Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro

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<ul><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 1/36</p><p>n ~ c h</p><p>CO 'JVER 10'1 FACTORS '</p><p>1 rt o.lO.tX m = 12 tn - mile 52XO - nautical mllc/6076= km f.I2X I</p><p>1 111 2X I It 19.17 tn km 1000 - 100 em - 1000 mmn11cron . = 106 JW l - 1011 nm - 1010 A</p><p>I Ibm ~ \ i l ) J short tonf20 X l long ton/2240 = 16 01 (a v.)</p><p>Font:</p><p>Vulunu.:</p><p>.. t . q ~ y</p><p>14.5X ot (troy) metnc ton (tonnc)/2204 .6 3 = 7000 grain .&gt;lug 12.2</p><p>1 kJ : 2 2046 lhm = I000 g (metric ton or tonne or Mg)/ I 000</p><p>1 lbf 4.44X2 N 12.2 Ibm It/'&gt; = 12.2 po undal =0 .4536 J g lIN kg / - . = I O d y n kgf/9.X I 0 224H lbf</p><p>I ft 1 0.02X1 1 m 1 2 U l l i tcrs= 7 .4 X U.S. gallons6.2' Impe rial ga llo ns= acre ft / 4 3 560</p><p>I U.S. gallon 21 1 in .1 - barrel (petrolc um) / 4 2 = 4 U.S. qua rtsX U.S. pints 3.7X5 lit e rs - 0 .003785 m1</p><p>I m 1 1000 liter '&gt;- 15.29 ft 1</p><p>I Blu 105'i J 1.055 J w s - 2.93 x I0 4 J wh = 252 cal9 ~ fl lbf - J.93 X \ () 4 hp h</p><p>I .J m W ., v o lt coulomb = 9 .4 H x 10 4 Btu- 0.239 cal 10- erg - 6.24 x 101H e lec tron vo lts</p><p> I e M ~ \,tluc' . u ~ mmtl) rounded rhc rc arc sC\c ra l dchnlli Oil \ fo r \omc of thc&gt;c (jUantlli cs. e.g . theBtu .md the </p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 2/36</p><p>1 hp ~ ~ 0 It lbf/'&gt; = :n lXXl t lbf/rmn 2)4 c Btu/h 0 ~ 4 h \\'I W J/'&gt; m/-. = \Oit ampac I '4 x 10 1 hp 0 ~ ~ l l l &lt; l l . &gt;</p><p>9 49 x 10 Btu/ -.l1rt \ \Ur t :</p><p>I utm IOI.HPa 1.013 bar 14 .696lhf/in . \ \ X91t lll 11att:r29.92 rocheCO lity:</p><p>I C&gt; 0.01 o k e 0.0 I cm' ; , 10 11 m'/-. I cp/( g nn 1l</p><p>l'emp erature:K</p><p>I OX x 10 ft1/ . cp/(CJ2.4 1hm/lt 1</p><p>C + 27115 = R I.Xr +4'i9.67 = I.X K</p><p>( oncentrutlon (ppm ):I X ( ' </p><p>In the arr pollutron IHcraturc and 111 th \ b o o ~ ppm .tpplu.:tl to a : "' ,d\1-.t\..,mean' pan' per mrllron h} 1olumc or b) mol l'hc'&gt;C arc ttkntK.d lor .m tdcal ga ...nd tdcnl cal for mo'&gt;t ga'e ' ol atr pollutrnn Hllcrc'&gt;l at I atm prc .. ,urc.:Ppm apphed to a hqutd or \oltd mean' pan' per mtllwn ~ m,,,,</p><p>For perfec t ga\e'&gt; at I atm and 2 i C I ppm (40 X7 llctghl)1g/m1Common l nit</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 3/36</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 4/36</p><p> IRPOLLUTIONONTROL</p><p>ENGINEERING~ t o m h inton</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 5/36</p><p> oHr oto A catalytic converter for a small trucJ.., sec chapter 13. Those fixautos arc smaller. normally havi ng only one or two honeycomb catalyst u n i t ~ inplace of the three -.h1mn here. The )\ygen sensor is inse rted in the in let pipePhoto courtesy of I n111ctt n a on mental l ech Co.John J Mooney and Carl D. Keith ~ h r c d the 2002 National Medal of Technology awaad from the U.S. go crnmcnt for tiH.: ir deve lopment of th is type of catalys t \vhalc worJ..ang I.Jr l: ngclhard. I he mil lions of these de vices on autos andlluc have grca tl&gt; 11nprovcd the air quality in the large c ities of thc United l e ~.tnatmg about 19XI and many other coun tries sinee then. Iryo u li ve in such a cityyour peNHllll hl. alth presumably imprO\ ed beca use o f th ese dev ices.