9-1. 9-2 PREVIEW OF CHAPTER Intermediate Accounting IFRS 2nd Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield 9.

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  • Slide 1
  • 9-1
  • Slide 2
  • 9-2 PREVIEW OF CHAPTER Intermediate Accounting IFRS 2nd Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield 9
  • Slide 3
  • 9-3 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of- cost-or-net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 4
  • 9-4 A company abandons the historical cost principle when the future utility (revenue-producing ability) of the asset drops below its original cost. LOWER-OF-COST-OR-NET REALIZABLE VALUE (LCNRV) LO 1
  • Slide 5
  • 9-5 Net Realizable Value Estimated selling price in the normal course of business less estimated costs to complete and estimated costs to make a sale. LCNRV ILLUSTRATION 9-1 Computation of Net Realizable Value LO 1
  • Slide 6
  • 9-6 ILLUSTRATION 9-2 LCNRV Disclosures Net Realizable Value LCNRV LO 1
  • Slide 7
  • 9-7 Illustration of LCNRV: Jinn-Feng Foods computes its inventory at LCNRV (amounts in thousands). LCNRV ILLUSTRATION 9-3 Determining Final Inventory Value LO 1
  • Slide 8
  • 9-8 Methods of Applying LCNRV LCNRV ILLUSTRATION 9-4 Alternative Applications of LCNRV LO 1
  • Slide 9
  • 9-9 In most situations, companies price inventory on an item- by-item basis. Tax rules in some countries require that companies use an individual-item basis. Individual-item approach gives the lowest valuation for statement of financial position purposes. Method should be applied consistently from one period to another. Methods of Applying LCNRV LCNRV LO 1
  • Slide 10
  • 9-10 Cost of goods sold (before adj. to NRV) 108,000 Ending inventory (cost)82,000 Ending inventory (at NRV) 70,000 Inventory (82,000 - 70,000) 12,000 Loss Due to Decline to NRV12,000 Inventory 12,000 Cost of Goods Sold12,000 Loss Method Loss Method COGS Method COGS Method Illustration: Data for Ricardo Company Recording Net Realizable Value LO 1
  • Slide 11
  • 9-11 Partial Statement of Financial Position Recording Net Realizable Value LO 1
  • Slide 12
  • 9-12 Income Statement Recording Net Realizable Value
  • Slide 13
  • 9-13 Use of an Allowance Instead of crediting the Inventory account for net realizable value adjustments, companies generally use an allowance account. Loss Due to Decline to NRV12,000 Allowance to Reduce Inventory to NRV 12,000 Loss Method LCNRV LO 1
  • Slide 14
  • 9-14 Use of an Allowance Partial Statement of Financial Position LO 1
  • Slide 15
  • 9-15 Recovery of Inventory Loss Amount of write-down is reversed. Reversal limited to amount of original write-down. Continuing the Ricardo example, assume the net realizable value increases to 74,000 (an increase of 4,000). Ricardo makes the following entry, using the loss method. Recovery of Inventory Loss 4,000 Allowance to Reduce Inventory to NRV 4,000 LCNRV LO 1
  • Slide 16
  • 9-16 Allowance account is adjusted in subsequent periods, such that inventory is reported at the LCNRV. Illustration shows net realizable value evaluation for Vuko Company and the effect of net realizable value adjustments on income. Recovery of Inventory Loss ILLUSTRATION 9-8 Effect on Net Income of Adjusting Inventory to Net Realizable Value LO 1
  • Slide 17
  • 9-17 LCNRV rule suffers some conceptual deficiencies: 1.A company recognizes decreases in the value of the asset and the charge to expense in the period in which the loss in utility occursnot in the period of sale. 2.Application of the rule results in inconsistency because a company may value the inventory at cost in one year and at net realizable value in the next year. 3.LCNRV values the inventory in the statement of financial position conservatively, but its effect on the income statement may or may not be conservative. Net income for the year in which a company takes the loss is definitely lower. Net income of the subsequent period may be higher than normal if the expected reductions in sales price do not materialize. Evaluation of LCM Rule LO 1
  • Slide 18
  • 9-18 P9-1: Remmers Company manufactures desks. Most of the companys desks are standard models and are sold on the basis of catalog prices. At December 31, 2015, the following finished desks appear in the companys inventory. LCNRV Instructions: At what amount should the desks appear in the companys December 31, 2015, inventory, assuming that the company has adopted a lower-of-FIFO-cost-or-net realizable value approach for valuation of inventories on an individual-item basis? LO 1
