5b present prefect& continuous

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Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect ProgressiveExercises and Tests

FormPresent Perfect Simpleirregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbsExample: I / you / we / they have spoken he / she / it has spoken I / you / we / they have been speaking he / she / it has been speaking Example:

Present Perfect Progressiveform of 'have' + been + verb + ing

regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + edExample: I / you / we / they have worked he / she / it has worked

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' : when the final letter is e, only add dExample: love - loved

Exceptions when adding 'ing' : silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: come - coming aber: agree - agreeing after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: sit - sitting after a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in British English (but not in American English). Example: travel - travelling

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubledExample: admit - admitted

final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)Example: travel - travelled

final ie becomes y. after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a Example: lie - lying vowel)Example: worry - worried but: play - played

See also explanations on Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Progressive

UseBoth tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just finished. In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action.

Result or duration?Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet?

Present Perfect SimpleResult (what / how much / how often)I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London twice.

Present Perfect ProgressiveDuration (how long)I have been writing for an hour.

Certain verbsThe following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form). state: be, have (for possession only) Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He has touched the painting. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I have known him for 3 years.

Emphasis on completion or duration?Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody spent his time)?

Present Perfect SimpleEmphasis on completion

Present Perfect ProgressiveEmphasis on durationI have been doing my homework. (Meaning: That's how I have spent

I have done my homework. (Meaning: My homework is completed my time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.) now.)

Result or side effect?Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an unwanted side effect?

Present Perfect Simpledesired result

Present Perfect Progressiveunwanted side effectWhy are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether

I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean now.)

the car is clean now.)

Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action?In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action?

Present Perfect Simplesince the last time

Present Perfect Progressivesince the beginning

I haven't played that game for years. (Meaning: It's years ago that I I haven't been playing that game for an hour, only for 10 minutes. last played that game.) (Meaning: It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.)

Permanent or temporary?If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency.

Present Perfect SimplepermanentJames has lived in this town for 10 years. (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this town.)

Present Perfect ProgressivetemporaryJames has been living here for a year. (Meaning: This situation is only temporary. Maybe he is an exchange student and only here for one or two years.)

Signal wordsPresent Perfect Simple how often ... times

Present Perfect Progressivehow long since for

Present Perfect Simple - Present Perfect ProgressiveExercise 10Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A: (you / take) B: I (work)

the dog for a walk yet? all day. I (come / just) the time yet to walk the dog.

home from work and I

(have / not)

A: How long (the dog / be)

home alone? the dog for a long time. Don't you

B: For about 6 hours. You (walk / not) want to go? A: Well, I (laze / not)

about all day either, you know. I have a very

important meeting tomorrow and I still (finish / not) B: Okay, I will go then. Where (you / put)

my presentation. collar and leash? anything yet? If not,

A: They are in the kitchen. By the way, (you / eat) could you get us something from the supermarket?

Exercise 10Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A: Have you taken

the dog for a walk yet? the

B: I have been working all day. I have just come home from work and I have not had time yet to walk the dog. A: How long has the dog been home alone? B: For about 6 hours. You have not walked

the dog for a long time. Don't you want to go?

A: Well, I have not been lazing about all day either, you know. I have a very important meeting tomorrow and I still have not finished my presentation. B: Okay, I will go then. Where have you put collar and leash? anything yet? If not, could you get A: They are in the kitchen. By the way, have you eaten us something from the supermarket?

Present Perfect Simple - Present Perfect ProgressiveExercise 11Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).

1. 2. 3.

A: I (call) are your clothes so dirty? B: I (tidy)

for you for half an hour. Where (be) up the shed in the garden.

? And why

A: (you / find) for ages.

a box with old photos there? I (look)

for it

4. 5.

B: I (discover / not)

it yet, but I (work / not) in to eat something. anything yet because I (talk)

for a long

time yet. I (come / just) A: I (cook / not) neighbour.

to our

Exercise 11Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).

1. 2. 3. 4.

A: I have been calling for you for half an hour. Where have you been clothes so dirty? B: I have been tidying up the shed in the garden. A: Have you found a box with old photos there? I have been looking

? And why are your

for it for ages.

come

B: I have not discovered it yet, but I have not been working for a long time yet. I have just in to eat something. A: I have not cooked anything yet because I have been talking to our neighbour.

5.

Exercise 8Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.now.

I (play / not)

the computer for half an hour, only for about 5 minutes. a car for eight years. on holiday for three years. for 40 minutes yet - there are still 10 minutes left. for 10 days now. anything since two o'clock.

Bob (drive / not) Carla (go / not) We (run / not)

They (smoke / not) I (eat / not)

Anna (work / not) I (read / not)

here for five years, but for seven years. for a long time - just 10 minutes, not more.

You (cycle / not)

for two hours. It was only about one hour. French for 10 years, so her French isn't very good

Catherine (speak / not)

Exercise 8

Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I have not been playing Bob has not driven Carla has not gone

the computer for half an hour, only for about 5 minutes.

a car for eight years. on holiday for three years. for 40 minutes yet - there are still 10 minutes left. for 10 days now. here for five years, but for seven years. for two hours. It was only about one hour. French for 10 years, so her French isn't very good now.

We have not been running They have not smoked I have not eaten

anything since two o'clock. for a long time - just 10 minutes, not more.

Anna has not been working I have not been reading Catherine has not spoken You have not been cycling

Present Perfect ContinuousFORM[has/have + been + present participle] Examples:

You have been waiting here for two hours. Have you been waiting here for two hours? You have not been waiting here for two hours.

Complete List of Present Perfect Continuous Forms

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples:

They have been talking for the last hour.