world war ii

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all about ww11 and the holocaust

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  • The Road to World War II

January 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of GermanyAdolf Hitler History Adolf Hitler was born April 20, 1889 in a small town called Braunau Am Inn, Austria. Young Adolf attended church regularly, sang in the local choir and spent hours playing cowboys and Indians. He grew up with a bad name at school and left before completing his high school terms, because he wanted to be an artist. During his lifetime, Hitler was very secretive about his background. He never give his fathers real occupation. He said he was a postal official. He didnt like his relatives to come near him or visit. Hitlers mom died of cancer when he was nineteen. Hitler loved his mother so much. Her Jewish doctor said, I have never witnessed a closer attachment. Hitler carried a picture of her down to his last days in the bunker. How did WWI Influence Hitler? He served in German Army: wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery. His First success in his life Blamed Germanys defeat on Jews and Communists. The Nazi Partys Rise to Power: 1928-1933 1928 - Hitlers Nazi Party was a small, insignificant party- had little success in elections By 1933 however Hitler was the chancellor of Germany. The Nazis had risen from obscurity to power, total power. What Did The Nazi Stand For in 1920s? ABOLISH VERSAILLES TREATYREARM GERMANYGREATER GERMANYDESTROY COMMUNISMSTRONG CENTRAL GOVTREMOVE JEWSLEBENSRAUMDESTROY WEIMAR REPUBLIC Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming GermanyHitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of he depression years. What did Hitler offer to the German people?Promises Nationalists - Restore Germany to Greatness Wealthy Industrialist An end unemployment Blamed Others for Germanys Problems Jews November Criminals Weimar Republic Excellent Speaker How does Hitler become Chancellor? Brownshirts Hitlers private armyUsed speeches and propaganda to gain countrys supportNazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature): 1930 = 18% of vote 1932 = 37% of voteHitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933 What actions did Hitler take The Leader? Rebuilt Army & Opened Weapons Factories Stopped reparations paymentsEconomy improved New Jobs - military sector Decreased unemploymentBegan planning for expansion of the Third Reich Hitlers Destruction of Jews Adolf Hitler, murderer of millions, or known as master of destruction and organized insanity. Hitler was seized by an obsession with the Jews all his life. The Nazi Fhrer had always been straightforward about his plans - his dream of a racially "pure" empire would tolerate no Jews. He announced at many occasions the "annihilation of the Jews" living in the territory under his control. In Hitler's mind, murdering millions of Jews could only be accomplished under the confusion of war, from the beginning he was planning a war. The European Jews were the primary victims of Adolf Hitler.In 1933 nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed.What was MasterJewish Problem? the Race Hitlers belief that Aryan Germans were the blond hair, blue eyes. Blamed Germanys problems on the Jewish Racism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans. PROGRESSION OF DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS JEWS The NAZI party and Adolf Hitler seized power in 1933. they slowly began their program against the Jews of Germany In 1933 there were 566,000 Jews living in Germany. Each new year in Germany led to harsher policies directed towards the Jews. Stripping of Rights Nuremberg Laws (1935) stated that all German JEWS were : stripped of German citizenship fired from jobs & businesses boycotted banned from schools & universities marriages between Jews and Aryans forbidden forced to carry ID cards Passports stamped with a J forced to wear the arm band of the Yellow Star of David Jewish synagogues destroyed forced to pay reparations and a special income tax Boycott of Jewish Businesses 1933 - Germany Sets up idea that Jews are not Germans and isolates them SA pickets, wearing boycott signs, block the entrance to a Jewish-owned shop. The signs read: "Germans, defend yourselves against the Jewish atrocity propaganda, buy only at German shops!" and "Germans, defend yourselves, buy only at German shops!" SS Deathshead division is created to guard camps Heinreich Himmler is appointed Chief of the German Police Olympic games in Berlin, Jews treated better for two daysGerman troops marched into the Rhineland The Rhineland was a region of Germany that was demilitarised after the Treaty of Versailles. Germany was not allowed to have troops in the region.Hitlers actions showed how he was willing to directly challenge the treaty. 1937 Jews are not allowed to teach Germans not allowed to be accountants or dentists Eternal Jew exhibit opened in Germany this promoted stereo-types of Jews and warned Germans1938League of Nations considers helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but no country will take them Jews are not allowed to practice medicine March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria. However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people. Kristallnacht Night of Broken GlassNovember 9-10, 1938. on the Night of Broken Glass Jewish shops and synagogues are damaged, destroyed and looted 26,000 Jews are arrested, 91 die further economic and political persecution of Jews would follow it marks the ominous beginning of the Holocaust Did you know? Kristallnacht was not just This picture is typical of the smashed windows of Jewish businesses on Kristallnacht.staged without planning, but served a specific purpose in Nazi policy toward the Jews. The SA was under strict orders to confiscate any firearms owned by Jews when ransacking Jewish homes and businesses. This would prevent any significant armed resistance to Nazi policies in the future. November 1938. Jews arrested during Kristallnacht line up for roll call at the Buchenwald concentration camp The German reaction to KristallnachtIn response to the events of Kristallnacht the Jews were fined 25 million marks to repair the property damaged during the night and an additional 1 billion marksThis succeeded in removing a significant amount of the wealth that the German Jews had managed to hold on to through the rising prejudice against themOther countries were aware of these policies, however did not wish to interfere as that was considered inappropriate involvement in the operation of another nationThe Jews of Germany began to flee if they could by every means available, however this was hampered by the German annexation of Czechoslovakia , Austria and Poland which meant that many of the Jews that escaped the Germans following the Nuremberg laws and Kristallnacht soon found themselves again under Nazi control March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis. However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin. August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pactHitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a nonaggression pact. They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war. As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon.This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background StalinHitlerThe non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies. When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia. Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia September 1939: Germany invaded PolandBut, the pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France.German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland. May 1940: Germany turned west and invaded France and the Netherlands In May 1940, Germany used Blitzkrieg tactics to attack France and the Netherlands. British troops were forced to retreat from the beaches of Dunkirk in northern France. Captured British troops, May 1940 By June 1940, France had surrendered to the GermansBritain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitlers Germany in Western Europe.Adolf Hitler tours Paris after his successful invasion. September 1940-May 1941: the Blitz For the following nine months, the German air force (Luftwaffe) launched repeated bombing raids on British towns and cities. This was known as the BLITZ and was an attempt to bomb Britain into submission. Operation Barbarossa, June 1941But in May, 1941, Hitler ordered a change of tactics. He decided to halt the bombing of Britain and launch an attack against Russia. He betrayed Stalin and ignored the promises he had made. This was a bold move that would prove to be an important turning point in the War. 1940 German Jews are deported to Poland Total of 600,000 Jews1941 Nazis invade the Soviet Union Jewish population of 3 million Hitler issues infamous Commissar Order SS Einsatzgruppen follow advance of German Army The Ghettos First used in Poland when Nazis invaded in 1939 Areas where Jews were forced to live in certain cities. Comparable to prisons Everyone was put to work for the Nazis Many people died from the labor, conditions, and disease. 356 ghettos in Poland, the Soviet Union, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia,