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What should we worry about when we worry about housing problems?. Inaugural lecture Rebecca Tunstall Director, Centre for Housing Policy, University of York Joseph Rowntree Professor of Housing Policy [email protected] 30 th April 2012. sweets. Introduction. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1

What should we worry about when we worry about housing problems?Inaugural lecture

Rebecca TunstallDirector, Centre for Housing Policy, University of YorkJoseph Rowntree Professor of Housing [email protected] April 2012

sweets

3IntroductionThere are strong arguments for worrying about housing consumption in relative rather than absolute terms, where data and measures allowThis lecture presents a case study of relative housing consumption, measured via housing spaceUsing a long-term perspective, and relative measures, it argues that:We need to reassess assumptions about past achievements on overcrowdingHousing space inequality are similar to inequalities in income, and by some measures are growingNew space supply and demand problems appear to have emerged over the past 30 yearsCurrent policy will exacerbate inequalities, and old-fashioned absolute problems are on the increase.

4An experiment...Place APlace BThe average home has 6 rooms Your new home has 3 rooms Your new home has 2 roomsThe average home has 1 room5Absolute housing space standardsOvercrowdingHouseholds with fewer than 0.5/1/1.5 rooms per person (C19th-)

Bedroom standard (1960-)A bedroom for:Each married/cohabiting couple;Any other person aged 21+;Any pair aged 10-20 of the same sex;Any pair aged under 10.

Basis fore most social rented allocations today (Pawson et al. 2009)

8Arguments for worrying about housing space consumption in relative termsMore socially just?Relative standards accepted by experts and public for income; no reason not to apply to consumption tooHousing appears to be partly a positional good (Bramley et al. 2008, Marsh and Gibb 2011)Housing is important in social science partly because of role of housing inequality in stratification (Rex and Moore 1967, Bell 1977, Saunders 1990, Hamnett 1999, Malpass 2005)Current absolute standards challenged: very low now generally accepted as being completely unacceptable (ODPM 2004 npn)

9Data and measures used hereCensus of population, 1911-2001England and WalesRooms = count the kitchen as a room, but do not count scullery, landing, lobby, closet, bathroom, nor warehouse, office, shop (GRO 1913 p2). 1-bed flat with kitchen and living room = 3 rooms 3-bed house with kitchen, 2 living rooms = 6 rooms

Does not account for room size or typeApplied to individuals not householdsTreats all individuals the same way: no equivalisationExcludes non household populationExcludes second homesNo 2011 data yetAbsolute low consumption - overcrowding fell dramaticallyPercentage of people in households with less than one room per person, England and Wales, 1911-2001

Median housing space per person rose steadilyRooms per person

But experiences varied across the populationRooms per person by population decile

There was no change in housing space inequality according to the Gini measure

Ratios show falling and then rising inequality

Percentage of people below 60% median space shows the same trends

16Potential causes of rising housing space inequalityHousehold-home size mismatchBlockage of trickle down of spaceIncome inequality?Tenure change?

Increasingly, small households were well-housed due to a deficit of smaller homes1-person households with 4+ rooms

The best-housed gained more from new development, especially after 1991Percentage of net additional rooms held by different groups

Housing space inequality shows similar trends to income inequality90:10 and 50:10 ratiosIs there a link between relative housing space and housing tenure?Tenure composition of fifths of population by housing space, 200121Potential consequences of rising inequalityReduced happiness, well-being?Sustained or increased absolute low consumption?

Implications:Monitoring via relative standardsNew development?Redistribution?

22Potential relative housing space standardsLow relative housing space consumption standard:Below 60% median housing spaceIn 2001, below 1.9 rooms per person - generally above bedroom standard

Consensual standard (Bradshaw et al. 2008):Pensioner couple 2 bedrooms - bedroom standard +1All children own room - probably above bedroom standard

23The 1960 bedroom standard is now generally accepted as being completely unacceptable (ODPM 2004 npn)

It places most individuals:In worst housed fifth for 2001Below 60% median spaceBelow consensual standardAt what median person had achieved by 1921

24The strange re-emergence of the politics of housing spaceNew space policies:The single room rent and extension puts people below the bedroom standardThe benefit cap may be at/below bedroom standardThe bedroom tax at bedroom standard

Significant reduction in welfare rightsRegressive redistribution of space?Likely to result in increase in old-fashioned overcrowding

25ConclusionThere are strong arguments for worrying about housing consumption in relative rather than in absolute terms, where data and measures allow

Relative measures suggest:We need to reassess assumptions about past achievements on low housing space: overcrowding could have been reduced fasterHousing space inequality are similar to inequalities in income, and by some measures are growingNew structural space supply and demand problems appear to have emerged over the past 30 years: size mismatch, trickle down blockage

Current policy will exacerbate inequalities, and old-fashioned absolute problems may be on the increase.

26ReferencesBell, C. (1977), On housing classes Journal of Sociology 13(1):36-40Bradshaw, J.; Middleton, S., Davis, A., Oldfield, N., Smith, N., Cusworth, L., and Williams, J, (2008), A minimum income standard for Britain: What people think, York, JRFBramley, G., Leishman, C. and Watkins, D. (2008) Understanding neighbourhood housing markets: regional context, disequilibrium, sub-markets and supply; Housing Studies 23(2) pp179-212Hamnett, C. (1999), Winners and losers: Home ownership in modern Britain, London, UCLMalpass, P. (2005), Housing and the welfare state: The development of housing policy in Britain, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacmillanMarsh, A and Gibb, K (2011) Uncertainty, expectations and behavioural aspects of housing market choices, Housing, Theory and Society, 28(3), pp215-235Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2004), Overcrowding in England: The national and regional picture: Statistics, London, ODPMPawson, H., Brown, C. and Jones, A. (2009) Exploring local authority policy and practice on housing allocations, London: Communities and Local GovernmentRex, J. and Moore, R. (1967), Race, community and conflict: A study of Sparkbrook, Oxford: Oxford University PressRowntree, B. S. (1901), Poverty: A study of town life, London, Macmillan and Co.Rowntree, B. S. (1985), Poverty and progress, New York, Garland PublishersSaunders, P. (1990), A nation of home owners, London, Allen and UnwinStephens, M., Fitzpatrick, S., Elsinga, M., van Steen, G., and Chzhen, E. (2010), Study on housing exclusion: Welfare policies, housing provision and labour markets, Brussels, European CommissionWoolf, V. (1991), A room of ones own London, Hogarth Press.

2627For more information:

www.york.ac.uk/chp

[email protected]

Chart100000.92019211921192119210.97192119311931193119311193119511951195119511.23195119611961196119611.24196119711971197119711.45197119811981198119811.5198119911991199119911.67199120012001200120011.882001

50thRoooms per person

Sheet1Figure 4: Housing space consumption by population percentile 1911-200119111921193119511961197119811991200150th0.920.9711.231.241.451.51.671.88Note: The 90th percentile is the most generously housedSources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)

Sheet1

Total homes

Sheet2

Total homes

Sheet3

Mean rooms per person

Gini

Gini

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

50thRoooms per person

Millions

Gini coefficient

Chart21.91.461.2210.920.790.670.590.4821.471.2310.970.790.670.570.4921.671.331.2110.80.670.52.331.671.51.311.2310.960.80.672.4521.651.451.241.210.950.742.8521.91.61.451.251.1810.832.82.331.951.671.51.351.1310.9532.521.91.671.51.331.2213.72.862.4321.881.631.451.251