  • Slide 19
  • 9-19 P9-1: Remmers Company manufactures desks. Most of the companys desks are standard models and are sold on the basis of catalog prices. At December 31, 2015, the following finished desks appear in the companys inventory. LCNRV LO 1
  • Slide 20
  • 9-20 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of-cost-or- net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 21
  • 9-21 Special Valuation Situations Departure from LCNRV rule may be justified in situations when cost is difficult to determine, items are readily marketable at quoted market prices, and units of product are interchangeable. Two common situations in which NRV is the general rule: Agricultural assets Commodities held by broker-traders. VALUATION BASES LO 2
  • Slide 22
  • 9-22 Agricultural Inventory Biological asset (classified as a non-current asset) is a living animal or plant, such as sheep, cows, fruit trees, or cotton plants. Biological assets are measured on initial recognition and at the end of each reporting period at fair value less costs to sell (NRV). Companies record gain or loss due to changes in NRV of biological assets in income when it arises. Special Valuation Situations NRV LO 2
  • Slide 23
  • 9-23 Agricultural Inventory Agricultural produce is the harvested product of a biological asset, such as wool from a sheep, milk from a dairy cow, picked fruit from a fruit tree, or cotton from a cotton plant. Agricultural produce are measured at fair value less costs to sell (NRV) at the point of harvest. Once harvested, the NRV becomes cost. NRV Special Valuation Situations LO 2
  • Slide 24
  • 9-24 Illustration: Bancroft Dairy produces milk for sale to local cheese- makers. Bancroft began operations on January 1, 2015, by purchasing 420 milking cows for 460,000. Bancroft provides the following information related to the milking cows. Agricultural Accounting at NRV ILLUSTRATION 9-9 Agricultural Assets Bancroft Dairy LO 2
  • Slide 25
  • 9-25 Bancroft makes the following entry to record the change in carrying value of the milking cows. Biological Asset (milking cows)33,800 Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 33,800 Agricultural Accounting at NRV ILLUSTRATION 9-9 Agricultural Assets Bancroft Dairy LO 2
  • Slide 26
  • 9-26 Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 33,800 Biological Asset (milking cows)33,800 Reported on the Statement of financial position as a non- current asset at fair value less costs to sell (net realizable value). Reported as Other income and expense on the income statement. Agricultural Accounting at NRV LO 2
  • Slide 27
  • 9-27 Inventory (milk)36,000 Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 36,000 Illustration: Bancroft makes the following summary entry to record the milk harvested for the month of January. Assuming the milk harvested in January was sold to a local cheese-maker for 38,500, Bancroft records the sale as follows. Agricultural Accounting at NRV Cash 38,500 Sales Revenue 38,500 Cost of Goods Sold 36,000 Inventory (milk) 36,000 LO 2
  • Slide 28
  • 9-28 Commodity Broker-Traders Generally measure their inventories at fair value less costs to sell (NRV), with changes in NRV recognized in income in the period of the change. Buy or sell commodities (such as harvested corn, wheat, precious metals, heating oil). Primary purpose is to sell the commodities in the near term and generate a profit from fluctuations in price. NRV Special Valuation Situations LO 2
  • Slide 29
  • 9-29 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of-cost-or- net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 30
  • 9-30 Valuation Using Relative Standalone Sales Value Used when buying varying units in a single lump-sum purchase. Illustration: Woodland Developers purchases land for $1 million that it will subdivide into 400 lots. These lots are of different sizes and shapes but can be roughly sorted into three groups graded A, B, and C. As Woodland sells the lots, it apportions the purchase cost of $1 million among the lots sold and the lots remaining on hand. Calculate the cost of lots sold and gross profit. VALUATION BASES LO 3
