A Field Trip Guide: The Geology of Building Stones in Metropolitan Areas

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [University of Birmingham]On: 14 November 2014, At: 09:04Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Science Activities: Classroom Projects and CurriculumIdeasPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsca20</p><p>A Field Trip Guide: The Geology of Building Stones inMetropolitan AreasPamela C. Peebles &amp; Gerald H. Johnson aa Geology Department , College of William and Mary , USAPublished online: 30 Jul 2010.</p><p>To cite this article: Pamela C. Peebles &amp; Gerald H. Johnson (1984) A Field Trip Guide: The Geology of BuildingStones in Metropolitan Areas, Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 21:3, 19-26, DOI:10.1080/00368121.1984.9957990</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00368121.1984.9957990</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsca20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/00368121.1984.9957990http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00368121.1984.9957990http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>A Field TriD </p><p>3tones TheGeologPof B d d n g in Metropolitan Areas </p><p>PAMELA C. PEEBLES GERALD t i . JOHNSON </p><p>PAMELA PEEBLES recently graduated from the School of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. She has taught earth science at the high school level, geology at the college level, and given lectures and field trips. She has also prepared field trip guidebooks and activity plans for earth science teachers. GERALD JOHNSON teaches in the geology depart- ment of the College of William and Mary. In addi- tion, he lectures and arranges field trips for elemen- tary, high school, and college students and profes- sional groups. He has prepared field trip guidebooks and activity plans for earth science teachers and professional organizations. </p><p>Exciting opportunities for students to extend their study of earth science beyond the classroom lie in field trips to local buildings. Students have the op- portunity to explore the uses of geological materials, observe a variety of rock types and assess their weathering characteristics, and review important concepts. Walking tours may vary from less than one hour within the school building to several hours in a metropolitan area with visits to many buildings. </p><p>As in any field trip, the teacher or field trip leader should set guidelines for student behavior, safety, and needs. Metropolitan areas usually have heavy traffic; therefore, students must take care when SCIENCE ACTIVITIES </p><p>crossing streets and gathering for group discussions and also be courteous in pedestrian traffic, yielding plenty of room for people to pass by on the side- walks. Students must be orderIy inside buildings. They may take photographs but must not deface or damage the buildings in any way. </p><p>By working in pairs or small teams, students can discuss their observations and help each other while working on various activities. Parents or school per- sonnel should participate in the field trip to lend guid- ance and encouragement and serve as chaperones. </p><p>Although metropolitan areas are usually acces- sible throughout the year, a walking field trip is more enjoyable during warm, dry weather. Students should wear comfortable clothing and walking shoes appropriate to the season. </p><p>The field trip leader should </p><p>establish a route in advance; make certain a parking area is nearby; obtain information on the location of public restrooms; locate eating facilities or an area where students may eat a brown bag lunch, if appropriate for the time of day the field trip is taken; depending on which activities will be performed, instruct students to bring some of the following materials: worksheets, a hand lens or magnifying glass, tracing paper, a ruler, pencils, note paper, graph paper, a camera; carry a first-aid kit. </p><p>SEPTEMBEWOCTOBER 1984 19 </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f B</p><p>irm</p><p>ingh</p><p>am] </p><p>at 0</p><p>9:04</p><p> 14 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>GEOLOGIC BACKGROUND </p><p>The rock cycle is a geologic concept which can serve as a unifying theme to place in perspective the types of geologic materials observed in buildings. Inquiry-oriented activities along with inquiry- oriented discussions of each geologic material pres- ent in the buildings visited allow students to think through the processes of rock formation, as mineral- ogy and texture are distinctive for each rock type. </p><p>Background information is available in all in- troductory geology textbooks. Also, see the Resources section following the activities for materials useful for this unit. </p><p>BUILDING MATERIALS </p><p>Building materials typically include both natural rocks, such as granite, sandstone, limestone, and slate, and processed geological materials, such as </p><p>* brick, concrete, asphalt, and crushed-stone ag- gregates. The use of these geological materials depends on their strength, durability, aesthetic qualities, cost, and availability. </p><p>Granite, sandstone, and limestone are often used for their strength as bearing walls. Rocks with in- terlocking grains, such as granite, and also sedimen- tary rocks with well-cemented grains are considered strong rocks because they resist crushing, fracturing, and cleaving. Foliated metamorphic rocks, however, are susceptible to cleaving, because the aligned minerals in these rocks possess planes of weakness. </p><p>The durability of a rock depends upon its resistance to weathering. This, in turn, depends upon how the rock is used in a building. Many ig- neous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are used as decorative dimension stone in buildings where steel constitutes the structural framework. The term dimension stone is used by architects and builders to denote a rock which is cut to specific shapes and sizes. Although chemical and physical stability of the dimension stone is not a factor deter- mining its use on walls or pillars inside a building, it is a factor when determining whether or not a par- ticular type of stone can be used on floors or on the outside wall of a building. </p><p>Granite is very durable because it is composed predominantly of quartz, K-feldspar, and Ca- feldspar. Gabbro is less durable than granite because it is predominantly composed of Ca-feldspar, am- phibole, and pyroxene; that is, the Ca, Fe, and M g which constitute a major fraction of the mineralogy of gabbro go into solution, rendering the rock less soluble than granite. This same principle applies to metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. </p><p>A durable rock is not necessarily aesthetically pleasing as a dimension stone. Of course, the con- verse is also true. Dimension stones used for </p><p>decorative purposes on the outside of buildings are, therefore, usually granite, gabbro, slate, limestone, and marble. However, some more unusual stones are also used, such as verde antique (a metamorphic rock) and travertine (a chemically precipitated sedimentary rock composed of CaCO,). </p><p>The preparation of dimension stone is also a factor relating to aesthetics. Certain stones, such as granite, travertine, and marble, are more aesthetically pleasing when they are polished. Others, such as various types of sandstone and clastic limestone, can be sculpted, pitted, grooved, and chiseled into artistic shapes. Slate is usually most attractive in its natural state. In general, sedimentary rocks are more easily prepared than ig- neous or metamorphic rocks, but as indicated above even granite is commonly polished, regardless of the fact that it is a very durable, hard rock to prepare. </p><p>Cost is obviously a determining factor concerning the choice of geologic materials to be used in buildings. Consequently, due to transportation ex- penses, the building stones used in a metropolitan area frequently reflect the proximity of sources for geologic materials. </p><p>Conversely, some geologic materials are used even though they occur only in specific geographic locations. For example, Salem limestone (also called Indiana limestone) can almost assuredly be found in buildings of most metropolitan areas since it is an ideal dimension stone: well cemented and thus strong, relatively cheap, easily shaped, and aesthet- ically pleasing. As the name suggests, this limestone is limited in geographic extent to Indiana and near- by states. Travertine, commonly used as a decora- tive dimension stone on the inside of buildings throughout the United States, also entertains widespread use; most of it is quarried in Italy. </p><p>Cost may dictate using geologic materials other than dimension stone. Such materials include brick, (clay minerals), cement (clay minerals and calcium- magnesium carbonates), concrete (cement, sand, and gravel), and crushed aggregate or pebbles set in- to a matrix of concrete or some other material. Fac- tories producing these materials may be located near metropolitan areas and serve as effective corollary field trips to show how raw geologic materials are processed. These processed geologic materials are usually less aesthetically pleasing and less durable than natural stone. </p><p>Crushed stone aggregates can consist of rocks which cannot be used as dimension stones. These in- clude rocks which are fractured, as well as metamor- phic rocks such as greenschist or gneiss. </p><p>Processed geologic products are also used as bond- ing materials between dimension stones: specific- ally, cement and mortar (sand and cement or gyp- sum). However, plastics and other manmade pro- </p><p>SE PT E M B E WOCTO B E R 1 984 20 SCIENCE ACTIVITIES </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f B</p><p>irm</p><p>ingh</p><p>am] </p><p>at 0</p><p>9:04</p><p> 14 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>ducts are becoming more widely used because they are more pliable and durable than cement and mor- tar. Thorough examination of building materials yields numerous metallic geologic products as well: metal tracks or frames, metal bolts and other hard- ware, and copper tubing or fixtures, to name only a few. </p><p>ACTIVITY WORKSHEETS Although students can learn a great deal about </p><p>rocks by merely observing and comparing building stones, associated classroom lessons prior to the field trip allow students greater insight to the the significance of geologic materials and their uses. Also, planned activities and worksheets help the </p><p>students relate their observations to geologic con- cepts. </p><p>The following activity worksheets are part of a field trip guide to the Richmond, Virginia area but can be used in almost any metropolitan area. Sam- ple activities and questions are included for granite, sandstone, crystalline limestone, travertine, clastic limestone, and crushed aggregate. For those who can take advantage of the Richmond, Virginia area, the activities are ready to use; for others, they can be used as models to plan geology trips in other cities. Note that the photo captions are for orientation only and, as they answer some of the worksheet ques- tions, several would have to be deleted for actual use. </p><p>ACTIVITY 1 </p><p>1. Study the white rock with black specks at the base of this building. Of what mineral(s) is it composed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. What size are the grains? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Are the grains interlocking? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. What is the rock name? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>Figure I - 1 . View of the Blan- ton Building in downtown Richmond. </p><p>Figure 7-2. Picture showing fine-grained, interlocking </p><p>texture of the white granite. </p><p>SCIENCE ACTlVlTlES SEPTEMBEWOCTOBER 1984 21 </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f B</p><p>irm</p><p>ingh</p><p>am] </p><p>at 0</p><p>9:04</p><p> 14 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>AC TlVlTY 2 </p><p>Figure 2. showing </p><p>granite at </p><p>Photograph folds in the Thalhimers. </p><p>1. Of what minerals is this rock composed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>2.Describethetexture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . Describe the variation in color (mineral). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>4. What is the name of this rock? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>5 . What state (solid, liquid, plastic) was this rock in before it was finally formed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>6. Why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>8. Where would you place this rock on the rock cycle? </p><p>7 . If this rock had been subjected to slightly higher temperatures, what state would it have been in? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>ACTIVITY 3 </p><p>Examine the reddish rock in the wall on either side of the doorway. </p><p>1. Of what minerals is the rock composed? 2. What color is the rock? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. What size are the grains? </p><p>4. Are they interlocking? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>. . . . . . . . . . . ....</p></li></ul>

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