Administration and management of education: the challenges faced

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  • International Institute for Educational Planning

    XXVth Anniversary Workshop

    Booklet N o . 2

    Administration and management of

    education: the challenges faced

    Edited by Franoise Caillods

    with contributions by

    Benno Sander and Peter Murphy

    Institut international de planification de l'ducation

    Atelier du XXVe anniversaire

    Cahier N o . 2

    Administration et gestion de l'ducation :

    un dfi relever

    sous la responsabilit de Franoise Caillods

    avec les contributions de

    Benno Sander et Peter Murphy

  • Administration et gestion de l'ducation: un dfi relever Administration and management of education: the challenges faced

  • The views and opinions expressed in this booklet are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Unesco/IIEP or of the organizations with which the authors are associated. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this booklet do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Unesco or H E P concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.

    The costs of this booklet have been covered through a grant-in-aid offered by Unesco and voluntary contributions made by several M e m b e r States of Unesco, the list of which will be found on the inside back cover ot this booklet.

    This booklet has been typeset using Unesco's computer facilities and the Waterloo "Script" documentation-composition program. Copies have been printed and bound in IIEP:s printshop.

    International Institute for Educational Planning, 7 - 9 rue Eugne-Delacroix, 75116 Paris

    Unesco 1989

  • Preface

    W h e n the International Institute for Educational Planning was created as part of Unesco 25 years ago, the world was experiencing unprecedented economic growth and educational development. Numerous nations, many of which had just w o n their independence, decided to expand their school systems quickly for the purpose of fostering economic development and equality of opportunity. T o guide and plan for such expansion, most countries then set up one or several planning units which were principally assigned the task of making esti-mates of their economies' skilled manpower requirements and planning the h u m a n , physical and financial resources needed for education.

    S o m e 25 years later, the economic crisis has thoroughly altered the international and national scene. The debt of developing nations has risen sharply. Each country n o w finds itself with m u c h more limited resources than previously, and the educational sector more difficult to manage. Several developing countries are wrestling with the problems of scarce resources precisely at a time when a runaway increase in population, inadequate enrolment levels, and persistent disparities between social groups, regions and the genders keep the needs at an urgent level. Yet, since the economic crisis has aggravated the problems of unemployment, the role of education itself as a driving force for growth and development and a key factor in promoting equal opportu-nity has been brought into question. After watching so many excessive hopes get dashed, a number of countries are questioning the extent to which public funds should be devoted to education. Even the activity of educational planning, formerly regarded as the main instrument for managing educational policy, is being challenged. Countries are doubting the wisdom of planning at a time when there is little or no expansion to manage. Planning units are having more and more diffi-culty defining their role with respect to their central government admin-istration the mainstay of routine school management they find it harder also to influence educational policy. Finally, from the theoret-ical standpoint, a growing number of people are inclined to find fault with States that play a dominant role in education, and suggest that market forces be allowed to regulate flows.


  • Administration and management of education: the challenges faced

    O n the occasion of its X X V t h anniversary celebration, the Institute could not fail to consider the future of educational planning worldwide and to review the specific opportunities it has for its future programme. Since its inception, after all, its training and research activities have been designed to reflect the historical development of ideas, approaches and methods in the field of educational planning. T o that end, the Institute has had to monitor events and adapt to changing trends and new problems in the development of education throughout the world. In this spirit, it organized an international workshop at the end of 1988, bringing together some 90 researchers, planners, aid agency represen-tees and other specialists from all ideological, political and social hori-zons. This workshop tackled a large number of topics, including the impact of economic and social change on education in various parts of the world, educational planning practices and prospects, and major problems in education, such as difficulties in financing, the decline in the quality of education, the administration of education, the relation-ship between education and employment, and the theoretical debate concerning the role of education in development and society at large.

    The workshop offered the occasion for intense discussion, and clearly demonstrated that educational problems are encountered in all countries. M a n y c o m m o n concerns were voiced, including worry about the decline in educational standards in some countries, the obligation of devising new ways to finance education, the need to grant more autonomy to individual schools, the necessity of paying more attention to policy implementation strategies, the requirement of handling the apparently paradoxical problems of the under-education and over-education of the labour force, etc. Never have the urgencies and priori-ties in education been felt so unanimously. Educational planning should be transformed so as to confront these issues with due rigour and imagination while continuing to provide a frame of coherence and a vision of the future of education.

    S o m e 40 original papers were presented and discussed during the proceedings. The richness and diversity of these contributions made it extremely hard to select only a few of them for publication. A summary of the discussions and conclusions of the workshop, together with a number of these contributions, are published in a volume in English and French entitled "The prospects for educational planning". Other contributions are grouped by subject matter in a special series of X X V t h Anniversary documents. This series deals with educational


  • Booklet No.2

    administration and management. O n e of the main problems of educa-tional planning is the implementation of plans through the administra-tive mechanisms. The two contributions published here examine the administrative procedures of some countries on a structural level and put forward suggestions as to h o w educational management could be improved.

    The task of reflecting on the future of educational planning is not complete. The workshop identified a number of avenues for further research which have given the Institute inspiration in preparing its programme of activities for its new Med ium-Te rm Plan.

    Finally, w e wish to thank the German Foundation for International Development for the financial support it so kindly provided for this workshop.

    Jacques Hallak Director


  • Booklei No.2


    Management and administration of educational systems: major issues and trends

    by Benno Sander

    Educational systems and administrative practices vary a m o n g coun-tries. The paper analyses the diverse management practices in educa-tion as a basis for developing a generalized conceptual framework for educational administration.