  • Slide 31
  • 9-31 ILLUSTRATION 9-10 Allocation of Costs, Using Relative Standalone Sales Value ILLUSTRATION 9-11 Determination of Gross Profit, Using Relative Standalone Sales Value VALUATION BASES LO 3
  • Slide 32
  • 9-32 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of-cost-or- net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 33
  • 9-33 Generally seller retains title to the merchandise. Buyer recognizes no asset or liability. If material, the buyer should disclose contract details in note in the financial statements. If the contract price is greater than the market price, and the buyer expects that losses will occur when the purchase is effected, the buyer should recognize a liability and corresponding loss in the period during which such declines in market prices take place. Purchase CommitmentsA Special Problem VALUATION BASES LO 4
  • Slide 34
  • 9-34 Illustration: Apres Paper Co. signed timber-cutting contracts to be executed in 2016 at a price of 10,000,000. Assume further that the market price of the timber cutting rights on December 31, 2015, dropped to 7,000,000. Apres would make the following entry on December 31, 2015. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome3,000,000 Purchase Commitment Liability3,000,000 Other expenses and losses in the Income statement. Current liabilities on the balance sheet. Purchase Commitments LO 4
  • Slide 35
  • 9-35 Purchases (Inventory) 7,000,000 Purchase Commitment Liability 3,000,000 Cash 10,000,000 Assume Apres is permitted to reduce its contract price and therefore its commitment by 1,000,000. Purchase Commitment Liability1,000,000 Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome1,000,000 Illustration: When Apres cuts the timber at a cost of 10 million, it would make the following entry. Purchase Commitments LO 4
  • Slide 36
  • 9-36 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of-cost- or-net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 37
  • 9-37 Substitute Measure to Approximate Inventory Relies on three assumptions: 1. Beginning inventory plus purchases equal total goods to be accounted for. 2. Goods not sold must be on hand. 3. The sales, reduced to cost, deducted from the sum of the opening inventory plus purchases, equal ending inventory. GROSS PROFIT METHOD OF ESTIMATING INVENTORY LO 5
  • Slide 38
  • 9-38 Illustration: Cetus Corp. has a beginning inventory of 60,000 and purchases of 200,000, both at cost. Sales at selling price amount to 280,000. The gross profit on selling price is 30 percent. Cetus applies the gross margin method as follows. GROSS PROFIT METHOD ILLUSTRATION 9-13 Application of Gross Profit Method LO 5
  • Slide 39
  • 9-39 Illustration: In Illustration 9-13, the gross profit was a given. But how did Cetus derive that figure? To see how to compute a gross profit percentage, assume that an article cost 15 and sells for 20, a gross profit of 5. Computation of Gross Profit Percentage GROSS PROFIT METHOD ILLUSTRATION 9-14 Computation of Gross Profit Percentage LO 5
  • Slide 40
  • 9-40 Illustration 9-15 Formulas Relating to Gross Profit Illustration 9-16 Application of Gross Profit Formulas GROSS PROFIT METHOD
  • Slide 41
  • 9-41 Illustration: Astaire Company uses the gross profit method to estimate inventory for monthly reporting purposes. Presented below is information for the month of May. Inventory, May 1 160,000Sales 1,000,000 Purchases (gross)640,000Sales returns70,000 Freight-in30,000Purchases discounts12,000 Instructions: (a) Compute the estimated inventory at May 31, assuming that the gross profit is 25% of sales. (b) Compute the estimated inventory at May 31, assuming that the gross profit is 25% of cost. GROSS PROFIT METHOD LO 5
  • Slide 42
  • 9-42 (a)Compute the estimated inventory at May 31, assuming that the gross profit is 25% of sales. GROSS PROFIT METHOD LO 5
  • Slide 43
  • 9-43 (b)Compute the estimated inventory at May 31, assuming that the gross profit is 25% of cost. GROSS PROFIT METHOD 25% 100% + 25% = 20% of sales LO 5
  • Slide 44
  • 9-44 Disadvantages 1)Provides an estimate of ending inventory. 2)Uses past percentages in calculation. 3)A blanket gross profit rate may not be representative. 4)Normally unacceptable for financial reporting purposes because it provides only an estimate. IFRS requires a physical inventory as additional verification of the inventory indicated in the records. Evaluation of Gross Profit Method GROSS PROFIT METHOD LO 5