</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 6/36</p><p> IRPOLLUTIONONTROLENGINEERING</p><p>econd Edition</p><p>oel de eversniversity of tuh</p><p>WAVElAND</p><p>PRESS INC.Lon).l orovt. lllnlOI</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 7/36</p><p>I IH tntormation abou t this book, co ntac t:\\u\ eland Press. Inc.41 XO II Route XJ. Sui te I 0 I1 011 (iroH:. 11 60047-95 </p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 8/36</p><p> BOUTTH UTHOR</p><p>Noel de Never received a B . from Ianford U n i v e r ~ i t y in 1954. and M.S. andPh .D. degrees from the University of Michigan in 1956 and 1959 all in chemicalengineering .</p><p>Hew rked for the research arms of what is now called the Chevron Oil om pany from 1958 to 1963 in the areas of chemical proces:-. development. chemicaland refin ry pr cess design. and secondary recovery of petroleum. lit.: has been onthe faculty of the University of tah from 1963 to the present in the I cpartment ofChemical and uel s ngineering.</p><p>He has w rked for the National Reactor Testing , ite. Idaho ~ a i l s Idaho. onnucl ar pr blems; for the U. . Army I larry Diamond Laboratory. W a ~ h i n DC.on weap ns; and for the ffice of Air Programs of the . . . EPA in Durham. NC. onair polluti n.H was a ulbright student of hemi a l Engineering at the Technical Univer</p><p>~ i t y of Karlsruhe, West ermany. in 195 1955 ;a fulbrightlectureron Air Pollutionat the niver idad del Valle, in ali. Colombia, in the :-.ummer of 1974; and th enat the niver. idad de Ia Republica . Montevideo, ruguay. and at the Univer:-.idadaciona l Mar del Plata , Argentina , in autumn 1996.</p><p>lie was a member of the tah Air onservation 'ommi ttcc (t he state ' '. airpoll uti n ntr I b ard) fr m 1972 to 19R4 and its chair in 19 0 19H4 . lie 'oervedon the tah overnor's itiL.en Advisory Task Force on the Protection of Vi-,ibi1-6, the tah Legislature s Hat.ardous Waste a ~ k Force in 19HH the Utah</p><p>r's lean Air ommission in 19R9 1990. and the We stern Governor 's onrand anyon Visibility Transpo rt ommission iti;en\ Advisory Board,6.area of re earch and publication arc in nuid mechanic '., t h e r m o d y n a m i c ~ .</p><p>atr polluti n. techn logy and soci ty, energy and energy policy. and exp losions andhre</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 9/36</p><p> i ABOlff TilE AUTHOR</p><p>In 993 he received the Corcoran Award from the Chemical EngineeringDivi ion of the American Society for Engineering Education for the best paper( 'Pr duct in the Way ' Processes ) that year in hemical Engineering Education</p><p>ln addition to hi erious work he has three de Nevers's Laws in theMurphy ' Law s compilation, and won the title Poet Laureate of Jell-0 Salad atthe La t Annual Jell-0 Salad Festival in Salt Lake City in 1983.</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 10/36</p><p>2</p><p>ONTENTS</p><p>r face xviN tati n xv iiilntr du ti n to Air P llution ontrol11 me of the His tory of Air Pollution ontrol in th e nitedtales of America1 2 Wh y the uddcn Rise in Interest in 1969- 1970?I. Dirty Air Remova l or mi ss ion ont ro l?1.4 ne Problem or a amit y of Prob lem s?1.5 mi ss ions Transport,1.6 nits and tandards1.7 The Plan of This BookI. umm ary</p><p>ir llution Effec ts2. 