unit 3: biochemistry & plants. atoms & elements c) atom structure nucleus = protons & neutrons...
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Unit 3: Biochemistry & Plants Slide 2 Atoms & Elements c) Atom Structure Nucleus = Protons & Neutrons Outside of Nucleus = Electrons An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. An element is made of 1 type of Atom! A compound consists of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined. All Organic compounds contain the element Carbon. Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called Inorganic compounds. Slide 3 Isotope The mass number will change if the number of neutrons changes (called an Isotope). The atomic number does NOT change. Slide 4 Lose Electron = Positively Charged Ion IONS Gain Electron = Negatively Charged Ion Slide 5 Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonds are formed because of ELECTRONS. Covalent bonds SHARE electrons & are very STRONG. Ionic bonds TRANSFER electrons & are WEAKER because they form IONS. Hydrogen bonds are formed because of electrical CHARGES instead of electrons. They are very WEAK. Slide 6 Isotopes Isotopes have different numbers of NEUTRONS but the same number of PROTONS so the atomic MASS is different. Slide 7 pH is the measurement of ACIDITY because it measures the concentration of H + ions in the solution. The lower the pH, the higher the concentration is of H + so the substance is a stronger ACID. The higher the pH, the lower the concentration is of H + so the substance is a stronger BASE. At a pH of 7, the concentration of H + and OH - ions is EQUAL, so the pH is NEUTRAL. 0-6 = Acid 7 = Neutral 8-14 = Base Slide 8 DECREASE by pH by 1 (make more ACIDIC)= multiply the number of H + ions by 10 (move decimal to right) and divide the number of OH - ions by 10 (move decimal to left). (do the opposite for increasing the pH) Slide 9 Compounds that contain Carbon are called ORGANIC Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called INORGANIC POLYMERS are made of MONOMERS Slide 10 Compounds that contain Carbon are called ORGANIC Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called INORGANIC POLYMERS are made of MONOMERS Slide 11 Slide 12 Muscle Slide 13 Saturated Fatty Acids ONLY have Single Bonds between the Carbons. Unsaturated have at least 1 double bond. Slide 14 Monosaccharides = Simple Sugars (glucose & fructose) Disaccharides = 2 simple sugars joined together (sucrose & lactose) Polysaccharides = Starches; many simple sugars joined together Plant Starch = Cellulose Animal Starch = Glycogen Slide 15 Properties of Water Polarity = one side of the molecule is SLIGHTLY POSITIVE and the other side is SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE. H 2 O = The 2H are Positive and O is Negative BECAUSE the electrons are NOT shared equally! Polarity creates ALL of the other properties of water! Slide 16 PROPERTIES OF WATER Cohesion & Adhesion happen because of POLARITY. Adhesion is when water molecules adhere (stick) to OTHER SUBSTANCES Cohesion is when water molecules adhere (stick) to OTHER WATER MOLECULES Cohesion & Adhesion both create SURFACE TENSION. They also contribute to CAPILLARY ACTION (allows water to CLIMB) AND IONIZATION (which contributes to water being the UNIVERSAL SOLVENT). Pure water has a NEUTRAL pH because there is the SAME concentration of H + ions as OH - ions. Slide 17 Properties of Water Surface Tension Capillary Action Cohesion POLARITY!!!! Adhesion & Universal Solvent Slide 18 Transpiration = Evaporation of Water From the Leaves of Plants Slide 19 TRANSPIRATION Slide 20 Transpiration & Photosynthesis Photosynthesis happens in the LEAVES of PLANTS Transpiration carries water to the leaves so that Photosynthesis can happen. Slide 21 Photosynthesis 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Photosynthesis Equation 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Slide 22 R Flower Structure Flowers are the Reproductive Organs of plants. The Stamen contains the male gametes (pollen). The Pistil contains the female gametes (ovum) Slide 23 Leaf Structure Most Chloroplasts are in the leaves SO most of the Glucose & Oxygen are made in the leaves.