90th80th70th60th50th40th30th20th10thRooms per person

Sheet1All years chart - with mixup of 81 and 91 correctedGini coefficient191119211931195119611971198119912001rooms per person0.3491380.34360619940.3673670.36191474390.36320760330.36581920430.36821174520.3673670.3598938359??Iron law of constant inequality?Ho inequality in rooms ditrbutin compares to other forms of inequalityRateable value 1978Rateable value 1968Rooms 1921Rooms 1931Rooms 1911Rooms 2001Rooms 1951Rooms 1971Rooms 1961Rooms 1991Rooms 19810.270.310.34360619940.3479200000.3491380.35989383590.360.36174086260.36320760330.3673670.3682117452Sources: Robibson et al.19111921193119511961197119811991200190:10 ratio3.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.790: 50 ratio2.072.0621.891.981.961.861.891.7970: 30 ratio1.821.841.661.561.651.611.731.51.6850: 10 ratio1.922.0621.841.81.751.51.671.88Main finding is long-term stability )as with Gini)Comparing income and room rations191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms 90:103.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.7Income (BHC) 90:103.2073.2763.2374.444.145Income (AHC) 90:103.2013.4403.4284.9224.924Rooms 50:101.922.0621.841.81.7501.51.671.88Income (BHC) 50:101.8561.8611.7732.1362.058Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.9101.8332.322.13191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms 90:103.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.7Rooms 50:101.922.0621.841.81.7501.51.671.88Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.9101.8332.322.13Comparing income and room rations191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms 90:103.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.7Income (AHC) 90:103.2013.4403.4284.9224.924Rooms 50:101.922.0621.841.81.7501.51.671.88Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.9101.8332.322.13Source: IFS from LFSAdd 70-30, 90:50??Longer run on income??DraftComparing income and room rations191119211931195119611971198119912001 (E only!)Rooms 90:103.96??43.483.31??3.483.75Income (BHC) 90:103.2073.2763.2374.444.145Income (AHC) 90:103.2013.443.4284.9224.924Rooms 90: 502.0721.891.981.892Income (BHC) 90:501.7281.761.8262.0792.014Income (AHC) 90:501.7341.9011.872.1222.312Rooms 50:101.9221.841.81.841.9Income (BHC) 50:101.8561.8611.7732.1362.058Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.911.8332.322.13Proportion below 60% median19111921193119511961197119811987199119962001Rooms15.80%20.20%14.90%14.40%9.10%11.90%6.61%4.20%11.10%Income (BHC)14.00%18.00%22.00%19.00%18.00%Income (AHC)15.00%21.00%25.00%25.00%23.00%Proprtion at or below 60% median15.80%17.40%4.20%Mean1.081.211.361.51.712.22Median0.9211.231.241.451.51.8860% of median0.550.60.740.740.870.90.91.13Excludes those at medianProgress on 1911 relative personal space poverty ratesProportion below 60% 1911 median191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms15.80%16.20%12.20%4.80%2.70%1.20%0.40%0.40%0.60%Median0.9260% median0.552191119211931195119611971198119912001Gain 1911-2001Proportionate gainPropprtion of all extra rooms going to this groupGain 1981-2001Proption of all gain 1981-2001Gain 1991-2001Proportion of allGain 1981-91Gain 1971-81ProprtioonGain 61-71ProprtionsGain 51-61%Gain 31-51ProprtonGain 21-31ProprtopmGain 11-21Proprton90th1.9222.332.452.852.833.71.80.94736842110.19629225740.90.25568181820.70.33653846150.20.1388888889-0.05-0.08064516130.40.28985507250.120.09917355370.330.2538461538000.10.62580th1.461.471.671.67222.332.52.861.40.95890410960.15267175570.530.15056818180.360.17307692310.170.11805555560.330.5322580645000.330.2727272727000.20.20408163270.010.062570th1.221.231.331.51.651.91.9522.431.210.99180327870.13195201740.480.13636363640.430.20673076920.050.03472222220.050.08064516130.250.18115942030.150.12396694210.170.13076923080.10.10204081630.010.062560th111.21.311.451.61.671.92110.10905125410.330.093750.10.04807692310.230.15972222220.070.11290322580.150.10869565220.140.11570247930.110.08461538460.20.20408163270050th0.920.9711.231.241.451.51.671.880.961.04347826090.10468920390.380.10795454550.210.10096153850.170.11805555560.050.08064516130.210.1521739130.010.00826446280.230.17692307690.030.03061224490.050.312540th0.790.79111.21.251.351.51.630.841.06329113920.09160305340.280.07954545450.130.06250.150.10416666670.10.16129032260.050.03623188410.20.1652892562000.210.21428571430030th0.670.670.80.9611.181.131.331.450.781.16417910450.08505997820.320.09090909090.120.05769230770.20.1388888889-0.05-0.08064516130.180.13043478260.040.03305785120.160.12307692310.130.13265306120020th0.590.570.670.80.95111.221.250.661.11864406780.07197382770.250.07102272730.030.01442307690.220.1527777778000.050.03623188410.150.12396694210.130.10.10.1020408163-0.02-0.12510th0.480.490.50.670.740.830.95110.521.08333333330.05670665210.050.0142045455000.050.03472222220.120.19354838710.090.06521739130.070.05785123970.170.13076923080.010.01020408160.010.0625total gain =Total gain =9.173.522.081.440.621.381.211.30.980.16ie mean =1.02ie mean =0.3911111111gain191119211931195119611971198119910.160.981.31.211.380.621.442.081911192119311951196119711981199120011911-2001 change%Households7.98.710.213.114.616.417.719.921.713.81.746835443People34.636.23841.844.547.147.749.151.116.50.4768786127Rooms37.439.845.856.968.180.786.6101.5113.275.82.0267379679England and Wales1911-211921-311931-511931-51/21951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20011981-911991-20011931-19411941-51Growth in households0.100.17241379310.280.140.110.120.080.120.090.120.090.140.14Growth in rooms0.060.15075376880.240.120.200.190.070.170.120.170.120.120.12Growth in people0.050.050.100.050.060.060.010.030.040.030.040.050.05Growth in rooms0.060.150.240.120.200.190.070.170.120.170.120.120.12growt in rooms - growth in people0.020.100.140.070.130.130.060.140.070.140.070.070.07Growth in number of rooms2.406.0011.105.555.9014.9011.70-37.40-73.77-73.77-2.0311.212.6Means191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms4.734.53344514274.494.344.664.924.894.975.22Rooms per householdPeople4.384.13985318293.733.192.992.872.692.472.35People per householdRooms per person1.081.09507389331.211.361.531.711.822.012.22Rooms per person1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Growth in % roomsGrowth in number??Stacked bar number of rooms per hh/dwelling by timeGini coefficients for rooms and icnome191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms (E and W)0.3491380.34360619940.3673670.36191474390.36320760330.36174086260.36821174520.3660.3598938359Income (BHC) (GB)0.2610.2660.2630.3410.351Income (AHC) (GB)0.2680.2760.2770.3700.386Note: Figures for 2001 were derived as a mean of 2000-01 and 2001-02 figuresSource: IFS from Labour Force Surveyhttp://www.ifs.org.uk/fiscalFacts/povertyStatsComment on absnece of Scotland??NUMBERSSize of households191119211931195119611971198119912001165026122148042983100762564115779925534576561884270751211382494649101112131415Total0000000050952770PERCENTAGESize of households19111921193119511961197119811991200110.127620.290530.197840.227250.104960.037070.010180.004990.0000100.0000110.0000120.0000130.0000140.0000150.0000Total1.0000NUMBERSNumbers of people in homes of different sizes191119211931195119611971198119912001118665521066788358515214171601445294032456269512387141422618184562969101112131415TotalPERCENTAGES123456789101112131415TotalTable: Number of households (and occupied homes) with different numbers of rooms, England and Wales 1911-2011Numbers of hh in homes in different sizs (size of occd homes (NB ignires sharing)1911192119311951196119711981199120011911192119311254710317427347773.2289153525993202793471652887453215611866551 to 326604739179581016508.8625651059837722765607860727376707704533394202305625940362908964.1903913110787313586511544682.0989111951201166530913501501506662169567619505071 to 44198143021441832520340.2705883584145392331736781453711143404820642900365163910018152382422552.3943044152273526966850179455508162582340558806496108932411261821339998.8526331325557184411939738303768962427399844918737+193117710584461031664.14142469223489544114589052195442301572243273608+1461248616756560141.5625823093214061116215650023070377469930441690471522.57884238291348933083734021954423015722202032382813372307037943920010281337Min gain 8+ = 7+ in 1991 minus 8+ in 200111156672is12302702131415Total8664088873808510223519.849341311784614640898164340001770649219886272216604748+Gains1774202PERCENTAGENote: Includes households sharing homes so there is some underestimation of the number and proprtion of larger homes in the stockNumbers of hh in homes in different sizs (size of occd homes (NB ignires sharing)19111921193119511961197119811991200112.9%3.6%3.4%2.7%2.2%2.1%1.6%1.6%0.9%59.3%27.6%10.5%9.9%8.1%4.9%3.7%4.1%3.6%2.5%312.8%15.5%15.1%14.9%11.4%8.2%8.5%8.5%9.0%422.9%24.5%24.7%27.3%26.8%22.4%21.0%20.4%19.8%518.9%20.8%23.7%31.7%36.0%30.5%31.1%29.3%27.1%612.6%12.9%13.1%10.1%12.6%24.2%21.3%21.5%20.7%7+22.3%12.1%10.1%5.3%6.1%8.9%12.4%15.2%20.0%8+16.9%7.1%5.5%2.4%2.8%3.8%0.0%0.0%10.7%75.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%83.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%10.7%95.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%103.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%111.8%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%123.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%130.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%140.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%150.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%Total100.0%100.0%100.0%0.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%8+16.9%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%10.7%Table: Percebtage of households (and occupied homes) with different numbers of rooms, England and Wales 1911-2011Note: Includes households sharing homes so there is some underestimation of the number and proprtion of larger homes in the stock1911-1951: proprtion of 'large homes' with 6 or more rooms decreased, proprtion with 1-5 increasedProprtion with 1 room strated to fall 1931-51, the proprtion with 2 rooms started to fall 1921-32, the proprtion with 3 rooms started to fall 1931-51, the proprtion with 4 dtarted to fall 1951-61, the proprtion with 6 started to fall 1961-71 (and then saw1981-2001: proprtion of 'large homes' with 6 or more homes increased, proprtion with 1-5 decreased1991-2001 quite abig increased in % with 7+ rooms0.5%/1% splits too rought to use!!Share of total rooms of the top 0.5% of the distributionAtkinson 20051911191819211931193719431951196119621971198119912001Total rooms (E and W)0.02539000520.025499100.02429696820.03420892340.02161538590.0427620.01292109180.06128703040.0156570659Total pre-tax income (UK)0.1550.130.090.080.0570.0450.0427Rooms actual percentages included (not exactly 0.5% ecah time)0.004600.004740.005200.003180.005001.000000.005561906310.9950.9952580.9950.9970.9950.9974840.9944380937under 0.5%under 0.5%overunderokunder - a ;otoverNB do not kow about largest homes, of over?? Romms (varying by date)So rooms held by top 0.5% are minimum estimatesUse rabge??Proportion held by top 0.5%NB may be worse coverage of wealthy in census than incomeShare of total rooms of the top 1% of the distributionAtkinson 20051911191819211931193719491951196119621971198119912001Total rooms (E and W)0.03843323960.044098060.04253079920.04162306270.05292260050.04634922980.0445460680.06128703040.0325866221Total pre-tax income (UK)0.19240.16980.11470.10890.08430.07020.0667Rooms actual percentages included (not exactly 1% ecah time)0.007330222510.00979729060.0104695661110.00929122820.005443011110.0025160.005561906310.99266977750.9902030.98953043390.99070877180.99455698890.9974840.9944380937under 1%overunderunderudner - a lotover - top 1.5%under - a lot0.118202393(over - c2%)Absolute gainProprtionate gainPropprtion of all extra rooms going to this group90th decile (best housed)1.80.94736842110.196292257480th1.40.95890410960.152671755770th1.210.99180327870.131952017460th110.109051254150th0.961.04347826090.104689203940th0.841.06329113920.091603053430th0.781.16417910450.085059978220th0.661.11864406780.071973827710th decile (worst housed)0.521.08333333330.0567066521Gains in room per peson 1911-2001Proprtion of all xtra rooms goinf to this grouo1911-20011971-811981-19911991-200190th decile (best housed)0.19629225740.13888888890.336538461580th0.15267175570.11805555560.173076923170th0.13195201740.03472222220.206730769260th0.10905125410.15972222220.048076923150th0.10468920390.11805555560.100961538540th0.09160305340.10416666670.062530th0.08505997820.13888888890.057692307720th0.07197382770.15277777780.014423076910th decile (worst housed)0.05670665210.03472222220Number of households with large numbers of rooms1911192119311951196119711981199120018+People without a room of their own191119211931195119611971198119912001Number of people (millions)16.917.41510.98.35.73.22.12Percentage of people48.792462547148.151350946138.914234657126.048756832518.628987334212.13598448976.6177652634.2193917793.977092879216885204174184571479654610897903829725857150053154558207085220311870.48792462550.48151350950.38914234660.26048756830.18628987330.12135984490.06617765260.04219391780.039770928839665Numberof all extra rooms created in the decade gained by this decile1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20011911-211921-811981-200190th percentile1.50000.00002.81771.11073.6522-0.47582.06943.937590th percentile1.50007.10486.006944444450th percentile0.75000.18371.96380.09261.91740.47581.75901.181350th percentile0.754.63327936272.940277777810th percentile0.15000.06121.45150.64790.82171.14190.51740.000010th percentile0.154.12437144990.51736111111911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20011911-211921-811981-200190th percentile0.62500.00000.25380.09920.2899-0.08060.13890.336590th percentile0.6250.15181204210.225824979150th percentile0.31250.03060.17690.00830.15220.08060.11810.101050th percentile0.31250.09900169580.110536758610th percentile0.06250.01020.13080.05790.06520.19350.03470.000010th percentile0.06250.08812759510.0194496658Total number of rooms produced this decade2.40006.000011.100011.200012.60005.900014.900011.7000Total number of rooms produced this decade2.446.826.6do top 20/80Total5.80006.285714285717.894615384613.216528925619.49855072467.23548387119.537517.25625Proprtion of all extra rooms created in the decade gained by this decile1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200190th percentile0.62500.25384615380.09917355370.2898550725-0.08064516130.13888888890.336538461580th0.06250.204081632700.272727272700.53225806450.11805555560.173076923170th0.06250.10204081630.13076923080.12396694210.18115942030.08064516130.03472222220.206730769260th00.20408163270.08461538460.11570247930.10869565220.11290322580.15972222220.048076923150th0.31250.03061224490.17692307690.00826446280.1521739130.08064516130.11805555560.100961538540th00.214285714300.16528925620.03623188410.16129032260.10416666670.062530th00.13265306120.12307692310.03305785120.1304347826-0.08064516130.13888888890.057692307720th-0.1250.10204081630.10.12396694210.036231884100.15277777780.014423076910th decile0.06250.01020408160.13076923080.05785123970.06521739130.19354838710.03472222220Total11111111line graph?Proprtion of all extra rooms created in the decade gained by this decile1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Top two deciles0.68750.20408163270.25384615380.37190082640.28985507250.45161290320.25694444440.5096153846Bottom two deciles-0.06250.1122448980.23076923080.18181818180.10144927540.19354838710.18750.014423076990th percentile0.62500.00000.25380.09920.2899-0.08060.13890.336580th0.06250.20410.00000.27270.00000.53230.11810.173170th0.06250.10200.13080.12400.18120.08060.03470.206760th0.00000.20410.08460.11570.10870.11290.15970.048150th0.31250.03060.17690.00830.15220.08060.11810.101040th0.00000.21430.00000.16530.03620.16130.10420.062530th0.00000.13270.12310.03310.1304-0.08060.13890.057720th-0.12500.10200.10000.12400.03620.00000.15280.014410th decile0.06250.01020.13080.05790.06520.19350.03470.0000TOTAL1.00001.00001.00001.00001.00001.00001.00001.0000Total gain0.16000.98001.30001.21001.38000.62001.44002.0800in rooms per personProprtion of all new rooms prodced gained y each groupDo for 90/10Progressive' distribution of growth in rooms = top two deciles gain less than 20%, bottowm two deciles gain moreRegressive - oppositeMost regresive - 1911-21, 1991-2001, then 1971-81No progressive decade that woukd reduce inequalityLeast regressive = 1931-51, also 1981-91?????What explains 81-91 91-01 cntrast??1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Top two deciles0.110.20.330.450.40.280.371.06Bottom two deciles-0.010.110.30.220.140.120.270.03Top two deciles0.68750.20408163270.25384615380.37190082640.28985507250.45161290320.25694444440.5096153846Bottom two deciles-0.06250.1122448980.23076923080.18181818180.10144927540.19354838710.18750.01442307690.160.981.31.211.380.621.442.081911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Top decile0.100.330.120.4-0.050.20.7Bottom decile0.010.010.170.070.090.120.050Top decile0.62500.25384615380.09917355370.2898550725-0.08064516130.13888888890.3365384615Bottom decile0.06250.01020.13080.05790.06520.19350.03470.00000.160.981.31.211.380.621.442.0871-81 here atuallt progressive!Least regressuve after that 31-51, most91-01 and 11-21All tenures191119211931195119611971198119912001Households7.98.710.213.114.616.417.719.921.7People34.636.23841.844.547.147.749.151.1Rooms37.439.845.856.968.180.786.6101.5113.2England and WalesBy tenureoosocial rentingprivate rentingBy tenureoosocial rentingprivate rentingHouseholds14.94.22.6Households1491646541572472586762People36.49.15.5People3644045291193155512387Rooms84.117.611.5Rooms841003251757518311542640England and Wales 2001Meansoosocial rentingprivate rentingRooms per household5.644.234.46People per household2.442.192.13Rooms per person2.311.932.09e and w 2001In terms of means, there are relatively small differences in space per perspn bewteen tenures. Oos have slighly lrager mean hosueholds than thos ein other tenures, but substantially larger homes at a mean of 5.64 rooms compared to 4.2 for socils renters aNumbers of hh in homes in different sizs (size of occd homes (NB ignires sharing)Rooms1911192119311951196119711981199120011254710317427347773.2289153525993202793471652887453215611866552660473.0666666679179581016508.862565105983772276560786072737670770453339431107873.0666666713586511544682.09891119512011665309135015015066621695676195050741981429.8666666721441832520340.27058835841453923317367814537111434048206429003651639100.3333333318152382422552.39430441522735269668501794555081625823405588064961089323.7333333311261821339998.8526331325557184411939738303768962427399844918737+1931177.4559753810584461031664.1414246922348954411458905219544230157224327360Total nos8664087.52264205873808510223519.84934131178461464089816434000177064921988627221660474Net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200116271730346.22891499994825.7710850001-3232026886-5842032816-1349062257484.93333333398550.86256543328.137435-337072-114905119516-19672-1743103250777.933333333186031.098911406518.901089-285892-3151591565121890142548314162753.133333333376157.2705879991063804.729412339172-245172329983370632418305176137.666666667607314.3943041729720.6056961117395-25172349021731524357244636858.2666666666213816.852633-14441.85263300015185622129711-2048685050362178757+-872731.455975384-26781.8585760002-339430.1414242032075634647365378202801311638821797801774202Total739971485435289432615230521793102127249221797801774202Total/236999742717144716376152689655163624610898908871011518477.5390217217692693175740823854464Home numberc can reduce through conversion into home/sof different size or through demolition. They can increase through conversion or demolition.The way in which rooms are distribtun between dwwllings in the housing stcok can conitribute to nequlaitie sin housng space bewteen houseds. For example, if all homes have the same number of rooms but all hosueholds are not the same siz, there will eb ineThe way in which people are distrbted bewteen hhouses may also contrnite. Finally the way in which hosuehodls are disttbuted bewteen homes will controbute to inequality.Proprtion of net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes - as % pf previous decade1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Actual home gain 1991-2001% all gain 1981-91 for this sizeGain there would have been if 1991-2001 devt was like 1981-91 devt (sae number of hhs gained)Differece124.6%9.6%1.4%-9.2%8.4%-16.8%11.4%-42.0%-1349060.015054730326710.1325968676-161616.132596868239.0%10.7%4.3%-31.8%-15.9%19.7%-2.7%-24.6%-174310-0.009024764-16012-158298322.6%13.7%26.3%-14.7%-18.9%11.6%12.5%15.0%2548310.086712420515384510098648.2%17.5%42.2%9.5%-6.2%0.9%9.1%6.0%2418300.1546316601274348-32518510.7%33.5%71.4%26.9%-4.8%9.8%5.7%1.0%572440.1446214756256588-19934463.4%19.0%-1.1%39.1%115.5%-5.2%13.4%5.1%2178750.2316912716411067-1931927+-45.2%-2.5%-32.9%29.4%62.9%50.5%37.4%43.5%13116380.3763132059667656643982Overall interccenal gain in nos of hhs as proprtion of no in previus decade0.9%17.0%28.3%11.6%12.2%7.7%12.3%8.9%Lots written about chnaging hh size and shape over the twentieth centiry; less about chaging housing stcok shape which had to take it. More about size of newly built homes than overall supply. Lots written about relative role aof pirvate and la/social ren1991-2001 substantial drop in numbers of 1 and 2 room homes. Big icnraseed in numbers of 1 and 2 bedoromed homes in 1997??-; thee woul dappear as 2/3 and 3/4 roomed homes.Net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes (via new building, conversion and demolition)CHECKCan this (partly) explain differnce bewteen 1981-91 and 1991-2001 in space inequlaity trends - net addition of homes 1991-2001 doninated by large homes with 7+ rooms - too far from median home/room need to assist sig nos of those below median?Nearly all current hh in 7+ very spaciously housed, while nearly all in 5 (modal addtion 1931-51, 1951-61) and 6 (modal additon 1961-71)Need anyone live at below 60% median?Net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200116271730346.22891499994825.7710850001-3232026886-5842032816-1349062257484.93333333398550.86256543328.137435-337072-114905119516-19672-1743103250777.933333333186031.098911406518.901089-285892-3151591565121890142548314162753.133333333376157.2705879991063804.729412339172-245172329983370632418305176137.666666667607314.3943041729720.6056961117395-25172349021731524357244636858.2666666666213816.852633-14441.85263300015185622129711-2048685050362178757+-872731.455975384-26781.8585760002-339430.1414242032075634647365378202801311638Net intercensal gain in rooms according to number of rooms used by households (occupied homes)1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001162717303464826-3232026886-5842032816-134906251497051497051497051497051497051497051497051497037523345580931219557-857676-94547746953656704276449346510136510136510136510136510136510136510136510135880688303657286486035586975-12586152451085157621528622062211501282901-86651311137212778266-1229208303021613072507+-6109120-187473-237601114224493944248515575957419609181466Total-30262495886422.0029348576305.79706610396782.415711290.47954734.412114231.412570505.4SHOULD BE NET INCREASENet intercensal gain in rooms according to number of rooms used by households (occupied homes) as a percentage of all extra rooms that period1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200112.1%0.5%0.1%-0.3%0.2%-0.7%0.3%-1.1%217.0%8.7%6.0%5.0%3.3%6.5%4.3%4.1%324.9%9.5%14.2%-8.2%-6.0%5.9%4.7%6.1%421.5%11.1%7.6%6.3%4.1%8.2%5.4%5.2%529.1%51.6%100.8%53.7%-8.0%30.8%13.0%2.3%67.3%21.8%-1.0%29.9%81.3%-15.5%25.0%10.4%7+-201.9%-3.2%-27.7%13.7%25.1%64.8%47.4%73.0%TotalTable 2: Different measures of inequality in distribution of rooms per person for people in private households in England and Wales, 1911-2001, rooms per person19111921193119511961197119811991200190:10 ratio3.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.790: 50 ratio2.072.0621.891.981.961.861.891.7950: 10 ratio1.922.0621.841.81.751.51.671.68Sources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)Sources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)Table 2: Different measures of inequality in distribution of rooms per person for people in private households in England and Wales, 1911-2001, rooms per person19111921193119511961197119811991200115.80%20.20%14.90%14.40%9.10%11.90%6.60%4.20%11.10%Gini coefficient0.350.360.360.360.360.360.370.370.36Sources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)??191119211931195119611971198119912001MeanMedianWho were he most spaciously housed - over tmTop 10%Number of rooms191119211931195119611971198119912001Odds ratios191119211931195119611971198119912001Odds ratios1phh as % all people0.0913800890.0290687171p hh as % all people in most spaciously housed decile1 p hh in this decil as % all in thi sdecile20.02906871722Total people in hhs with this no of peopleditto in top decile% in whole pop% in top decileOdds ratio2001650261244453950.12732206280.85691123776.7302651142Total 1 p hh in top decile =19910.10781202360.68551862896.3584617557352319919110.01222851190.245085425720.0421299656214804298742301Total people in top decile =3100762565139465411577992Total people=5534576549079396618842705291349total in 1 peson hhs75121138+249464Tortal people34606173Total pop =Total in 1pp hhs42318251072154Total I top decile216855Total top decile=Total 1pp hhs in top decile531485187696Net additional rooms gained by this decile1911-211921-811981-2001Best housed tenth1.57.10480357086.0069444444Middle0.754.63327936272.9402777778Worst housed tenth0.154.12437144990.5173611111Net homes gained by different groups198-2001 - particularly rapid development of extra rooms, particularly non-progressive1911-211921-811981-911991-20011981-20011921-19911991-200110th decile1.51.18413392852.06943.93753.00347222226th decile0.750.77221322711.75901.181251.47013888891st decile0.150.68739524170.517400.2586805556Total net rooms added per decade2.47.814.9011.713.3Net rooms gained per decade by different groups, 1911-20011911-211921-811981-911991-20011981-200110th decile0.6250.15181204210.13888888890.33653846150.22582497916th decile0.31250.09900169580.11805555560.10096153850.11053675861st decile0.06250.08812759510.03472222220.01442307690.0194496658Total number of rooms produced this decade2.446.8????26.61921-811981-911991-20011981-2001Best housed tenth0.15181204210.13888888890.33653846150.2258249791Middle0.09900169580.11805555560.10096153850.1105367586Worst housed tenth0.08812759510.03472222220.01442307690.0194496658Total number of rooms produced this decade46.8????26.6Percentage of all net additonal rooms created going to different groups, Enalng and Wales, 1911-20012.47.813.3Total net rooms added per decadeEach of the periods saw successivly more rapid production of rooms. In 1911-21 2.4m rooms were added. Over the period 1921-81 a mean 7.8m rooms were added per decade, and in 1981-2001 13.3m rooms were added per decade. Eaach period was regressive in temsDo by hh type?? Tenure??Number of people in hhs with different nos of memebers191119211931195119611971198119912001423182526856679500.8958781403329195976729804003849056529134965026121256716630908184479638.46236272541028766546104764601139151213457120148042982459423654708577379648.656128993655210060923941250090486759722214100762563575807665022487922127.820796996477210723564111306401282083612382412115779924572809560673206357388.7694456296755647142566765256444900540498553457655493816849105084479658.9286434042023333954348249026748961931154188427061059725796057828839170.57228135768453223322293238514381508901627615777+385851936405882133282.02105217877511605107147836514381508901625121137275875225181684667641.692078559048381207520402494648180667816157161008291.65194845819037847736828091061260982510543789.0064623535019949033370010569624445533270492.56318712192410170611281148211752128691.9560646320453544121314359616157070.2162035452246878136286047054286.52789214669814830029624.93740515+346061803617438940137134.10553418365574453950147091400476680254907939650952770TOTALFigure number of people in hhs with different number sof memebers, 1911-2001Number of people in hhs with different nos of memebers1911192119311951196119711981199120010.4231820.5268560.67950089591.4033291.9597672.98043.8490565.2913496.50261212.5671663.0908184.47963846247.2541028.76654610.4764611.39151213.4571214.80429824.5942365.4708577.37964865619.93655210.0609239.41259.0486759.72221410.07625635.7580766.5022487.92212782089.96477210.72356411.1306412.82083612.38241211.57799245.7280956.067326.35738876946.2967556.4714256.6765256.44495.4049855.34576554.9381684.9105084.47965892863.4042023.3339543.482492.6748961.9311541.88427610.5972579.6057828.83917057233.5768453.2233222.9323851.438150.8901620.7615777+Figure number of people in hhs with different number sof memebers, 1911-20011911192119311951196119711981199120010.01222850950.01456433720.01692948220.03354312830.04400055130.06328968770.08074712560.10781202360.127620382610.07418229920.08544216190.11160832910.17339146720.19682587640.22247076960.23897595930.27419082340.290549424520.13275767510.15123564350.1838608770.23750883710.22588713810.199877260.18982693330.19809155760.197756785430.16638866240.17974727920.19737651970.23818336680.24076470730.23636247810.2689609230.25229348790.227229883740.16552231420.16772418740.15839169710.15050844170.14529598050.14177801040.13520383950.1101273740.104916082150.14269613120.13574543030.11160883910.08136907630.07485370150.07395171940.05611510020.03934755020.036980717660.30622440850.26554096050.22022425850.08549568260.07236979960.06227007480.03017011930.01813718330.01494672427+111.000000002610.99999775481111TOTALPefrcentage of population nliving in hhs with different numbers of memebers, 1911-2001Absolute intercensal change Iin numbers of people living in each size of hh1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001103674152644.895878723828.10412255643810206338686561442293121126315236521388820.4623622774463.537638151244417099149150522065608134717828766211908791.6561282556903.343872124371-648423-36382567353935404237441721419879.8207962042644.1792047587924070761690196-438424-8044204339225290068.769444998-60633.7694449984174670205100-231625-1039915-592205-27660-430849.07136-1075456.92864-70248148536-807594-743742-468846-991475-766611.427719001-5262325.572281-353523-290937-1494235-547988-1285857+15682093962745.105531699422.894472702944255189957662514113711873374TOTAL% all interccencal pop growth in hhs of this size1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20010.06610981060.03851998950.42592580190.20586368050.39995038991.50644873181.02190919330.646567636810.33391722660.3504692991.63259149580.5595543230.67005551551.58691003691.46354714670.719118552920.55899500640.48168420031.50457145980.0460131619-0.2540943039-0.63095599390.47722321060.188986288930.47453623850.35830713831.201963360.28072797660.15951885242.9311875135-0.3106369622-0.429396372540.21631364190.0731989491-0.03567903310.06462213050.0803715194-0.4016908736-0.7368119368-0.03161141345-0.0176379551-0.1087249044-0.6328365149-0.02598943970.0582060654-1.4005532192-0.5269642071-0.0250265036-0.6322339688-0.1934546451-3.0965366317-0.1307918329-0.1140080387-2.5913461955-0.3882664445-0.06863818977+11.00000002660.999999937911111Absolute intercensal change Iin numbers of people living in each size of hh1991-2001 the number people living in 1 person hhs grew by 1.2m and by 65%, and the number in 2 perosn hhs by 1.3m and 72%. But these were not higher absolute or relarive groth than 1981-91 and not higher relative growt than 1971-81.Less abolsute and porprtionate gain in nos living in small hhs (1 and 2 people) 1991-2001 than 1981-1991 or 1971-81, not more domiant than in previosi periods% all interccencal pop growth in hhs of this sizeSome one person hhs have to live in 4+ room homes at 4 rooms per person1911192119311951196119711981199120012.02305613332.5940362.90896419043.3636372.7083532.3051752.5227832.7249412.671-3 room homes0.4231820.5268560.67950089591.4033291.9597672.98043.8490565.2913496.51 person households1.59987413332.067182.22946329451.9603080.748586-0.675225-1.326273-2.566408-3.8Deficit191119211931195119611971198119912001000000.01433860540.02782311620.05229094510.0752080014Due to deficit of smaller homes0.00395874380.00492469960.00636027480.01541429420.02491121310.02422968950.02196752580.01949475910.01617208760Other0.00395874380.00492469960.00636027480.01541429420.02491121310.03856829480.0497906420.07178570410.091380089% all people who are 1 person hhs who do live at 4 rooms per person or more346061803617438940137134.10553418365574453950147091400476680254907939650952770Total peopleMajority inevitable1-2 bed homes1 person householdsDeficit% all people who are 1 person hhs who have to live at 4 rooms per person or more% all people who are 1 person hhs who do live at 4 rooms per person or moreTotal people623392667731476960592Number of 1-4 bed homes384905652913496502612Number of 1 person hhs23848701481798457980Deficit% all people who are 1 person hhs who have to live at 4 rooms per person or1981-911991-2001Growth in 1-3 room homes14422931211263Growth in 1 person hhsDeficit1-3 room homes??197110th4 rooms per person1981199120019th1921193119511961197119811991191125940362908964.190391336363727083532305175252278327249412023056.13333333526856679500.8958781403329195976729804003849056529134942318220671802229463.2945131960308748586-675225-1326273-25664081599874.133333332.5940362.90896419043.3636372.7083532.3051752.5227832.7249412.02305613330.5268560.67950089591.4033291.9597672.98043.8490565.2913490.4231822.067182.22946329451.9603080.748586-0.675225-1.326273-2.5664081.5998741333