1 ffec t of Air Pollution on I uman llea lth</p><p>2. 1.1 Animal Ex periments2. 1 2 hort-Term xpos ure of Iuman Volunt rs2. 1. Epidemiology2. 1.4 Reg ul ations to Pro tect Iuman ll ca lth2.2 Air Pollution Effec ts on Property2. Air P llution Effec ts on Vis ibi lity</p><p>2.4 umm ary</p><p>355791II</p><p>1313182 12 12627335</p><p>v</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 11/36</p><p>viii NTENTSAir Pollution Control Laws and RegulationsAir Pollution Control Philosophies 403.1 U S. Air Pollutio n Laws and Regulations 403.2 Air Pollution Control Philosophies 423.3 The Fo ur Philo ophies 433.3.1 The Emi ss ion Standard Philosophy 433 3 .2 The Air Quality Standard Philosophy 493 3 3 Emi ss ion Tax Philosophy 523 3 4 Cos t-Be ne fit Philosophy 553.4 Marke t Contro l and Emi ssion Rights 58.5 Pri ncipal U. . Air Pollution Laws 593.6 um mary 60</p><p>4 Air Pollution Measurements, Emission Estimates 634.1 A Representative Sample 644.2 Ge ttin g the Re pres entative Sample to the Detector 684.3 once ntrati o n Determination 6H4.4 Ave rag ing 694 5 tand ard Ana ly ti ca l Methods 7 14.6 Determining Po llutant Flow Rates 724.7 lso kinetic Sampling 734.8 miss ion Fac to rs 744.9 Visible Emiss io ns 774.10 umm ary 7X</p><p>5 Meteorol ogy for Air Pollution Control Engineers 8]5.1 The Atm osphere ~5.2 Horizo ntal Atmosphe ri c Motion H5.2.1 Eq uatoria l Heating, Polar Cooling H5.2.2 Th e ffec t of the Earths Rotation H65.2 3 Th e Influence of the Ground and the Sea H95.3 Vertica l Mo ti o n in the Atmosphere 905 3 .1 Air De nsity hange with Temperature and Humidity 905.3 2 Ai r De nsity hange with Pressure 9 15 3 Atmosphe ri lability 955 3 .4 Mi xing He ight 1005 3 .5 M is ture 1025.4 Winds 1065 4 .1 Veloc ities 1065.4.2 Win d Direc ti on 1075.5 Temperature Inversions l5. umiga tions, tagnati ons 2.7 Meteo rological Forecas ts 45. umm ary 4</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 12/36</p><p>404424343495255585960</p><p>63646868697 1727374777X</p><p>8]8388868990909 195100102106</p><p>106107l l</p><p>11 2(1 411 4</p><p>7</p><p>ir P llut nt oncentrati n Model 6.16.6.</p><p>6.4au sian Plume erivatio nme Modifi ation f the Baste tan Plume quuuon</p><p>6.5 Long-Tenn Average ses f aussiun Plume Mooeb6.6 P llutnnt rea tion and.7 Multiple ell Mod IRe ept r- riented and ur e- riented Air Pollution Model\ther T pi s6 I Building Wakes. .2 Aerodyn ami D wnwa h6.9.3 Transport Distances6 .4 Initial Dispersion6 5 EPA -Re ommended Models.10 ummary</p><p>r Idea in Air P lluti n ontrol7 I Alt ernatives</p><p>7.I. I Improve Dispers ion7. 1. 2 Redu e Emi ss ions by Process hangc, Po llut iO n Preve ntion7 I. Usc a Down stream P llution ontrol Device7.2 Re urce Recovery7. The Ultimate Fate f P llutants7.4 Designin g Air Pollution ntrol ys tcms and Eq uipment7.4 .1 Air Pollution ontro l quipmcnt os ts7.5 uid Yeloc itic in Air Pollution ontrol Equi pment7. Minimi zing Volumetric Flow Rate und r c ~ s Drop7.7 ffi iency, Penetration . Nin s7. H m ge ne us and Nonhomoge n Pollu tant \7. Ba ing al ulation s on lnen Flowratc\7.10 mbu Lion7 I 0.1 What Burn s?7.10.2 Hea t of ombusti on</p><p>7. 