A study of algal species

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<p> 1. A study of algal species with some water parameters in three springs within Gali Ali-bag valley By Shoreh Sh. Yaseen Mahmoud Kh. Mahmoud Supervised by Balqis H. Rasul Kurdistan Regional Government Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Soran University Faculty of Science-Biology Department 28 May 2015 Thursday 2715 2. Introduction Algae are micro and macroorganisms living as Tychplankton (epipelic, epilithic, epiphytic) and Phytoplankton which are mostly photosynthetic green plants. They are found in unicellular, colonial, coenobic, and filamentous forms. Many types of classification have been made each based on specific and comprehensive morphological and cytological characteristics. The benefit of algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystem, using as a food in meal , used for biofuel, antibiotic, water purification , soil fertilization and others. Springs are groundwater rises to the surface through rock faults, fractures or depressions. Springs are formally defined as points of natural, concentrated discharge of groundwater at a rate high enough to maintain flow on the surface. 3. Materials and methods: Field and sample collection: Water samples were collected from three spring sites in Gali Ali bag valley monthly from October till December 2014, for physical, chemical and biological analysis. Altitude: The altitude of each sites was measured by a portable Global Positional system (GPS; model Garmin). Physical and chemical studies: Generally physical and chemical water properties in the lab was carried out according to (APHA, 1999). 4. B Figure A. Map of Iraq B. Map of studied area shows the sampling sites A 5. Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Microscope calibration with their magnifications 6. Temperature: Using a precision glass mercury thermometer (0-50C) Hydrogen ion concentration (pH): Hydrogen ion concentration was measured directly in the field by electrometric method using portable pH-meter. Specific Electrical conductivity (EC): The electrical conductivity of water samples was measured in the field directly using a portable EC meter. 7. Total Alkalinity: Total alkalinity was estimated in the laboratory using titration method. { Alkalinity as mg.CaCO3.l-1 = A*B*50000/ml.sample } Where: A= ml. of standard acid B= normality of standard acid (0.02 N) Total Acidity: Acidity was determined by titration method. { Acidity as mg.CaCO3.l-1 = A* B* 50000/ml of sample. } Where: A= ml of standard NaOH titrant used B= normality of standard NaOH (0.02 N) Chloride It was determined by Argentometric method using silver nitrate titrant. { mg.l-1 = (A-B) * N * 35450/ml of sample } Where: A= ml titration for sample, B= ml titration for blank, N= normality of AgNO3 8. Algal studies: Algal collection: Epilithic algae collection scraped from rocks by spatula and stored in vials 50 100 ml with its own spring water Photos and Measurements: Photos were taken with digital camera. Examination of algae were made with an Olympus ocular micrometer Preservation of Algae: Each samples were preserved in Lugols solution, added 0.7ml of solution to 100ml of sample. Saturated solution of blue CuSO4 was prepared and adding a few drops of it to the sample for remaining algal true colour Identification of Algae: Non-diatom algae were identified with the help of available literature Prescott (1970), Lind and Brook (1980), Bold and Whyne (1985), Bando et al., (1989), Komark and Anagnostidis (2005), and (John et al., 2011). 9. Results 10. : : a 1 2 11. 1 12. 2 13. 3 14. 4 15. 5 16. 6 17. Division Classes Order Families Genus Species % Cyanophyta 1 3 4 7 14 56 Chlorophyta 3 4 4 4 9 36 Euglenophyta 1 1 1 1 2 8 Total 5 8 9 12 25 100 Table : The total number of non-diatom algal species recorded during the studied period in the studied sites with their percentage (%). 3 18. Table : The total number of non-diatom algal species with their percentage (%) from the total recorded during the period study. Genera No. of species Percentage % Aphanocapsa sp. 1 4 Merismopedia sp. 1 4 Lyngbya sp. 1 4 Oscilltoria sp. . 6 24 Phormidium sp. 2 8 Spirulina sp. 2 8 Nostoc sp. 1 4 Ulothrix sp. 2 8 Spirogyra sp. 3 12 Cladophora sp. 2 8 Oedogonium sp. 2 8 Euglena sp. 2 8 Total 25 100 4 19. Division: Cyanophyta Class: Cyanophyceae Order: Chroococcales Family: Chroococcacea Aphanocapsa Naegeli, 1849. Aphanocapsa elachista West and West Merismopedia Meyen, 1889. Merismopedia convolutade Breb. Order: Oscillatoriales Family : Oscillatoriaceae Lyngbya Agardh, 1824. Lyngbya connectens (Beuhl)Lyengar. Oscilltoria Vaucher, 1892 Oscilltoria articulata Gardner Oscilltoria curviceps (Ag.) Gomont. Oscilltoria lemosa (Ag.) Gomont. Oscilltoria nigra Vauch. Oscilltoria obscura Bruhl et. Biswas. Oscilltoria okeini (Ag.) Gomont. Family: Phormidiaceae Phormidium Kuetzing, 1843. Phormidium anomala C. B. Rao Phormidium calcicola Gardner Spirulina Tupinem. Gardner, 1827. Spirulina major Kuetz. ex. Gomont. Spirulina subsalsa Oerst. ex. Gomont. Order: Nostocales Family: Nostocaceae Nostoc Vaucher, 1903. Nostoc carneuam (Ag.) Born. Division: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Codiolales Family: Codiolaceae Ulothrix Kuetzing, 1833. Ulothrix cylindricum Precott. Ulothrix zonata (Weber &amp; Mohr.) Kuetz. 20. Class: Zygnematophyceae Order: Zygnematales Family: Zygnemataceae Spirogyra Link, 1820. Spirogyra communis (Hass.) Kuetz. Spirogyra singularis Nords Spirogyra fallax (Hansg.) will. Class: Cladophorophyceae Order: Cladophorales Family: Cladophoraceae Cladophora Kuetzing, 1843. Cladophora fractavar. normalisRabh. Ex Heer. Cladophora glomeratat (L.) Kuetz. Order: Oedogoniales Family:Oedogoniaceae Oedogonium Link, 1820. Oedogonium angustatum (Wittr.) Tiff. Oedogonium automnale Wittr. Division: Euglenophyta Class: Euglenophyceae Order: Euglenales Family: Euglenaceae Euglena Ehrenberg, 1838. Euglena elastica Presc. Euglena gracilis Klebs 21. Conclusion The hydrogen ion concentration pH was in alkaline side of neutrality. The studied spring sites were thermostatic with a fluctuation of 1C. The alkalinity of the studied areas was mainly composed of bicarbonate alkalinity. A total of 25 non diatom algal species belong to 3 divisions, 5 classes, 8 orders, 9 families, 12 genera were identified. The high number of species per genus were Oscilltoriae and Spirogyra with 6 and 3 species respectively. 22. Recommendation: Conducting studies on water quality in addition to heavy metals, and hydrocarbons, especially for those springs that used by peoples for drinking purposes to ensure their potability. More studies on microalgae including toxicity and ecological variables. 23. Thank You </p>

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