Sheet12516671901658203779992190115966641901375034219011901254710191166047311078731911198143019113938651191119111921192119211921192119211921192119211921193119311931193119311931193119311931193119381938193819381938193819381938193819381951195119511951195119511951195119511951196119611961196119611961196119611961196119711971197119711971197119711971197119712803961981705042145545319813544487198152033523489180204225819911991199119911991199119911991199119912001200120012001200120012001200120012001

12345+67Total homes

Sheet20.03619010.0940.11119010.22719010.532190119010.03219110.0830.13919110.24919110.497191119111921192119211921192119211921192119211921193119311931193119311931193119311931193119381938193819381938193819381938193819381951195119511951195119511951195119511951196119611961196119611961196119611961196119711971197119711971197119711971197119710.01719810.0420.08719810.21219810.3110.2090.12219911991199119911991199119911991199119912001200120012001200120012001200120012001

12345+67+Total homes

Sheet30.450.580.70.86000.50.610.740.89000.530.630.750.931.10.91192119211921192119211921

1 room2 room3 room4 roomMeanMedianMean rooms per person

rooms per personGini

Gini

90:10 ratio90: 50 ratio70: 30 ratio50: 10 ratio

90th80th70th60th50th40th30th20th10thRooms per person

7.934.637.48.736.239.810.23845.813.141.856.914.644.568.116.447.180.717.747.786.619.949.1101.521.751.1113.2

HouseholdsPeopleRoomsMillions

4.73417721524.37974683544.53344514274.13985318294.49019607843.72549019614.34351145043.19083969474.66438356162.98657718124.92073170732.87195121954.89265536722.694.972.475.21658986182.3548387097

RoomsPeople

0.349138191119110.3436061994192119210.367367193119310.3619147439195119510.36320760330.2610.2680.36174086260.2660.2760.36821174520.2630.2770.3660.3410.370.35989383590.3510.386

Rooms (E and W)Income (BHC) (GB)Income (AHC) (GB)Gini coefficient

0.0253900052191119180.1550.025499102819210.0242969682193119370.1319430.090.03420892340.080.0216153859196119620.0570.04276174060.0450.012921091819810.06128703040.04270.01565706592001

Total rooms (E and W)Total pre-tax income (UK)

0.0384332396191119180.19240.044098055219210.0425307992193119370.169819490.11470.04162306270.10890.0529226005196119620.08430.04634922980.07020.04454606819810.06128703040.06670.03258662212001

Total rooms (E and W)Total pre-tax income (UK)

RoomsIncome (BHC)Income (AHC)

Rooms 90:10Income (AHC) 90:10Rooms 50:10Income (AHC) 50:10Ratios

1.80.94736842111.40.95890410961.210.9918032787110.961.04347826090.841.06329113920.781.16417910450.661.11864406780.521.0833333333

Absolute gainProprtionate gain

0.196292257490th decile (best housed)0.13888888890.33653846150.152671755780th0.11805555560.17307692310.131952017470th0.03472222220.20673076920.109051254160th0.15972222220.04807692310.104689203950th0.11805555560.10096153850.091603053440th0.10416666670.06250.085059978230th0.13888888890.05769230770.071973827720th0.15277777780.01442307690.056706652110th decile (worst housed)0.03472222220

1911-20011971-811981-19911991-2001

Rooms

16.948.792462547117.448.151350946114.838.914234657110.926.04875683258.318.62898733425.712.13598448973.26.6177652632.14.21939177923.9770928792

Number of people (millions)Percentage of people

1.50.750.1500.18367346940.06122448982.81769230771.96384615381.45153846151.11074380170.09256198350.64793388433.6521739131.91739130430.8217391304-0.47580645160.47580645161.14193548392.06944444441.75902777780.51736111113.93751.181250

90th percentile50th percentile10th percentileExtra rooms, millions

0.6875-0.06250.20408163270.1122448980.25384615380.23076923080.37190082640.18181818180.28985507250.10144927540.45161290320.19354838710.25694444440.18750.50961538460.0144230769

Top two decilesBottom two deciles

0.11-0.010.20.110.330.30.450.220.40.140.280.120.370.271.060.03

Top two decilesBottom two decilesGains in rooms per person

0.10.0100.010.330.170.120.070.40.09-0.050.120.20.050.70

Top decileBottom decileGains in rooms per person

14.94.22.636.49.15.584.117.611.5

oosocial rentingprivate rentingMillions

5.63808683894.22760134294.46219636752.44296835742.19359470342.13099890912.30788369471.92724815412.0939458714

oosocial rentingprivate renting

0.02939836250.07623111250.12786955380.22869456850.18918325080.12572860910.22289483390.03632683820.10505253730.15548612770.24538362810.20773865210.12888201480.12113020190.03401694550.09942837380.15109089030.24652351170.23695852910.13107008870.10091076590.02687933670.08079352360.14874400870.2732266410.31653619050.1010498980.05277040150.0218756390.04936616590.11374363790.26796969690.35992792250.12595668650.06116025120.02112480220.03698795180.08215589630.22381313130.30533923570.24180540340.08877357920.01630729570.04107962210.08509093730.20959222190.31108149490.21285763440.12399079390.01616999910.03558756510.08526867180.20356786830.29283542940.21492203260.15164843370.00861730910.02462522290.09004913740.19805826960.27149216590.20737648680.1997817315

1234567+Households

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

1234567+Households

62717257484.933333333250777.933333333162753.133333333176137.66666666736858.2666666666-872731.45597538430346.228914999998550.862565186031.098911376157.270587999607314.394304213816.852633-26781.85857600024825.771085000143328.137435406518.9010891063804.7294121729720.605696-14441.8526330001-339430.141424-32320-337072-285892339172111739551856220320726886-114905-315159-245172-2517232129711563464-5842011951615651232998490217-20486873653732816-19672189014337063315243505036820280-134906-174310254831241830572442178751311638

1234567+

3.962.071.924.262.062.064223.481.891.843.311.981.83.311.961.752.951.861.531.891.673.71.791.68

90:10 ratio90: 50 ratio50: 10 ratio

0.1580.2020.1490.1440.0910.1190.0660.0420.111

0.6250.31250.062500.03061224490.01020408160.25384615380.17692307690.13076923080.09917355370.00826446280.05785123970.28985507250.1521739130.0652173913-0.08064516130.08064516130.19354838710.13888888890.11805555560.03472222220.33653846150.10096153850

90th percentile50th percentile10th percentile

1.50.750.157.10480357084.63327936274.12437144996.00694444442.94027777780.5173611111

Best housed tenthMiddleWorst housed tenthRooms, millions

1.50.750.151.18413392850.77221322710.68739524172.06944444441.75902777780.51736111113.93751.181250

10th decile6th decile1st decileMillions of rooms

0.6250.31250.06250.15181204210.09900169580.08812759510.13888888890.11805555560.03472222220.33653846150.10096153850.0144230769

10th decile6th decile1st decile

Growth in householdsGrowth in roomsGrowth in people

4231822567166459423657580765728095493816810597257526856309081854708576502248606732049105089605782679500.8958784479638.4623627379648.6561287922127.8207966357388.7694454479658.928648839170.572281140332972541029936552996477262967553404202357684519597678766546100609231072356464714253333954322332229804001047646094125001113064066765253482490293238538490561139151290486751282083664449002674896143815052913491345712097222141238241254049851931154890162650261214804298100762561157799253457651884270761577

1234567+

0.4231822.5671664.5942365.7580765.7280954.93816810.5972570.5268563.0908185.4708576.5022486.067324.9105089.6057820.67950089594.47963846247.37964865617.92212782086.35738876944.47965892868.83917057231.4033297.2541029.9365529.9647726.2967553.4042023.5768451.9597678.76654610.06092310.7235646.4714253.3339543.2233222.980410.476469.412511.130646.6765253.482492.9323853.84905611.3915129.04867512.8208366.44492.6748961.438155.29134913.457129.72221412.3824125.4049851.9311540.8901626.50261214.80429810.07625611.5779925.3457651.884270.761577

1234567+People, millions

0.01222850950.07418229920.13275767510.16638866240.16552231420.14269613120.30622440850.01456433720.08544216190.15123564350.17974727920.16772418740.13574543030.26554096050.01692948220.11160832910.1838608770.19737651970.15839169710.11160883910.22022425850.03354312830.17339146720.23750883710.23818336680.15050844170.08136907630.08549568260.04400055130.19682587640.22588713810.24076470730.14529598050.07485370150.07236979960.06328968770.22247076960.199877260.23636247810.14177801040.07395171940.06227007480.08074712560.23897595930.18982693330.2689609230.13520383950.05611510020.03017011930.10781202360.27419082340.19809155760.25229348790.1101273740.03934755020.01813718330.12762038260.29054942450.19775678540.22722988370.10491608210.03698071760.0149467242

1234567+

103674523652876621744172339225-27660-991475152644.8958781388820.4623621908791.6561281419879.820796290068.769444998-430849.07136-766611.427719001723828.1041222774463.5376382556903.3438722042644.179204-60633.7694449984-1075456.92864-5262325.5722815564381512444124371758792174670-70248-35352310206331709914-648423407076205100148536-290937868656915052-3638251690196-231625-807594-149423514422932065608673539-438424-1039915-743742-54798812112631347178354042-804420-59220-46884-128585

1234567+

0.06610981060.33391722660.55899500640.47453623850.2163136419-0.0176379551-0.63223396880.03851998950.3504692990.48168420030.35830713830.0731989491-0.1087249044-0.19345464510.42592580191.63259149581.50457145981.20196336-0.0356790331-0.6328365149-3.09653663170.20586368050.5595543230.04601316190.28072797660.0646221305-0.0259894397-0.13079183290.39995038990.6700555155-0.25409430390.15951885240.08037151940.0582060654-0.11400803871.50644873181.5869100369-0.63095599392.9311875135-0.4016908736-1.4005532192-2.59134619551.02190919331.46354714670.4772232106-0.3106369622-0.7368119368-0.5269642071-0.38826644450.64656763680.71911855290.1889862889-0.4293963725-0.0316114134-0.025026503-0.0686381897

1234567+

2.02305613330.4231821.59987413332.5940360.5268562.067182.90896419040.67950089592.22946329453.3636371.4033291.9603082.7083531.9597670.7485862.3051752.9804-0.6752252.5227833.849056-1.3262732.7249415.291349-2.5664082.676.5-3.8

1-3 room homes1 person householdsDeficitMillions

00.003958743800.004924699600.006360274800.015414294200.02491121310.01433860540.02422968950.02782311620.02196752580.05229094510.01949475910.07520800140.0161720876

Due to deficit of smaller homesOtherPercentage of total population

0.15181204210.09900169580.08812759510.13888888890.11805555560.03472222220.33653846150.10096153850.0144230769

Best housed tenthMiddleWorst housed tenth

Rooms 90:10Rooms 50:10Ratios

Chart10.349138191119110.3436061994192119210.367367193119310.3619147439195119510.3632076033196119610.3617408626197119710.3682117452198119810.366199119910.359893835920012001

Housing consumption

Sheet1Figure 5: Trends in income inequality, Great Britain 1961-2001 and housing consumption inequality, England and Wales, 1911-2001, measured by Gini coefficients191119211931195119611971198119912001Housing consumption0.3490.3440.3670.3620.3630.3620.3680.3660.360Note: Figures for 2001 were derived as a mean of 2000-01 and 2001-02 figuresSources: Income: Labour Force Survey data for Great Britain from the IFS; http://www.ifs.org.uk/fiscalFacts/povertyStats. The figures represent the position of childless couple households rather than fully equivalised results. Figures given for 2001 are t

