2 Skeleton in Protozoa

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<p>Skeleton In</p> <p>ProtozoaA presentation compiled from various sources by</p> <p>Dr. PARVISH PANDYA,Zoology Dept. Bhavans College, Andheri.</p> <p>Sites from which presentations have been downloaded and later editted. I am indeed thankful to them for their kindness and support :http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/cb/org/organelles.html http://faculty.pnc.edu/jcamp/parasit/parasit.html http://www.amnh.org/rose/hope/creatinghope/ http://www.biology.eku.edu/SCHUSTER/bio%20141/POWERPOINT %20NOTES/Intro%20to%20Protozoa_files/fullscreen.htm http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~zoology/eeob405/ http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/pwpt/ http://www.iep.water.ca.gov/suisun/photos/wildlife.html http://www.uta.edu/biology/marshall/2343/ http://www.uta.edu/biology/faculty/faculty.html http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/PowerPoint.htm http://bio.fsu.edu/ http://www.aw-bc.com/ http://www.nhm.org/ http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS302/presentations/ It is very easy to find mistakes in these presentations..I request you to kindly rectify them and supply me the modifications needed at parvishpandya@yahoo.com Thanks a lot and have fun in teaching &amp; learning Zoology.</p> <p>PHYLUM</p> <p>PROTOZOAUnicellular Nucleated Motile Heterotrophic</p> <p>(protos = first ; zoon = animal)</p> <p>SALIENT FEATURESHabit: Solitary/Colonial;Free living/Parasitic; Commensalism/Mutualism. Habitat: Sea water, Fresh water, Moist soil &amp; Fecal deposits. Size: Microscopic(2-3 microns) Shape: Spherical, Discoidal, Oval, Spindle shaped, Flattened or Irregular</p> <p>Characteristics of Protozoa - Unicellular - single cells - some live in colonies</p> <p>Types of Symmetry - Asymmetrical - Radial - Spherical - Bilateral</p> <p>Protozoa: Life Styles &amp; Locomotion Life Styles Free Living Symbiosis- Living together; some examples: Mutualism: (+ +) Commensalism: (+ 0) Parasitism: (+ -)</p> <p> Locomotion (sessile vs. free moving) Pseudopodia (sol-gel reaction) Phagocytosis- feeding using pseudopods</p> <p> Flagella (single or paired usually) Cilia (many with peristaltic movement)</p> <p>Protozoa Organelles Organelles Nucleus: reproduction cell membrane: respiration contractile vacuole: water balance and excretion (osmoregulation) Osmosis vs. Diffusion Semipermeable Membrane Hyperosmotic vs. Hypoosmotic</p> <p> food vacuole: digestion myofibrils: movement neurofibrils: irritability</p> <p>Nutrition in Protozoa Feeding Autotrophs- self feeding, plants Heterotrophs- eat others, animals Holozoic- eat pieces of food Saprozoic- eat at the molecular level</p> <p>Reproduction in Protozoa Reproduction Sexual: meiosis- reduction division diploid to haploid Gametes: eggs and sperm in protozoans it is called conjugation</p> <p> Asexual (vegetative): mitosis- duplication division diploid to diploid</p> <p> types include: binary fission: transverse or longitudinal multiple fission</p> <p>KINGDOM PROTISTA</p> <p>SKELETON Hard, Rigid or Flexible body covering. It consists of organic matter like gelatin, tectin/pseudotectin, cellulose/calcium carbonate/silica/sand particles/shell pieces &amp; spicules etc. It can be gelatinous, chitinous, calcareous or siliceous. It is divided into i)Theca ii)Lorica iii)Shell(test).</p> <p>TYPES OF SKELETON1] THECA Eg: Dinoflagellates such as Ceratium, Peridinium etc. 2] LORICA Eg: Klebsiella, Cladomonas, Dinobryon, Poteriodendron, Cothurina etc. 3] SHELL Eg:Arcella, Difflugia, Elphidium etc.</p> <p>Amoeba under microscope</p> <p>Phagocytosis in Amoeba</p> <p>Paramoecium</p> <p>Paramoecium : Digestion</p> <p>Kinety</p> <p>Euglena</p> <p>Acanthometra Actinopod</p> <p>Actinophrys</p> <p>Actinopoda</p> <p>Actinosphaerium</p> <p>Arcella</p> <p>Companulata</p> <p>Ceratium</p> <p>Section thro Pellicle of Dinoflagellate</p> <p>Choanoflagellate</p> <p>Ciliary Beating</p> <p>Difflugia</p> <p>Difflugia</p> <p>Dinobryon</p> <p>Elphidium</p> <p>Epheolotes</p> <p>Noctiluca</p> <p>Foraminiferan Shells</p> <p>Gonyaulax : Red Tide</p> <p>Globigerina</p> <p>Heliozoan</p> <p>Nodosaria</p> <p>Plasmodium sketch</p> <p>Plasmodium in RBC</p> <p>Radiolarian</p> <p>Radiolarian Shells</p> <p>Rhizopod Filopodia</p> <p>Spiroloculina</p> <p>Stentor</p> <p>Textularia</p> <p>Trichonympha</p> <p>Trypanosoma</p> <p>Trichomonas vaginalis</p> <p>Volvox</p> <p>Vorticella</p> <p>Significance of Protozoan SkeletonStudy helps in detecting presence of petroleum oil in sea beds. Skeletons of foraminiferans useful in checking logs during drilling of oil wells. Help in Geological Time Scale.</p>