2008 年 4 月 10 日 Word choice/Grant writing 2008 年 4 月 17 日 Sentence structure 2008 年 4 月 24 日 Paragraph structure 2008 年 5 月 1 日 Figures, tables and reference

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 2008 4 10 Word choice/Grant writing 2008 4 17 Sentence structure 2008 4 24 Paragraph structure 2008 5 1 Figures, tables and reference 2008 5 8 Result I 2008 5 15 2008 5 22 Result/Discussion 2008 5 29 Discussion 2008 6 5 Slide and poster making 2008 6 12 Submission and rebuttal letters </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Word Choice </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> A Few Questions Is scientific writing the same as literary writing (like Shakespeare)? Do you write it like you would write a novel? Is elaboration necessary? Is it necessary to put a lot of details? What is the goal for Scientific Writing? </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The ultimate goal for scientific writing is.. To win the Nobel price of Medicine but not Nobel price of Literature </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> There are two kinds of scientific writing: that which is intended to be read, and that which is intended merely to show figures. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Some Curious Facts Science is hard to read! the complicated science and graphs/figures is hard to understand already The difficulty in reading science reduces when authors start using clear language! It is possible to produce clarity without oversimplifying scientific issues/facts </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Core Values Precision: ambiguities in writing cause confusion and may prevent a reader from grasping crucial aspects of the methodology and synthesis. Clarity: concepts and methods in the sciences can often be complex; writing that is difficult to follow greatly amplifies any confusion on the part of the reader. Objectivity: any claims that you make need to be based on facts, not intuition or emotion. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Words in scientific research paper should be . Precise Simple Necessary Use few (if any) abbreviations </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Precise Use your dictionary to find examples Dont just check the Chinese definitions Precise words evoke a mental image Abstractions make reading difficult </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Word and Phrasing choice Often several words may convey similar meaning, but usually only one word is most appropriate in a given context. For example: BAD: The population density is associated with SARS transmission rate. GOOD: The population density is positively correlated with SARS transmission rate (p </li> <li> When to use? To replace a term that is long or unwieldy and that appears a great many times in the paper. An abbreviation should be used often enough that reader does not forget the meaning (&gt;10 times) Exceptions: Really long term, Ex: HFIP (1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol) Some abbreviation that more familiar to reader than the term is. Ex: DNA </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> How to avoid abbreviations Instead of an abbreviation, one word from a long term can be used. Ex: isometric handgrip exercise can be called exercise instead of IHE (if only one type of exercise in the paper) To avoid group A, use treated group </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Which vs that that identifies the object about which you are speaking which provides further info about the object GOOD: The car that is speeding down the road is about to crash into a pole. OK: The car, which is speeding down the road, is about to crash into a pole. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Semicolon Connects two sentences that are closely related to each other Use a semicolon when what follows constitutes a complete sentence When what follows is a fragment, you must use a comma or an em dash </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Semicolon CAREFUL: Maxs head was throbbing; Lyns heart was sinking. The semicolon implies that there is a connection between Maxs head throb and Lyns sinking heart!! BAD: Holly wanted to live on a farm with plenty of chickens; and to have a stellar career as well. GOOD: This machine is difficult to use; for example, it crashes whenever you turn it on. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Colon The colon signifies that what follows it expands on or explains what precedes it: this sentence is an example. Use at the end of a sentence, followed by a list GOOD: This talk does not assume that you know the basics: how to form a sentence, how to use words and how to laugh at your mistakes. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Grant writing </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> The difference between grant and paper writing Here is an interesting problem (Introduction; specific aims) Here is my idea and approach (Method; Research design) My idea works (Preliminary data; Result) Heres how my idea compares to other peoples approaches (Background; Discussion) </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Remember- Reviewers are busy!!!! Make sure they got your idea the first time (even they read it on the road or when feeding baby) </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> What is your question Why is your study important How are you going to do it Key Points of Your Proposal </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> The grant should consist of . Chinese and English title and abstracts overview Hypothesis and Specific aims What is your question Background What people need to know about this field Significance Why it is an important question Preliminary data evidence you have so far Research design and methods how you going to test Anticipated results potential answer to your question References you ideas are not from nowhere 40% </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Title Title of a project = face of a girl Attractive, easy to understand, reflect the central theme Concise: avoid non-informative words like A study of--- The shorter, the better (&lt; 100 characters) Word choice Quantitative: increase, decrease, reduced Qualitative: improved, impaired </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Example Role of calcium in pharmacological studies. (worst) Role of calcium in pharmacological studies on PC12 cells. (at lease have information on cell type) Role of calcium in effects of drug X on PC12 cells. (better) Role of calcium in apoptotic effects of drug X on PC12 cells. (best) </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Abstract Concisely describe every part of your paper Write it last, following the logic of the proposal English and Chinese title and abstracts should be consistent but not word-to-word translation </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> . Early onset breast cancer has been the unique and major health problem in Taiwan with annual increase----- The etiology and mechanisms of breast cancer in young women is unknown. It has been suggested that carcinogenesis in utero may account for the early-onset of this cancer------------- To test this hypothesis, we have used fed pregnant mice with fatty diet and found increase in incidence of mammary tumors in the new born mice.