working conditions & labor movement gallery walk
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DESCRIPTIONGilded Age. Working Conditions & Labor Movement Gallery Walk. Factory pay was so low at the time that Children often times had to work to help support their families. Received Less Pay because they were younger - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Working Conditions & Labor Movement Gallery Walk
Working Conditions & Labor Movement Gallery WalkGilded AgeChild LaborFactory pay was so low at the time that Children often times had to work to help support their families. Received Less Pay because they were youngerThe number of children under the age of 15 who worked in industrial jobs for wages climbed from 1.5 million in 1890 to 2 million in 1910.Businesses liked to hire children (2 major reasons): they worked in unskilled jobs for lower wages than adultstheir small hands made them more adept at handling small parts and tools.Problems with Child LaborAs children worked in industrial settings, they began to develop serious health problems. Many were underweight. Some suffered from stunted growth and curvature of the spine. They developed diseases related to their work environmenttuberculosis and bronchitis =coal mines or cotton mills. They faced high accident rates due to physical and mental fatigue caused by hard work and long hours.
Boys working in a spinning room at Bibb Mill No. 1, Macon, Georgia, USA. They are so small they have to climb up on the spinning frame to mend the broken threads and put back the empty bobbins.
Women OrganizeMany unions barred womenThey ended up uniting behind powerful leaders to demand better working conditions, equal pay for equal work and an end to child labor.
March 25, 1911Fire started in a scrap bin under one of the cutter's tables at the northeast corner of the eighth floorFire spread through the buildingNo sprinkler system, the fire escape broke and the only way out was blocked by fire146 women died (All were women age 16-23) Because of this New York set up a task force to study factory working conditionsTriangle Shirtwaist Factory, New York CityMary Harris Jones
Pauline Newman (16 yrs old)
Supported the Great Strike of 1877, and organized for the United Mine Workers of America (UMW)Nickname Mother Jones given to her by the coal minersIn 1903 to expose the cruelties of child labor, she led 80 mill children ton a march to President Teddy Roosevelts home. The march influenced the passage of child labor lawsFirst female organizer of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWUSupported the Uprising of the 20,000 seamstresses strike that won labor agreements and improved conditions for some strikers.
Women WorkersWomen received less pay than men1/5 Women Worked at the turn of the CenturyWomen gained power in the family structure because they are now wage earnersWomen in Industry Lowell Mills (James Lowell) built a textile mill and dormitoryFamilies sent young girls to factories to workFarm WomenSame jobs as theyve had for centuries Normal Household work combined with farm chores (taking care of livestock, fieldwork, harvest, etc.) Women as Domestic WorkersMany African American & Immigrant Women did Domestic WorkIn 1870 over 70% of employed Women were domestic servants.
Lowell Mill Girls
Labor UnionsWorkers join together to try and improve their working conditions - Labor Unions emerge Two big problems with workplacesLong HoursDanger!
Labor Strikes!Great Strike of 1877
July 1877 lasted approximately 45 daysWorkers from Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O)Started in West Virginia and moved through Maryland, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Missouri
Reasons for Strike:Second wage cut in two months for workersStriking workers would not allow any of the stock to roll until this second wage cut was revokedEffects of StrikeMost freight and some passenger trains covering over 50,000 miles were stopped for more than a weekFederal Troops ended the strike
The Haymarket Affair (Chicago) May 4, 1886Protest Against Police BrutalityA striker had been killed and many wounded at McCormick Harvester plant the day beforeA bomb was tossed into the police line at the demonstration Police fired on the workers 7 police officers and many workers died No one knows who caused it, but 3 speakers and 5 other radicals at the demonstration were charged with inciting a riot. All eight were convicted4 hanged, 1 committed suicide in prisonEffect of the Strike:After the public began to turn against the labor movement
This 1886 engraving was the most widely reproduced image of the Haymarket affair. It inaccurately shows Fielden speaking, the bomb exploding, and the rioting beginning simultaneously
Haymarket Martyrs Monument in Forest Home CemeterySeven of the Eight men convicted for starting the riot at HaymarketThe Homestead Strike (Pennsylvania)
June 29, 1892Steelworkers (From a Carnegie Factory) Causes:Company president (Henry Clay Frick) announced his plan to cut wagesFrick hired guards to protect the plant so he could hire scabs (strikebreakers) to keep it operating The strikers focused out the guards and kept the plant closed until the Pennsylvania National Guard arrived on July 12. Strike continued until November but the Union lost its support and finally gave into the company.
This image shows the barge that the Pinkerton Guards arrived on which the strikers lit on Fire. The Pullman Company Strike
Railroad Strike (Pullman Palace Car Company made railroad cars) CausesDuring the panic of 1893 the Pullman company laid off 3,000 of its 5,800 employees Company cut wages of the remaining employees by 25-50%Strike was called in Spring of 1894 when the Pullman company failed to restore wages or decrease rentsEffectsMany strikers were part of the American Railroad Union (ARU), led by Eugene V. Debs, which supported their strike by launching a boycott in which union members refused to run trains containing Pullman cars. Within four days, 125,000 workers on twenty-nine railroads had quit work rather than handle Pullman carsHalted Train traffic west of ChicagoA struggle between the greatest and most important labor organization and the entire railroad capital E.V. Debs EffectsPullman hired strikebreakers & the strike turned violentPresident Grover Cleveland sent in federal troopsDebs was jailed and Pullman fired most of the strikers railroads blacklisted othersLabor Day became a federal holiday in 1894 after the strike when President Grover Cleveland and Congress made appeasement of organized labor a top priority.