  • Slide 45
  • 9-45 Managers and analysts closely follow gross profits. A small change in the gross profit rate can significantly affect the bottom line. For example, at one time, Apple Computer (USA) suffered a textbook case of shrinking gross profits. In response to pricing wars in the personal computer market, Apple had to quickly reduce the price of its signature Macintosh computersreducing prices more quickly than it could reduce its costs. As a result, its gross profit rate fell from 44 percent in 1992 to 40 percent in 1993. Though the drop of 4 percent seems small, its impact on the bottom line caused Apples share price to drop from $57 per share to $27.50 in just six weeks. WHATS YOUR PRINCIPLE THE SQUEEZE As another example, Debenham (GBR), the second largest department store in the United Kingdom, experienced a 14 percentage share price decline. The cause? Markdowns on slow-moving inventory reduced its gross margin. On the positive side, an increase in the gross profit rate provides a positive signal to the market. For example, just a 1 percent boost in Dr. Peppers (USA) gross profit rate cheered the market, indicating the company was able to avoid the squeeze of increased commodity costs by raising its prices. Sources: Alison Smith, Debenhams Shares Hit by Warning, Financial Times (July 24, 2002), p. 21; and D. Kardous, Higher Pricing Helps Boost Dr. Pepper Snapples Net, Wall Street Journal Online (June 5, 2008). LO 5
  • Slide 46
  • 9-46 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of-cost- or-net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 47
  • 9-47 Method used by retailers to compile inventories at retail prices. Retailer can use a formula to convert retail prices to cost. Requires retailers to keep a record of: 1)Total cost and retail value of goods purchased. 2)Total cost and retail value of the goods available for sale. 3)Sales for the period. Methods Conventional Method (or LCNRV) Cost Method RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD LO 6
  • Slide 48
  • 9-48 LO 6 Illustration: The following data pertain to a single department for the month of October for Fuque Inc. Prepare a schedule computing retail inventory using the Conventional and Cost methods. RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD
  • Slide 49
  • 9-49 RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD LO 6
  • Slide 50
  • 9-50 RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD LO 6
  • Slide 51
  • 9-51 Freight costs Purchase returns Purchase discounts and allowances Transfers-in Normal shortages Abnormal shortages Employee discounts Special Items Relating to Retail Method When sales are recorded gross, companies do not recognize sales discounts. RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD LO 6
  • Slide 52
  • 9-52 LO 6 Special Items RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD ILLUSTRATION 9-22 Conventional Retail Inventory Method Special Items Included
  • Slide 53
  • 9-53 Used for the following reasons: 1) To permit the computation of net income without a physical count of inventory. 2) Control measure in determining inventory shortages. 3) Regulating quantities of merchandise on hand. 4) Insurance information. Some companies refine the retail method by computing inventory separately by departments or class of merchandise with similar gross profits. Evaluation of Retail Inventory Method RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD LO 6
  • Slide 54
  • 9-54 5.Determine ending inventory by applying the gross profit method. 6.Determine ending inventory by applying the retail inventory method. 7.Explain how to report and analyze inventory. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Inventories: Additional Valuation Issues 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 1.Describe and apply the lower-of-cost- or-net realizable value rule. 2. 2.Explain when companies value inventories at net realizable value. 3. 3.Explain when companies use the relative standalone sales value method to value inventories. 4. 4.Discuss accounting issues related to purchase commitments.