10.3 xplosive or ombustible imits7 I0.4 Equilibrium in ombustion Reac ti ons7.10 .5 ombusti n Kinetics. Burning Rate &gt;7.10.6 Mixing in ombu s tion Reactions7.10.7 Flame Temperature7.10.8 ombu tion Time7.10.9 Th e Volume and ompos it ion of n Products7.11 hanging Volumetric I w Rates</p><p>I I I11912012612612I 7t-n14l14414614814914914915015015 1152</p><p>16016016016 i16616616716H16817017 117117517617717 l17 l17 lIH182ll318418819 1194</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 13/36</p><p>X CONTENTS</p><p>7.12 Acid Dew Point7.13 Catalys ts for Air Pollution Control7. 14 Summary</p><p>8 The Nature of Particulate Pollutants</p><p>9</p><p>10</p><p>8.1 Primary and Secondary Particulates8.2 Sett ling Velocity and Drag Forces</p><p>8.2. 1 Stokes Law8.2.2 Particles Too Large for Stokes Law8.2.3 Par ticles Too Small for Stokes Law8.2.4 Stokes Stopping Distance8.2.5 Aerodynamic Particle Diameter8.2.6 Diffusion of Particles8.3 Particle Size Distribution Functions8.3. 1 A Very Simple Example: The Population of the United</p><p>States8.3.2 The Gaussian, or Normal, Distribution8.3.3 The Log-Normal Distribution8.3.4 Distributions by Weight and by Number</p><p>8.4 Behavior of Particles in the AtmosphereK.5 Summary</p><p>ontrol of Primary Particulates9.1 Wall o llec tion Devices</p><p>9 . I . I Gravity Settlers9. 1.2 e ntrifugal Separators9 . 1.3 Elec tros tatic Prec ipitators (ESP)92 Dividing o llec tion Devices9.2. 1 ur face Filters9 .2.2 Depth Filters9.2 .3 Fi lter Medi a9.2.4 Scrubbers for Particulate Control9 1 Choosing a o llector</p><p>l 4 Summary</p><p>ontrol of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)I0.1 Vapor Pressure. Eq uilibrium Vapor Content Evapo t10 2 YO s ra1onI 0</p><p>104</p><p>Control by PreventionI0 .3. 1 Subst itutionIO.l .2 Process Modification10.3.3 Leakage ControlControl by Concentration and Recovery10.4. I Condensation</p><p>20920921621721922222)2 262 26227</p><p>24l)2.J</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 14/36</p><p>l l</p><p>(horpuonb'orpuon ( \:ruhh111g J105 1dauon'ombu,uon (lnwJc:ratton 1</p><p>Bwloglcul Oxldiltton tHiohltr.l ton)106 The Mobtle ourc.:e Problem10 7 h -.1ng u ontrol T c : d 1 n o l o ~10 ummury</p><p>ntrol f ulfur i d e ~11.1 Elementury 0 1dntton Reduction Chenmtry ol SulfurttrogenII 2 cr 1ew of the Sullur ProolcrnII Th Rem val of Reduced Sulfur Compouml\ from Pcttokun1</p><p>and uturul Gu-. Stream'II I The \es and Lnuttatton' of Ab,orher' and Stnpperfor A1r Pollutton Control11 32 ulfur Removal from I lydnx:nroon'.4 Removul of 0 2 from Rtch Wa,tc Ga c</p><p>11 5 R m val of from Lean Wa,tc (J; c'11 5 1 orced Oxtdatton Llntc,tonc Wet Sc.:ruhhcr'11 52 thcr Approad1c'</p><p>11 6 It mauve to "Burn and Then Scn1b"11 6 1 hangc to .t Lower Sultu1 Content htcl11 62 Remove Sullur from thl h1cl11 6 Mod1fy the Comhu't1on I HX:C\\11 6 4 Don ' t Burn ut All</p><p>II 7 ummary</p><p>12 ntr I f Nitro en Oxides12 An vcrv1cw of the N1trogcn 0 1dc l'rohkn1</p><p>12 11 'ompun,onwlthSulfurO 1dc'1212 Rcactl\lll\ 111 the Atmo,phcrt1213 and N0 1 Fqutl1hnum121 4 Thcmlttl, Prompt. .tnd h1cl 0</p><p>122 Th rmal122 1 The Zcldov1d1 Ktnt'tl l of lhcrm .tl 0 h1r111.1tton1222 l lcating and Cooling f'11ne'</p><p>12J 