Sheet1

Total homes

Sheet2

Total homes

Sheet3

Mean rooms per person

Gini

Gini

Rooms per person

Millions

000000000000000000000000000

Housing consumptionGini

Chart63.961.924.262.06423.481.843.311.83.311.752.951.531.673.71.88

90:10 ratio50:10 ratio

Sheet1All years chart - with mixup of 81 and 91 correctedGini coefficient191119211931195119611971198119912001rooms per person0.3491380.34360619940.3673670.36191474390.36320760330.36581920430.36821174520.3673670.3598938359??Iron law of constant inequality?Ho inequality in rooms ditrbutin compares to other forms of inequalityRateable value 1978Rateable value 1968Rooms 1921Rooms 1931Rooms 1911Rooms 2001Rooms 1951Rooms 1971Rooms 1961Rooms 1991Rooms 19810.270.310.34360619940.3479200000.3491380.35989383590.360.36174086260.36320760330.3673670.3682117452Sources: Robibson et al.19111921193119511961197119811991200190:10 ratio3.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.790: 50 ratio2.072.0621.891.981.961.861.891.7970: 30 ratio1.821.841.661.561.651.611.731.51.6850: 10 ratio1.922.0621.841.81.751.51.671.88Main finding is long-term stability )as with Gini)Comparing income and room rations191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms 90:103.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.7Income (BHC) 90:103.2073.2763.2374.444.145Income (AHC) 90:103.2013.4403.4284.9224.924Rooms 50:101.922.0621.841.81.7501.51.671.88Income (BHC) 50:101.8561.8611.7732.1362.058Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.9101.8332.322.1319111921193119511961197119811991200190:10 ratio3.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.750:10 ratio1.922.0621.841.81.7501.51.671.88Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.9101.8332.322.13Comparing income and room rations191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms 90:103.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.7Income (AHC) 90:103.2013.4403.4284.9224.924Rooms 50:101.922.0621.841.81.7501.51.671.88Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.9101.8332.322.13Source: IFS from LFSAdd 70-30, 90:50??Longer run on income??DraftComparing income and room rations191119211931195119611971198119912001 (E only!)Rooms 90:103.96??43.483.31??3.483.75Income (BHC) 90:103.2073.2763.2374.444.145Income (AHC) 90:103.2013.443.4284.9224.924Rooms 90: 502.0721.891.981.892Income (BHC) 90:501.7281.761.8262.0792.014Income (AHC) 90:501.7341.9011.872.1222.312Rooms 50:101.9221.841.81.841.9Income (BHC) 50:101.8561.8611.7732.1362.058Income (AHC) 50:101.8461.911.8332.322.13Proportion below 60% median19111921193119511961197119811987199119962001Rooms15.80%20.20%14.90%14.40%9.10%11.90%6.61%4.20%11.10%Income (BHC)14.00%18.00%22.00%19.00%18.00%Income (AHC)15.00%21.00%25.00%25.00%23.00%Proprtion at or below 60% median15.80%17.40%4.20%Mean1.081.211.361.51.712.22Median0.9211.231.241.451.51.8860% of median0.550.60.740.740.870.90.91.13Excludes those at medianProgress on 1911 relative personal space poverty ratesProportion below 60% 1911 median191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms15.80%16.20%12.20%4.80%2.70%1.20%0.40%0.40%0.60%Median0.9260% median0.552191119211931195119611971198119912001Gain 1911-2001Proportionate gainPropprtion of all extra rooms going to this groupGain 1981-2001Proption of all gain 1981-2001Gain 1991-2001Proportion of allGain 1981-91Gain 1971-81ProprtioonGain 61-71ProprtionsGain 51-61%Gain 31-51ProprtonGain 21-31ProprtopmGain 11-21Proprton90th decile1.9222.332.452.852.833.71.80.94736842110.19629225740.90.25568181820.70.33653846150.20.1388888889-0.05-0.08064516130.40.28985507250.120.09917355370.330.2538461538000.10.62580th1.461.471.671.67222.332.52.861.40.95890410960.15267175570.530.15056818180.360.17307692310.170.11805555560.330.5322580645000.330.2727272727000.20.20408163270.010.062570th1.221.231.331.51.651.91.9522.431.210.99180327870.13195201740.480.13636363640.430.20673076920.050.03472222220.050.08064516130.250.18115942030.150.12396694210.170.13076923080.10.10204081630.010.062560th111.21.311.451.61.671.92110.10905125410.330.093750.10.04807692310.230.15972222220.070.11290322580.150.10869565220.140.11570247930.110.08461538460.20.20408163270050th0.920.9711.231.241.451.51.671.880.961.04347826090.10468920390.380.10795454550.210.10096153850.170.11805555560.050.08064516130.210.1521739130.010.00826446280.230.17692307690.030.03061224490.050.312540th0.790.79111.21.251.351.51.630.841.06329113920.09160305340.280.07954545450.130.06250.150.10416666670.10.16129032260.050.03623188410.20.1652892562000.210.21428571430030th0.670.670.80.9611.181.131.331.450.781.16417910450.08505997820.320.09090909090.120.05769230770.20.1388888889-0.05-0.08064516130.180.13043478260.040.03305785120.160.12307692310.130.13265306120020th0.590.570.670.80.95111.221.250.661.11864406780.07197382770.250.07102272730.030.01442307690.220.1527777778000.050.03623188410.150.12396694210.130.10.10.1020408163-0.02-0.12510th decile0.480.490.50.670.740.830.95110.521.08333333330.05670665210.050.0142045455000.050.03472222220.120.19354838710.090.06521739130.070.05785123970.170.13076923080.010.01020408160.010.0625total gain =Total gain =9.173.522.081.440.621.381.211.30.980.16ie mean =1.02ie mean =0.3911111111gain191119211931195119611971198119910.160.981.31.211.380.621.442.081911192119311951196119711981199120011911-2001 change%Households7.98.710.213.114.616.417.719.921.713.81.746835443People34.636.23841.844.547.147.749.151.116.50.4768786127Rooms37.439.845.856.968.180.786.6101.5113.275.82.0267379679England and Wales1911-211921-311931-511931-51/21951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20011981-911991-20011931-19411941-51Growth in households0.100.17241379310.280.140.110.120.080.120.090.120.090.140.14Growth in rooms0.060.15075376880.240.120.200.190.070.170.120.170.120.120.12Growth in people0.050.050.100.050.060.060.010.030.040.030.040.050.05Growth in rooms0.060.150.240.120.200.190.070.170.120.170.120.120.12growt in rooms - growth in people0.020.100.140.070.130.130.060.140.070.140.070.070.07Growth in number of rooms2.406.0011.105.555.9014.9011.70-37.40-73.77-73.77-2.0311.212.6Means191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms4.734.53344514274.494.344.664.924.894.975.22Rooms per householdPeople4.384.13985318293.733.192.992.872.692.472.35People per householdRooms per person1.081.09507389331.211.361.531.711.822.012.22Rooms per person1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Growth in % roomsGrowth in number??Stacked bar number of rooms per hh/dwelling by timeGini coefficients for rooms and icnome191119211931195119611971198119912001Rooms (E and W)0.3491380.34360619940.3673670.36191474390.36320760330.36174086260.36821174520.3660.3598938359Income (BHC) (GB)0.2610.2660.2630.3410.351Income (AHC) (GB)0.2680.2760.2770.3700.386Note: Figures for 2001 were derived as a mean of 2000-01 and 2001-02 figuresSource: IFS from Labour Force Surveyhttp://www.ifs.org.uk/fiscalFacts/povertyStatsComment on absnece of Scotland??NUMBERSSize of households191119211931195119611971198119912001165026122148042983100762564115779925534576561884270751211382494649101112131415Total0000000050952770PERCENTAGESize of households19111921193119511961197119811991200110.127620.290530.197840.227250.104960.037070.010180.004990.0000100.0000110.0000120.0000130.0000140.0000150.0000Total1.0000NUMBERSNumbers of people in homes of different sizes191119211931195119611971198119912001118665521066788358515214171601445294032456269512387141422618184562969101112131415TotalPERCENTAGES123456789101112131415TotalTable: Number of households (and occupied homes) with different numbers of rooms, England and Wales 1911-2011Numbers of hh in homes in different sizs (size of occd homes (NB ignires sharing)1911192119311951196119711981199120011911192119311254710317427347773.2289153525993202793471652887453215611866551 to 326604739179581016508.8625651059837722765607860727376707704533394202305625940362908964.1903913110787313586511544682.0989111951201166530913501501506662169567619505071 to 44198143021441832520340.2705883584145392331736781453711143404820642900365163910018152382422552.3943044152273526966850179455508162582340558806496108932411261821339998.8526331325557184411939738303768962427399844918737+193117710584461031664.14142469223489544114589052195442301572243273608+1461248616756560141.5625823093214061116215650023070377469930441690471522.57884238291348933083734021954423015722202032382813372307037943920010281337Min gain 8+ = 7+ in 1991 minus 8+ in 200111156672is12302702131415Total8664088873808510223519.849341311784614640898164340001770649219886272216604748+Gains1774202PERCENTAGENote: Includes households sharing homes so there is some underestimation of the number and proprtion of larger homes in the stockNumbers of hh in homes in different sizs (size of occd homes (NB ignires sharing)19111921193119511961197119811991200112.9%3.6%3.4%2.7%2.2%2.1%1.6%1.6%0.9%59.3%27.6%10.5%9.9%8.1%4.9%3.7%4.1%3.6%2.5%312.8%15.5%15.1%14.9%11.4%8.2%8.5%8.5%9.0%422.9%24.5%24.7%27.3%26.8%22.4%21.0%20.4%19.8%518.9%20.8%23.7%31.7%36.0%30.5%31.1%29.3%27.1%612.6%12.9%13.1%10.1%12.6%24.2%21.3%21.5%20.7%7+22.3%12.1%10.1%5.3%6.1%8.9%12.4%15.2%20.0%8+16.9%7.1%5.5%2.4%2.8%3.8%0.0%0.0%10.7%75.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%83.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%10.7%95.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%103.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%111.8%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%123.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%130.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%140.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%150.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%Total100.0%100.0%100.0%0.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%8+16.9%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%10.7%Table: Percebtage of households (and occupied homes) with different numbers of rooms, England and Wales 1911-2011Note: Includes households sharing homes so there is some underestimation of the number and proprtion of larger homes in the stock1911-1951: proprtion of 'large homes' with 6 or more rooms decreased, proprtion with 1-5 increasedProprtion with 1 room strated to fall 1931-51, the proprtion with 2 rooms started to fall 1921-32, the proprtion with 3 rooms started to fall 1931-51, the proprtion with 4 dtarted to fall 1951-61, the proprtion with 6 started to fall 1961-71 (and then saw1981-2001: proprtion of 'large homes' with 6 or more homes increased, proprtion with 1-5 decreased1991-2001 quite abig increased in % with 7+ rooms0.5%/1% splits too rought to use!!Share of total rooms of the top 0.5% of the distributionAtkinson 20051911191819211931193719431951196119621971198119912001Total rooms (E and W)0.02539000520.025499100.02429696820.03420892340.02161538590.0427620.01292109180.06128703040.0156570659Total pre-tax income (UK)0.1550.130.090.080.0570.0450.0427Rooms actual percentages included (not exactly 0.5% ecah time)0.004600.004740.005200.003180.005001.000000.005561906310.9950.9952580.9950.9970.9950.9974840.9944380937under 0.5%under 0.5%overunderokunder - a ;otoverNB do not kow about largest homes, of over?? Romms (varying by date)So rooms held by top 0.5% are minimum estimatesUse rabge??Proportion held by top 0.5%NB may be worse coverage of wealthy in census than incomeShare of total rooms of the top 1% of the distributionAtkinson 20051911191819211931193719491951196119621971198119912001Total rooms (E and W)0.03843323960.044098060.04253079920.04162306270.05292260050.04634922980.0445460680.06128703040.0325866221Total pre-tax income (UK)0.19240.16980.11470.10890.08430.07020.0667Rooms actual percentages included (not exactly 1% ecah time)0.007330222510.00979729060.0104695661110.00929122820.005443011110.0025160.005561906310.99266977750.9902030.98953043390.99070877180.99455698890.9974840.9944380937under 1%overunderunderudner - a lotover - top 1.5%under - a lot0.118202393(over - c2%)Absolute gainProprtionate gainPropprtion of all extra rooms going to this group90th decile (best housed)1.80.94736842110.196292257480th1.40.95890410960.152671755770th1.210.99180327870.131952017460th110.109051254150th0.961.04347826090.104689203940th0.841.06329113920.091603053430th0.781.16417910450.085059978220th0.661.11864406780.071973827710th decile (worst housed)0.521.08333333330.0567066521Gains in room per peson 1911-2001Proprtion of all xtra rooms goinf to this grouo1911-20011971-811981-19911991-200190th decile (best housed)0.19629225740.13888888890.336538461580th0.15267175570.11805555560.173076923170th0.13195201740.03472222220.206730769260th0.10905125410.15972222220.048076923150th0.10468920390.11805555560.100961538540th0.09160305340.10416666670.062530th0.08505997820.13888888890.057692307720th0.07197382770.15277777780.014423076910th decile (worst housed)0.05670665210.03472222220Number of households with large numbers of rooms1911192119311951196119711981199120018+People without a room of their own191119211931195119611971198119912001Number of people (millions)16.917.41510.98.35.73.22.12Percentage of people48.792462547148.151350946138.914234657126.048756832518.628987334212.13598448976.6177652634.2193917793.977092879216885204174184571479654610897903829725857150053154558207085220311870.48792462550.48151350950.38914234660.26048756830.18628987330.12135984490.06617765260.04219391780.039770928839665Numberof all extra rooms created in the decade gained by this decile1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20011911-211921-811981-200190th percentile1.50000.00002.81771.11073.6522-0.47582.06943.937590th percentile1.50007.10486.006944444450th percentile0.75000.18371.96380.09261.91740.47581.75901.181350th percentile0.754.63327936272.940277777810th percentile0.15000.06121.45150.64790.82171.14190.51740.000010th percentile0.154.12437144990.51736111111911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20011911-211921-811981-200190th percentile0.62500.00000.25380.09920.2899-0.08060.13890.336590th percentile0.6250.15181204210.225824979150th percentile0.31250.03060.17690.00830.15220.08060.11810.101050th percentile0.31250.09900169580.110536758610th percentile0.06250.01020.13080.05790.06520.19350.03470.000010th percentile0.06250.08812759510.0194496658Total number of rooms produced this decade2.40006.000011.100011.200012.60005.900014.900011.7000Total number of rooms produced this decade2.446.826.6do top 20/80Total5.80006.285714285717.894615384613.216528925619.49855072467.23548387119.537517.25625Proprtion of all extra rooms created in the decade gained by this decile1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200190th percentile0.62500.25384615380.09917355370.2898550725-0.08064516130.13888888890.336538461580th0.06250.204081632700.272727272700.53225806450.11805555560.173076923170th0.06250.10204081630.13076923080.12396694210.18115942030.08064516130.03472222220.206730769260th00.20408163270.08461538460.11570247930.10869565220.11290322580.15972222220.048076923150th0.31250.03061224490.17692307690.00826446280.1521739130.08064516130.11805555560.100961538540th00.214285714300.16528925620.03623188410.16129032260.10416666670.062530th00.13265306120.12307692310.03305785120.1304347826-0.08064516130.13888888890.057692307720th-0.1250.10204081630.10.12396694210.036231884100.15277777780.014423076910th decile0.06250.01020408160.13076923080.05785123970.06521739130.19354838710.03472222220Total11111111line graph?Proprtion of all extra rooms created in the decade gained by this decile1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Top two deciles0.68750.20408163270.25384615380.37190082640.28985507250.45161290320.25694444440.5096153846Bottom two deciles-0.06250.1122448980.23076923080.18181818180.10144927540.19354838710.18750.014423076990th percentile0.62500.00000.25380.09920.2899-0.08060.13890.336580th0.06250.20410.00000.27270.00000.53230.11810.173170th0.06250.10200.13080.12400.18120.08060.03470.206760th0.00000.20410.08460.11570.10870.11290.15970.048150th0.31250.03060.17690.00830.15220.08060.11810.101040th0.00000.21430.00000.16530.03620.16130.10420.062530th0.00000.13270.12310.03310.1304-0.08060.13890.057720th-0.12500.10200.10000.12400.03620.00000.15280.014410th decile0.06250.01020.13080.05790.06520.19350.03470.0000TOTAL1.00001.00001.00001.00001.00001.00001.00001.0000Total gain0.16000.98001.30001.21001.38000.62001.44002.0800in rooms per personProprtion of all new rooms prodced gained y each groupDo for 90/10Progressive' distribution of growth in rooms = top two deciles gain less than 20%, bottowm two deciles gain moreRegressive - oppositeMost regresive - 1911-21, 1991-2001, then 1971-81No progressive decade that woukd reduce inequalityLeast regressive = 1931-51, also 1981-91?????What explains 81-91 91-01 cntrast??1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Top two deciles0.110.20.330.450.40.280.371.06Bottom two deciles-0.010.110.30.220.140.120.270.03Top two deciles0.68750.20408163270.25384615380.37190082640.28985507250.45161290320.25694444440.5096153846Bottom two