  • Slide 55
  • 9-55 Accounting standards require disclosure of: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS Presentation of Inventories 1) Accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories, including the cost formula used (weighted-average, FIFO). 2) Total carrying amount of inventories and the carrying amount in classifications (merchandise, production supplies, raw materials, work in progress, and finished goods). 3) Carrying amount of inventories carried at fair value less costs to sell. 4) Amount of inventories recognized as an expense during the period. LO 7
  • Slide 56
  • 9-56 Presentation of Inventories 5)Amount of any write-down of inventories recognized as an expense in the period and the amount of any reversal of write-downs recognized as a reduction of expense in the period. 6) Circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories. 7) Carrying amount of inventories pledged as security for liabilities, if any. Accounting standards require disclosure of: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS LO 7
  • Slide 57
  • 9-57 Common ratios used in the management and evaluation of inventory levels are inventory turnover and average days to sell the inventory. Analysis of Inventories PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS LO 7
  • Slide 58
  • 9-58 Measures the number of times on average a company sells the inventory during the period. Inventory Turnover Illustration 9-25 Illustration: In its 2013 annual report Tate & Lyle plc (GBR) reported a beginning inventory of 450 million, an ending inventory of 510 million, and cost of goods sold of 2,066 million for the year. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS LO 7
  • Slide 59
  • 9-59 Measure represents the average number of days sales for which a company has inventory on hand. Average Days to Sell Inventory 365 days / 4.30 times = every 84.8 days Average Days to Sell PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS Illustration 9-25 LO 7
  • Slide 60
  • 9-60 INVENTORIES In most cases, IFRS and U.S. GAAP related to inventory are the same. The major differences are that IFRS prohibits the use of the LIFO cost flow assumption and records market in the LCNRV differently. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 61
  • 9-61 Relevant Facts Following are the key similarities and differences between U.S. GAAP and IFRS related to inventories. Similarities U.S. GAAP and IFRS account for inventory acquisitions at historical cost and evaluate inventory for lower-of-cost-or-net realizable value (market) subsequent to acquisition. Who owns the goodsgoods in transit, consigned goods, special sales agreementsas well as the costs to include in inventory are essentially accounted for the same under U.S. GAAP and IFRS. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 62
  • 9-62 Relevant Facts Differences U.S. GAAP provides more detailed guidelines in inventory accounting. The requirements for accounting for and reporting inventories are more principles-based under IFRS. A major difference between U.S. GAAP and IFRS relates to the LIFO cost flow assumption. U.S. GAAP permits the use of LIFO for inventory valuation. IFRS prohibits its use. FIFO and average-cost are the only two acceptable cost flow assumptions permitted under IFRS. Both sets of standards permit specific identification where appropriate. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 63
  • 9-63 Relevant Facts Differences In the lower-of-cost-or-market test for inventory valuation, U.S. GAAP defines market as replacement cost subject to the constraints of net realizable value (the ceiling) and net realizable value less a normal markup (the floor). IFRS defines market as net realizable value and does not use a ceiling or a floor to determine market. Under U.S. GAAP, if inventory is written down under the lower-of-cost-or- market valuation, the new basis is now considered its cost. As a result, the inventory may not be written up back to its original cost in a subsequent period. Under IFRS, the write-down may be reversed in a subsequent period up to the amount of the previous write-down. Both the write-down and any subsequent reversal should be reported on the income statement. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 64
  • 9-64 Relevant Facts Differences IFRS requires both biological assets and agricultural produce at the point of harvest to be reported at net realizable value. U.S. GAAP does not require companies to account for all biological assets in the same way. Furthermore, these assets generally are not reported at net realizable value. Disclosure requirements also differ between the two sets of standards. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 65
  • 9-65 About The Numbers Presented below is a disclosure under U.S. GAAP related to inventories, which reflects application of U.S. GAAP to its inventories. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 66
  • 9-66 On the Horizon One convergence issue that will be difficult to resolve relates to the use of the LIFO cost flow assumption. As indicated, IFRS specifically prohibits its use. Conversely, the LIFO cost flow assumption is widely used in the United States because of its favorable tax advantages. In addition, many argue that LIFO from a financial reporting point of view provides a better matching of current costs against revenue and therefore enables companies to compute a more realistic income. GLOBAL ACCOUNTING INSIGHTS
  • Slide 67
  • 9-67 Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. COPYRIGHT

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