a conservative revolution nixon to reagan 1968-1984

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  • A CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTIONNixon to Reagan 1968-1984

  • Nixons Domestic Policy:New FederalismReduce the role of the federal governmentGreat Societytoo expensiveSolution: Revenue sharingfed. Govt gives part of income to states; their choice as to what social welfare programsGoals: Reduce inflationReduce social programsStrengthen law and order-discourage protestsMove slowly on civil rights

  • Tackling the Supreme CourtNixon complained about the permissiveness and judicial activism of the Warren CourtAppointments: four conservatives out of nine members by 19711969-Warren Burger, the new Chief Justice

    But once they have office they may or may not be conservativetheir choiceBurger Courtreluctant to dismantle liberal Warren policiesReed v Reed (1971)the administrators of estates cannot be named in a way that discriminates between sexesRoe v. Wade (1973)UC v. Bakke: Affirmative Action upheld

    Warren CourtWarren CourtBurger Court

  • Conservative Republican or Not?Surprisingly, Nixon expanded the Great SocietyFood StampsCreated Supplemental Security Income (SSI)Benefits to penniless aged, blind, & disabledSocial Security with Inflation rates (1972)Set up to help with inflation but inflation was out of controlInitially these helped lower Nations poverty rate (11%) lowest in modern history (1973)

  • Nixon on Civil RightsPhiladelphia Plan (1969)Affirmative Action: trade unions working on federal projects to have goals & plans for hiring black apprenticesTitle IX: Amendment to the Civil rights of 1964No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance...Effects of Title IX

  • Nixon on the Environment1970-Environmental Protection agency (EPA) Occupational Health and Safety Administration& (OSHA)Clean Air ActClean Water ActEndangered Species Act of 1973

  • Foreign Policy: DtentePentagon Papers: secret gov. history of mistakes and deceptions by gov. policymakersNixon Doctrine:Allies would receive U.S. support but without extensive ground forceVietnamization: gradual removal of U.S. troops/Help them fight on their ownNixon goes to China (1972)Nixon goes to USSR (1972)SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)Freeze number of ballistic missiles carrying nuclear warheadsOnly Nixon could go to ChinaHenry Kissinger

  • Peace?Kissinger: prematurely claimed pace is at hand in 1972Continuous bombing of N. VietnamParis Accords: 1973 promised a case-fire and free elections1975: Withdraw of U.S. troops and Vietnamese (Saigon) http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/29/studentnews/sn-content-thurs/index.html 2:3858,000 Americans died/$118 billion

  • Energy Crisis1973Yom Kippur War between Israel, Syria, and EgyptNixon sent $ to IsraelOPEC: Oil Embargo 1974 (5 months)Resulted in: Oil PipelineAlaskaNational Speed limit 55mphProposals for solar, wind, geothermal sources (maybe even coal)Nuclear power plantsEnd to Cheap energyGas linesReliance on foreign imports

  • WatergateJune 1972, 2 months before re-nominationBurglary in Democratic headquarters, Watergate office complex in WA5 arrestedRepublican Committee for the Re-election of the President (CREEP)By 1874, 29 indicted, pled guilty or convictedImproper use of FBI, CIA, and IRSSecret tapes and missing 18 minutesActivity

  • Nixon ResignsHouse proposes three articles of impeachmentObstruction of justiceAbuse of powerContempt of CongressSenate readies for trialNixon resigns from office: Vice president Gerald Ford sworn into office/Pardons Nixon8:00

  • Ford-Carter InterludeRebuild the image of the presidencyHad initial problemsNixons PardonAmnesty PlanOffered amnesty to 1,000s of draft dodgersStagflationInflation reached 12%, worst recession since WWIIMortgage rates: 14%Car loans: 21%GNP: stagnateCarter-Ford Debate-1976

  • Ford-Carter InterludeHenry Kissinger-helped negotiate a cease-fire agreement (Egypt & Israel)End to 1973 Yom Kippur War & Oil EmbargoContinued Dtente (grain to USSR)Oversaw withdraw of last troops in Vietnam (1975)Helsinki Accords (1975)Camp David AccordsHostage Crisis (1979)American boycott of Moscow Olympics (1980)Failed rescue attempt

  • 1980 Election

  • Election of 1980Why Reagan won?1980 censuspopulation aging, more conservative move from liberal NE to sunbelt states (south & west)1970s revival of evangelical religion: a great awakeningAge of Televangelists: Reverend Jerry Falwells moral majorityculture warsOpposed liberal political candidates favored free enterprise, reduce size of government, abortion outlawed, prayer in school, evolution replaced by creationism, Soviets are pagan totalitarians, defend traditional values and tough on criminal laws.Backlash against Feminist MovementBad economy

  • Morning in AmericaReagan Oldest PresidentAchieve fame as an actorFormer governor of California Plan:Restore faith and confidence in the AmericaResume the Cold War: (the evil empire)Reduce the deficitReduce the role & size of the Federal government

    Star Wars

  • New FederalismSupply-side economics (or trickle down theory)Reduce personal (70% to 50%) and corporate (50% to 38%) income taxesMore people will spendCompanies will investReduce spending on social and educational programsOpposed renewal of Voting Rights ActOpposed ERA

  • Resumption and End of Cold WarCreate a 600 ship navyIncrease nuclear weapons (40,000 warheads)Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or Star WarsAggressive Foreign policyGrenada InvasionLebanonLibyaChange Cold War strategy Rise of Mikhail Gorbachev of USSR(glasnost and perestroika)Met four times to reduce nuclear weaponsEnd of Cold War 1989Fall of Berlin Wall

  • ConsequencesKnown as Teflon PresidentWar on DrugsIran-Contra AffairSenior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo. Free 7 hostages in LebanonRise of the Religious Right and intensity of the culture warsEnd of the Cold WarEnd of the Vietnam SyndromeProsperity returns in mid 1980s



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