidence of flow in rocks 483.14 Problems 50

    4 Forms of igneous bodies 524.1 Introduction 52Extrusive bodies 524.2 Flood basalts 524.3 Central volcanoes 594.4 Pyroclastic deposits and calderas 73Intrusive bodies 774.5 General statement 774.6 Volcanic necks 80

    vii

    www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-88006-0 - Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Second EditionAnthony R. Philpotts and Jay J. AgueFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9780521880060http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • 4.7 Dikes and sills 804.8 Ring dikes, cone sheets, and caldron subsidence 864.9 Diatreme breccia pipes 894.10 Laccoliths 934.11 Lopoliths and layered intrusions 954.12 Stocks 994.13 Batholiths 1014.14 Problems 108

    5 Cooling of igneous bodies and other diffusion processes 1115.1 Introduction 1115.2 General theory of heat conduction 1125.3 Heat conduction across a plane contact 1135.4 Numerical analysis 1175.5 Cooling by radiation 1215.6 Diffusion 1235.7 Problems 128

    6 Classification of igneous rocks 1306.1 Introduction 1306.2 Mode and norm 1336.3 CIPW norm calculation 1346.4 MELTS program and normative minerals 1366.5 General classification terms 1376.6 IUGS classification of plutonic igneous rocks 1376.7 IUGS classification of volcanic and hypabyssal rocks 1396.8 The IrvineBaragar classification of volcanic rocks 1436.9 Igneous rock names 1466.10 Chemical discriminants of rock types 1476.11 Problems 148

    7 Introduction to thermodynamics 1497.1 Introduction 1497.2 Energy in the form of heat and work 1497.3 First law of thermodynamics 1517.4 Standard heats of formation 1527.5 Second law of thermodynamics 1567.6 Entropy 1577.7 Third law of thermodynamics and the measurement of entropy 1587.8 Gibbs equation

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