deciles-0.06250.1122448980.23076923080.18181818180.10144927540.19354838710.18750.01442307690.160.981.31.211.380.621.442.081911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Top decile0.100.330.120.4-0.050.20.7Bottom decile0.010.010.170.070.090.120.050Top decile0.62500.25384615380.09917355370.2898550725-0.08064516130.13888888890.3365384615Bottom decile0.06250.01020.13080.05790.06520.19350.03470.00000.160.981.31.211.380.621.442.0871-81 here atuallt progressive!Least regressuve after that 31-51, most91-01 and 11-21All tenures191119211931195119611971198119912001Households7.98.710.213.114.616.417.719.921.7People34.636.23841.844.547.147.749.151.1Rooms37.439.845.856.968.180.786.6101.5113.2England and WalesBy tenureoosocial rentingprivate rentingBy tenureoosocial rentingprivate rentingHouseholds14.94.22.6Households1491646541572472586762People36.49.15.5People3644045291193155512387Rooms84.117.611.5Rooms841003251757518311542640England and Wales 2001Meansoosocial rentingprivate rentingRooms per household5.644.234.46People per household2.442.192.13Rooms per person2.311.932.09e and w 2001In terms of means, there are relatively small differences in space per perspn bewteen tenures. Oos have slighly lrager mean hosueholds than thos ein other tenures, but substantially larger homes at a mean of 5.64 rooms compared to 4.2 for socils renters aNumbers of hh in homes in different sizs (size of occd homes (NB ignires sharing)Rooms1911192119311951196119711981199120011254710317427347773.2289153525993202793471652887453215611866552660473.0666666679179581016508.862565105983772276560786072737670770453339431107873.0666666713586511544682.09891119512011665309135015015066621695676195050741981429.8666666721441832520340.27058835841453923317367814537111434048206429003651639100.3333333318152382422552.39430441522735269668501794555081625823405588064961089323.7333333311261821339998.8526331325557184411939738303768962427399844918737+1931177.4559753810584461031664.1414246922348954411458905219544230157224327360Total nos8664087.52264205873808510223519.84934131178461464089816434000177064921988627221660474Net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200116271730346.22891499994825.7710850001-3232026886-5842032816-1349062257484.93333333398550.86256543328.137435-337072-114905119516-19672-1743103250777.933333333186031.098911406518.901089-285892-3151591565121890142548314162753.133333333376157.2705879991063804.729412339172-245172329983370632418305176137.666666667607314.3943041729720.6056961117395-25172349021731524357244636858.2666666666213816.852633-14441.85263300015185622129711-2048685050362178757+-872731.455975384-26781.8585760002-339430.1414242032075634647365378202801311638821797801774202Total739971485435289432615230521793102127249221797801774202Total/236999742717144716376152689655163624610898908871011518477.5390217217692693175740823854464Home numberc can reduce through conversion into home/sof different size or through demolition. They can increase through conversion or demolition.The way in which rooms are distribtun between dwwllings in the housing stcok can conitribute to nequlaitie sin housng space bewteen houseds. For example, if all homes have the same number of rooms but all hosueholds are not the same siz, there will eb ineThe way in which people are distrbted bewteen hhouses may also contrnite. Finally the way in which hosuehodls are disttbuted bewteen homes will controbute to inequality.Proprtion of net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes - as % pf previous decade1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001Actual home gain 1991-2001% all gain 1981-91 for this sizeGain there would have been if 1991-2001 devt was like 1981-91 devt (sae number of hhs gained)Differece124.6%9.6%1.4%-9.2%8.4%-16.8%11.4%-42.0%-1349060.015054730326710.1325968676-161616.132596868239.0%10.7%4.3%-31.8%-15.9%19.7%-2.7%-24.6%-174310-0.009024764-16012-158298322.6%13.7%26.3%-14.7%-18.9%11.6%12.5%15.0%2548310.086712420515384510098648.2%17.5%42.2%9.5%-6.2%0.9%9.1%6.0%2418300.1546316601274348-32518510.7%33.5%71.4%26.9%-4.8%9.8%5.7%1.0%572440.1446214756256588-19934463.4%19.0%-1.1%39.1%115.5%-5.2%13.4%5.1%2178750.2316912716411067-1931927+-45.2%-2.5%-32.9%29.4%62.9%50.5%37.4%43.5%13116380.3763132059667656643982Overall interccenal gain in nos of hhs as proprtion of no in previus decade0.9%17.0%28.3%11.6%12.2%7.7%12.3%8.9%Lots written about chnaging hh size and shape over the twentieth centiry; less about chaging housing stcok shape which had to take it. More about size of newly built homes than overall supply. Lots written about relative role aof pirvate and la/social ren1991-2001 substantial drop in numbers of 1 and 2 room homes. Big icnraseed in numbers of 1 and 2 bedoromed homes in 1997??-; thee woul dappear as 2/3 and 3/4 roomed homes.Net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes (via new building, conversion and demolition)CHECKCan this (partly) explain differnce bewteen 1981-91 and 1991-2001 in space inequlaity trends - net addition of homes 1991-2001 doninated by large homes with 7+ rooms - too far from median home/room need to assist sig nos of those below median?Nearly all current hh in 7+ very spaciously housed, while nearly all in 5 (modal addtion 1931-51, 1951-61) and 6 (modal additon 1961-71)Need anyone live at below 60% median?Net intercensal gain in households occupaying homes (occupied homes) of different sizes1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200116271730346.22891499994825.7710850001-3232026886-5842032816-1349062257484.93333333398550.86256543328.137435-337072-114905119516-19672-1743103250777.933333333186031.098911406518.901089-285892-3151591565121890142548314162753.133333333376157.2705879991063804.729412339172-245172329983370632418305176137.666666667607314.3943041729720.6056961117395-25172349021731524357244636858.2666666666213816.852633-14441.85263300015185622129711-2048685050362178757+-872731.455975384-26781.8585760002-339430.1414242032075634647365378202801311638Net intercensal gain in rooms according to number of rooms used by households (occupied homes)1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001162717303464826-3232026886-5842032816-134906251497051497051497051497051497051497051497051497037523345580931219557-857676-94547746953656704276449346510136510136510136510136510136510136510136510135880688303657286486035586975-12586152451085157621528622062211501282901-86651311137212778266-1229208303021613072507+-6109120-187473-237601114224493944248515575957419609181466Total-30262495886422.0029348576305.79706610396782.415711290.47954734.412114231.412570505.4SHOULD BE NET INCREASENet intercensal gain in rooms according to number of rooms used by households (occupied homes) as a percentage of all extra rooms that period1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-200112.1%0.5%0.1%-0.3%0.2%-0.7%0.3%-1.1%217.0%8.7%6.0%5.0%3.3%6.5%4.3%4.1%324.9%9.5%14.2%-8.2%-6.0%5.9%4.7%6.1%421.5%11.1%7.6%6.3%4.1%8.2%5.4%5.2%529.1%51.6%100.8%53.7%-8.0%30.8%13.0%2.3%67.3%21.8%-1.0%29.9%81.3%-15.5%25.0%10.4%7+-201.9%-3.2%-27.7%13.7%25.1%64.8%47.4%73.0%TotalTable 2: Different measures of inequality in distribution of rooms per person for people in private households in England and Wales, 1911-2001, rooms per person19111921193119511961197119811991200190:10 ratio3.964.2643.483.313.312.9533.790: 50 ratio2.072.0621.891.981.961.861.891.7950: 10 ratio1.922.0621.841.81.751.51.671.68Sources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)Sources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)Table 2: Different measures of inequality in distribution of rooms per person for people in private households in England and Wales, 1911-2001, rooms per person19111921193119511961197119811991200115.80%20.20%14.90%14.40%9.10%11.90%6.60%4.20%11.10%Gini coefficient0.350.360.360.360.360.360.370.370.36Sources: Censuses 1911-2001 (GRO 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, OPCS 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk)??191119211931195119611971198119912001MeanMedianWho were he most spaciously housed - over tmTop 10%Number of rooms191119211931195119611971198119912001Odds ratios191119211931195119611971198119912001Odds ratios1phh as % all people0.0913800890.0290687171p hh as % all people in most spaciously housed decile1 p hh in this decil as % all in thi sdecile20.02906871722Total people in hhs with this no of peopleditto in top decile% in whole pop% in top decileOdds ratio2001650261244453950.12732206280.85691123776.7302651142Total 1 p hh in top decile =19910.10781202360.68551862896.3584617557352319919110.01222851190.245085425720.0421299656214804298742301Total people in top decile =3100762565139465411577992Total people=5534576549079396618842705291349total in 1 peson hhs75121138+249464Tortal people34606173Total pop =Total in 1pp hhs42318251072154Total I top decile216855Total top decile=Total 1pp hhs in top decile531485187696Net additional rooms gained by this decile1911-211921-811981-2001Best housed tenth1.57.10480357086.0069444444Middle0.754.63327936272.9402777778Worst housed tenth0.154.12437144990.5173611111Net homes gained by different groups198-2001 - particularly rapid development of extra rooms, particularly non-progressive1911-211921-811981-911991-20011981-20011921-19911991-200110th decile1.51.18413392852.06943.93753.00347222226th decile0.750.77221322711.75901.181251.47013888891st decile0.150.68739524170.517400.2586805556Total net rooms added per decade2.47.814.9011.713.3Net rooms gained per decade by different groups, 1911-20011911-211921-811981-911991-20011981-200110th decile0.6250.15181204210.13888888890.33653846150.22582497916th decile0.31250.09900169580.11805555560.10096153850.11053675861st decile0.06250.08812759510.03472222220.01442307690.0194496658Total number of rooms produced this decade2.446.8????26.61921-811981-911991-20011981-2001Best housed tenth0.15181204210.13888888890.33653846150.2258249791Middle0.09900169580.11805555560.10096153850.1105367586Worst housed tenth0.08812759510.03472222220.01442307690.0194496658Total number of rooms produced this decade46.8????26.6Percentage of all net additonal rooms created going to different groups, Enalng and Wales, 1911-20012.47.813.3Total net rooms added per decadeEach of the periods saw successivly more rapid production of rooms. In 1911-21 2.4m rooms were added. Over the period 1921-81 a mean 7.8m rooms were added per decade, and in 1981-2001 13.3m rooms were added per decade. Eaach period was regressive in temsDo by hh type?? Tenure??Number of people in hhs with different nos of memebers191119211931195119611971198119912001423182526856679500.8958781403329195976729804003849056529134965026121256716630908184479638.46236272541028766546104764601139151213457120148042982459423654708577379648.656128993655210060923941250090486759722214100762563575807665022487922127.820796996477210723564111306401282083612382412115779924572809560673206357388.7694456296755647142566765256444900540498553457655493816849105084479658.9286434042023333954348249026748961931154188427061059725796057828839170.57228135768453223322293238514381508901627615777+385851936405882133282.02105217877511605107147836514381508901625121137275875225181684667641.692078559048381207520402494648180667816157161008291.65194845819037847736828091061260982510543789.0064623535019949033370010569624445533270492.56318712192410170611281148211752128691.9560646320453544121314359616157070.2162035452246878136286047054286.52789214669814830029624.93740515+346061803617438940137134.10553418365574453950147091400476680254907939650952770TOTALFigure number of people in hhs with different number sof memebers, 1911-2001Number of people in hhs with different nos of memebers1911192119311951196119711981199120010.4231820.5268560.67950089591.4033291.9597672.98043.8490565.2913496.50261212.5671663.0908184.47963846247.2541028.76654610.4764611.39151213.4571214.80429824.5942365.4708577.37964865619.93655210.0609239.41259.0486759.72221410.07625635.7580766.5022487.92212782089.96477210.72356411.1306412.82083612.38241211.57799245.7280956.067326.35738876946.2967556.4714256.6765256.44495.4049855.34576554.9381684.9105084.47965892863.4042023.3339543.482492.6748961.9311541.88427610.5972579.6057828.83917057233.5768453.2233222.9323851.438150.8901620.7615777+Figure number of people in hhs with different number sof memebers, 1911-20011911192119311951196119711981199120010.01222850950.01456433720.01692948220.03354312830.04400055130.06328968770.08074712560.10781202360.127620382610.07418229920.08544216190.11160832910.17339146720.19682587640.22247076960.23897595930.27419082340.290549424520.13275767510.15123564350.1838608770.23750883710.22588713810.199877260.18982693330.19809155760.197756785430.16638866240.17974727920.19737651970.23818336680.24076470730.23636247810.2689609230.25229348790.227229883740.16552231420.16772418740.15839169710.15050844170.14529598050.14177801040.13520383950.1101273740.104916082150.14269613120.13574543030.11160883910.08136907630.07485370150.07395171940.05611510020.03934755020.036980717660.30622440850.26554096050.22022425850.08549568260.07236979960.06227007480.03017011930.01813718330.01494672427+111.000000002610.99999775481111TOTALPefrcentage of population nliving in hhs with different numbers of memebers, 1911-2001Absolute intercensal change Iin numbers of people living in each size of hh1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-2001103674152644.895878723828.10412255643810206338686561442293121126315236521388820.4623622774463.537638151244417099149150522065608134717828766211908791.6561282556903.343872124371-648423-36382567353935404237441721419879.8207962042644.1792047587924070761690196-438424-8044204339225290068.769444998-60633.7694449984174670205100-231625-1039915-592205-27660-430849.07136-1075456.92864-70248148536-807594-743742-468846-991475-766611.427719001-5262325.572281-353523-290937-1494235-547988-1285857+15682093962745.105531699422.894472702944255189957662514113711873374TOTAL% all interccencal pop growth in hhs of this size1911-211921-311931-511951-611961-711971-811981-911991-20010.06610981060.03851998950.42592580190.20586368050.39995038991.50644873181.02190919330.646567636810.33391722660.3504692991.63259149580.5595543230.67005551551.58691003691.46354714670.719118552920.55899500640.48168420031.50457145980.0460131619-0.2540943039-0.63095599390.47722321060.188986288930.47453623850.35830713831.201963360.28072797660.15951885242.9311875135-0.3106369622-0.429396372540.21631364190.0731989491-0.03567903310.06462213050.0803715194-0.4016908736-0.7368119368-0.03161141345-0.0176379551-0.1087249044-0.6328365149-0.02598943970.0582060654-1.4005532192-0.5269642071-0.0250265036-0.6322339688-0.1934546451-3.0965366317-0.1307918329-0.1140080387-2.5913461955-0.3882664445-0.06863818977+11.00000002660.999999937911111Absolute intercensal change Iin numbers of people living in each size of hh1991-2001 the number people living in 1 person hhs grew by 1.2m and by 65%, and the number in 2 perosn hhs by 1.3m and 72%. But these were not higher absolute or relarive groth than 1981-91 and not higher relative growt than 1971-81.Less abolsute and porprtionate gain in nos living in small hhs (1 and 2 people) 1991-2001 than 1981-1991 or 1971-81, not more domiant than in previosi periods% all interccencal pop growth in hhs of this sizeSome one person hhs have to live in 4+ room homes at 4 rooms per person1911192119311951196119711981199120012.02305613332.5940362.90896419043.3636372.7083532.3051752.5227832.7249412.671-3 room homes0.4231820.5268560.67950089591.4033291.9597672.98043.8490565.2913496.51 person households1.59987413332.067182.22946329451.9603080.748586-0.675225-1.326273-2.566408-3.8Deficit191119211931195119611971198119912001000000.01433860540.02782311620.05229094510.0752080014Due to deficit of smaller homes0.00395874380.00492469960.00636027480.01541429420.02491121310.02422968950.02196752580.01949475910.01617208760Other0.00395874380.00492469960.00636027480.01541429420.02491121310.03856829480.0497906420.07178570410.091380089% all people who are 1 person hhs who do live at 4 rooms per person or more346061803617438940137134.10553418365574453950147091400476680254907939650952770Total peopleMajority inevitable1-2 bed homes1 person householdsDeficit% all people who are 1 person hhs who have to live at 4 rooms per person or more% all people who are 1 person hhs who do live at 4 rooms per person or moreTotal people623392667731476960592Number of 1-4 bed homes384905652913496502612Number of 1 person hhs23848701481798457980Deficit% all people who are 1 person hhs who have to live at 4 rooms per person or1981-911991-2001Growth in 1-3 room homes14422931211263Growth in 1 person hhsDeficit1-3 room homes??197110th4 rooms per person1981199120019th1921193119511961197119811991191125940362908964.190391336363727083532305175252278327249412023056.13333333526856679500.8958781403329195976729804003849056529134942318220671802229463.2945131960308748586-675225-1326273-25664081599874.133333332.5940362.90896419043.3636372.7083532.3051752.5227832.7249412.02305613330.5268560.67950089591.4033291.9597672.98043.8490565.2913490.4231822.067182.22946329451.9603080.748586-0.675225-1.326273-2.5664081.5998741333