---------------------- In this proposal, we will examine the alteration of mammary gland differentiation pathway in the mammary tumors derived from the new born mice using microarray, SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) as well real-time PCR techniques ------------- This study of alterations in mammary gland differentiation in the mammary tumor of new born mice will allow us to identify the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in the early-onset breast cancer. This information could be useful for diagnosis/treatment of early-onset breast cancer in Taiwan--------------------------- Importance Outstanding problems Hypothesis Experimental approaches Summary Answers Significance Background and preliminary data </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Hypothesis and Specific Aims Objective, rationale, and hypothesis Specific aim 1 Specific aim 2 Specific aim 3 Potential outcomes + significance Hypothesis and Specific Aims Objective, rationale, and hypothesis Specific aim 1 Specific aim 2 Specific aim 3 Potential outcomes + significance Usually 1-2 pages List your long-term objectives State the hypothesis to be tested. List specific aims: one by one What the specific research proposed to finish. Potential outcomes + significance Hypothesis non fingo! </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Aim 1: To evaluate the protective effect of collagen VI under multiple types of lesions in vitro and in vivo. Aim 2: To identify the mediators for the protective effect of collagen VI. Aim 3: To determine the transcription machinery regulating A -induced COL6A1 expression </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Aim 1: To explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling apoE expression in CNS neurons. Aim 2: To determine if inhibiting apoE4 proteolysis by mutating the primary cleavage sites reduces or abolishes apoE4-related neuronal and behavioral deficits in transgenic mice. Specific Aim 3: To explore the cellular mechanisms underlying the selective vulnerability of different CNS neurons to apoE4 and its fragments in vitro and in vivo. Example for model figure and specific aims </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Specific Aim 1. Determine if the impairment of vulnerable neurons in the dentate gyrus of hAPP mice depends on the production of hAPP/A by these cells. Specific Aim 2. Determine if modulation of specific excitotoxicity-related neuronal or glial proteins will normalize neuronal activity and cognitive functions in hAPP mice. Specific Aim 3. Determine if reducing the level of endogenous, soluble tau protects against diverse proteinopathies. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Specific Aim 1. Determine the age- and time dependence of the requirement for tau in APP/A-induced neuronal dysfunction. Specific Aim 2. Examine the role of specific tau phosphorylation sites in enabling APP/A-induced neuronal dysfunction. Specific Aim 3. Identify the downstream mechanisms by which tau enables APP/A-induced neuronal dysfunction. </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Specific Aims Specific Aim #1. Identification of downstream genes involved in ----. This purpose of this aim will test the hypothesis that--- ----. This study will be able to allow us to identify ----- Subaim 1a: Yeast two-hybrid technique will be used to ----- Subaim 1b: Deletion analysis will be used to -- --- Title Hypothesis Approaches Importance </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Background To establish the significance of the current work: Why was there a need to conduct the study? What people have done? Whats missing? Clearly state the scope and objectives Do not write any conclusions, methods, or results </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Significance State concisely and clearly the importance of your study. Emphasize the novelty or innovation. So what? Im the best person to do it Convey the significance of your research to 1) scientific contribution 2) improving public health 3) make big money </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Preliminary Results Provide the unpublished results indicating progress toward their achievement Show only the relevant experiments supporting your hypothesis The results should not be ambiguous Assessing the chance of the success of the proposed project tell reviewer this idea is working </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Research Design and Methods List as specific aims Aim1 Subaim1a exp1 Subaim1b exp2 Aim2 List as specific aims Aim1 Subaim1a exp1 Subaim1b exp2 Aim2 The design should follow the specific aims and test the hypothesis </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Research Design Do NOT write as protocol or operation manual Design the experiments to solve the problems posed in the specific aims in logical order Be realistic and logical. Provide information on statistical analysis whenever applicable Control! Control! Control! Write in the future tense and active voice BAD: Western blot will be used to identify XXX protein. GOOD: We will identify XXX protein by Western blot. </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Anticipated Results Why good results will be expected Reasonable time table for achieving results Alternative Interpretations critically evaluated How the results will support your hypothesis Potential difficulties and limitations of the experiment, and alternative approaches to achieve the aims. How your results would be important for a group project </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Time table </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Problems with Writing Too long sentences and paragraphs No logical connection among paragraphs Explain things unclearly (reviewers probably are not in your field) Beware of acronyms and jargons Misspelling and grammar error; check with Word program Chaotic format </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Problems with English The result of all the molecular events and regulatory processes in the cells are reflected in the phenotypes of the organism After extraction RNA precipitate with alcohol. The extracted RNA will be precipitated with alcohol. After separated in the gel electrophorsis the scientist eluted the proteins by electroporation. The protein will be separated by gel electrophorsis and eluted by electroporation. is </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> </ul>