012 412 5 on ombu,tton Source' of ltroj. Cil 0 tdc'12 ntrol of 1trogcn Oxtdc hnl\\1011'</p><p>12 I 1trogcn Ox1dc Control hv Comhu't1on M4-lX4 X</p><p>1.m</p><p>II&gt; I41&gt;241&gt;4</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 15/36</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 16/36</p><p>15.4 Indoor Air Pollution15.4.1 Indoor and Outdoor15 .4.2 Models15.4.3 Control of In door Air Quality15.5 The Radon Problem</p><p>15 .6 ummary</p><p>App ndixeU eful ValueA. l Value of the Uni versal Gas o n ~ t n tA.2 Vapor Pre sure Equations</p><p>B Table of AcronymsC Fuel</p><p>. I Where Fuels Come From How They Burn</p><p>.2 Natural Gas</p><p>.3 Liquid Petroleum Gas Propane and ButaneC.4 Liquid Fuels</p><p>.5 Solid Fuels.6 omparing Fuel Prices and m o</p><p>D Elementary Chemistry of Ozone ProductionE Ad orber Breakthrough TimeF An wers to Selected Prob lems</p><p>Index</p><p>CO I TIXTS x</p><p>54:254254454 755055 :</p><p>558558558558</p><p>560562562563564565566569</p><p>57 1574580582</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 17/36</p><p> ~ P ~ R ~ E m F A E</p><p>1ht ' b</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 18/36</p><p>1'1111-.t I \ '</p><p>h all the.: prohh:m,, to &gt;t:t: \\here more complc.:\ .mu complc.:tc1 tm nl\ re eith r d -.cnhc.:d or rekrrcd 10 In man; p act'' 111 the t&gt;ooJ.. there arc1 re liOn not dir tl appllcahlc to atr pollutton and prohh:m' not d t r e ~ t l ; rdatcd</p><p>1 tr polluti n. m of thc.: c.: an: there hc.:cau c : the.:} &gt;hll\\ lntc:re,llng r c : l &lt; ~ t e t l t e c hnt al ues that do not appl dm:ctly to a1r pollutwn o t H m l luH:Iude tht &gt;t t&gt;c.:cau &gt;cI thtnJ.. th y help stud nt-. hutld mental hndgc.:-. to other part\ olther (XT &gt;OrHtl expc.:n o .The more the &gt;ludent-. an: ahh: llllnl grate the ne11 111lonnatron 111 tim h o o ~iot 1 th tr i ~ t i n g knowledge ha &gt;e hy &gt;Uch o c t t o n the more; the) .tre to</p><p>1 10 it und able to u' 11.I will be very grateful to reader' \\ho fXltnt out to me typo raph11. error,,10 rre 1equa tion numh r &gt;, incorrect figure number,, or ' npl; error' ol any ~ t n dU herr rswillb Orr Cletlt11 lntheWlOildttllllllll</p><p>lhav triedtoupdal t h o ~ c pat1' that change wllh tune (e g . regulation, , atnw,phenctrend , c ntroltcchn lo y) I have added a few more exampb und J11llhkm' l hen.:1 m r rgan ilution of o p i c ~ . in rc.:,pon &gt;c to r ad r uggc.,llon &gt; . I thanJ.. all thetutl ots, fa ulty, and other\ who have po1111ed out e1 ro ot po01 explanatlllll'&gt; 111 the</p><p>h r ~ diti n. Thos who cri ticitc you111 a &gt;Oil v o ~ 111 p11va1e ate yo lnemkOt / cit 1 \ t f\</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Air Pollution Control: Chapter 1, Intro</p><p> 19/36</p><p> mbol</p><p>AAA</p><p>II .A I</p><p>I I C A'',.</p><p>(</p><p>J( .I</p><p>[l/</p><p>nr po</p><p>rief descriptioncoa l ash con ten tareaurea of city I.</p><p>n ~ a n t n Anto in e eq uationcon\lant in Arrhenius equa ti on</p><p>(some times cu lled freq uencyfactor )</p><p>t ~ o t u n t n unningh m correc onfactoraccclcru tion</p><p>leng th parumc tcrmo translcr urea per unit volumechcnucnl species in reac...</p></li></ul>


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