Sheet12516671901658203779992190115966641901375034219011901254710191166047311078731911198143019113938651191119111921192119211921192119211921192119211921193119311931193119311931193119311931193119381938193819381938193819381938193819381951195119511951195119511951195119511951196119611961196119611961196119611961196119711971197119711971197119711971197119712803961981705042145545319813544487198152033523489180204225819911991199119911991199119911991199119912001200120012001200120012001200120012001

12345+67Total homes

Sheet20.03619010.0940.11119010.22719010.532190119010.03219110.0830.13919110.24919110.497191119111921192119211921192119211921192119211921193119311931193119311931193119311931193119381938193819381938193819381938193819381951195119511951195119511951195119511951196119611961196119611961196119611961196119711971197119711971197119711971197119710.01719810.0420.08719810.21219810.3110.2090.12219911991199119911991199119911991199119912001200120012001200120012001200120012001

12345+67+Total homes

Sheet30.450.580.70.86000.50.610.740.89000.530.630.750.931.10.91192119211921192119211921

1 room2 room3 room4 roomMeanMedianMean rooms per person

0.3491380.34360619940.3673670.36191474390.36320760330.36581920430.36821174520.3673670.3598938359

rooms per personGini

0.270.310.34360619940.347920.3491380.35989383590.360.36174086260.36320760330.3673670.3682117452

Gini

3.962.071.821.924.262.061.842.06421.6623.481.891.561.843.311.981.651.83.311.961.611.752.951.861.731.531.891.51.673.71.791.681.88

90:10 ratio90: 50 ratio70: 30 ratio50: 10 ratio

1.91.461.2210.920.790.670.590.4821.471.2310.970.790.670.570.4921.671.331.2110.80.670.52.331.671.51.311.2310.960.80.672.4521.651.451.241.210.950.742.8521.91.61.451.251.1810.832.82.331.951.671.51.351.1310.9532.521.91.671.51.331.2213.72.862.4321.881.631.451.251

90th decile80th70th60th50th40th30th20th10th decileRooms per person

7.934.637.48.736.239.810.23845.813.141.856.914.644.568.116.447.180.717.747.786.619.949.1101.521.751.1113.2

HouseholdsPeopleRoomsMillions

4.73417721524.37974683544.53344514274.13985318294.49019607843.72549019614.34351145043.19083969474.66438356162.98657718124.92073170732.87195121954.89265536722.694.972.475.21658986182.3548387097

RoomsPeople

0.349138191119110.3436061994192119210.367367193119310.3619147439195119510.36320760330.2610.2680.36174086260.2660.2760.36821174520.2630.2770.3660.3410.370.35989383590.3510.386

Rooms (E and W)Income (BHC) (GB)Income (AHC)