    T h e experience of Latin American countries shows that the prac-tice of educational administration closely follows the nature of govern-mental involvement in education on the one hand and the pattern of public administration on the other. The changes in the educational policies have resulted in changes in administrative practices and criteria.

    Historically, education followed a centralizing model in Latin America. Of late decentralization is accepted by different governments. However , Latin American nations have adopted different forms of decentralization in education. Given the diverse patterns of decentrali-zation in education, the author feels that a debate on this issue should draw a distinction between educational policy and administrative prac-tices. Educational policy should be national and hence centralized whereas educational administration can be decentralized. Moreover, participatory democracy as a form of administrative mediation is more important than centralizing or decentralizing the system.

    Based on the Latin American experience the author conceptualizes a "Multi-dimensional paradigm of educational administration" which takes into account inter-relatedness of administrative functions, multi-cultural and cross-cultural dimensions of the educational process. The precondition for such an administrative system is collective participation as a political strategy which will replace the existing institutionalized authoritarianism of the bureaucratic structure and the dogmatic actions of the minorities.


  • Administration and management of education: the challenges faced

    Les systmes ducatifs et les pratiques administratives diffrent selon les pays. Le document analyse les diffrentes pratiques de gestion de l'ducation servant de base la mise au point d'un cadre conceptuel gnralis applicable l'administration de l'ducation.

    L'exprience des pays d'Amrique latine montre que la pratique de l'administration de l'ducation suit de prs la nature de la participation du gouvernement l'ducation, d'une part, et la structure de l'adminis-tration publique, de l'autre. Les changements intervenus dans les poli-tiques ducatives ont donn lieu des changements dans les pratiques et les critres administratifs.

    Historiquement, en Amrique latine, l'ducation a suivi un modle de centralisation. Plus rcemment, la dcentralisation est accepte par divers gouvernements. Cependant, les nations latino-amricaines ont adopt des formes diffrentes de dcentralisation de l'ducation. Etant donn les structures diverses de la dcentralisation de l'ducation, l'au-teur considre qu'un dbat sur cette question devrait faire la distinction entre la politique ducative et les pratiques administratives. La politique ducative devrait tre caractre national et donc centralise alors que l'administration de l'ducation devrait tre dcentralise. En outre, la dmocratie participative, en tant que forme de mdiation administrative, est plus importante que la centralisation ou la dcentralisation du systme.

    Sur la base de l'exprience latino-amricaine, l'auteur conceptualise un paradigme multidimensional de l'administration de l'ducation qui tient compte de Vinterrelation entre les fonctions administratives, et des dimensions multiculturelles et transculturelles du processus administratif. La condition pralable de ce systme administratif est constitue par la participation collective en tant que stratgie participative qui remplacera l'autoritarisme institutionnalis actuel de la structure bureaucratique et les actions dogmatiques des minorits.


  • Booklet No.2

    Collaborative school management : small within big is beautiful

    by Peter Murphy

    O f recent, emphasis is being shifted from more resources to educa-tion to better and effective utilization of resources in education. Decentralization of the system and greater autonomy and accountability by the institutions are important for this.

    Decentralization of school management is reflected through the efforts towards collaborative management systems in Canada. In this system, the parents and society participate in the governance of schools and it will lead to an improvement in the quality of education imparted.

    Implications: structured form of community participation is impor-tant. Parent-teacher associations are to be formed in all schools, and this needs to get institutionalized in the long run.

    Rcemment, l'accent a gliss du concept des ressources accrues consacres l'ducation vers celui d'une utilisation meilleure et plus effi-cace des ressources de l'ducation. Une dcentralisation du systme, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande responsabilit incombant aux institutions sont importantes cet effet.

    La dcentralisation de la gestion des coles est reflte dans les efforts effectus au Canada vers des systmes de gestion en collaboration. Dans ce systme, les parents et la socit participent la gestion des coles et ceci doit conduire une amlioration de la qualit de l'duca-tion impartie.

    Les consquences pour l'ducation : la forme structure de partici-pation de la collectivit est importante. Les associations parents-enseignants doivent tre formes dans toutes les coles et ceci devra tre institutionnalis long terme.


  • Contents

    Chapter 1 Management and administration of educational systems: major issues and trends by Benno Sander 1

    Chapter 2 Collaborative school management: small within big is beautiful by Peter Murphy 39


  • Chapter 1

    Management and administration of

    educational systems: major issues and


    Benno Sander1


    T h e purpose of this Chapter is to undertake an examination of the administrative theories and practices adopted in contemporary educa-tion. Special reference is m a d e to developing nations within the context of international relations. A case to be pointed out is that of Latin America.

    Bearing in mind the reconstruction of the historical evolution of educational administrative thought, some practical issues are examined, such as: government and educational administration; changes in educa-tional policies and administrative criteria; assumptions behind and effects of centralization and decentralization; and the training of educa-tional administrators. This Chapter concludes with an introductory debate concerning prospective conceptual and praxeological trends in educational administration. In this context, considerable space is assigned to cross-cultural co-operation and to the arguments of partici-patory administration in the field of education.

    T h e first concern of this Chapter is to establish guiding principles and criteria for the study of educational administration in different economic, political and cultural contexts. This concern is linked to a defined intellectual position, which implies a concrete commitment to

    1 Benno Sander is Resident Representative of the Organisation of American States in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and President of the Inter-American Society of Educational Administration.


  • Administration and management of education: the challenges faced

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