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DESCRIPTIONUnderstanding Dyslexia. Ros Lugg. Dyslexia or Specific Learning Disability?. Other Specific Learning Disabilities. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) Dyspraxia Dysphasia, speech/language delay or deficit Dyscalculia Autism/Aspergers Syndrome/Tourette Syndrome. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Understanding DyslexiaRos Lugg1Dyslexia
Specific Learning Disability?
2Other Specific Learning DisabilitiesADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)DyspraxiaDysphasia, speech/language delay or deficitDyscalculiaAutism/Aspergers Syndrome/Tourette Syndrome3Neurological and biological basis
Brain structure MRI scanning results
The planum temporale cortical language area, which is normally larger in the left hemisphere than in the right, is symmetrical in most dyslexics.6 The corpus callosum is physically less well developed in dyslexics than in non-dyslexics.
7Nutritional aspects Dyslexics are less able to convert EFAs to myelin in the brain
8Study found that:
Mothers of children with dyslexia had consumed significantly less EFA while pregnant than mothers of non-dyslexic children.Brain activation fMRI scanning results
Dyslexics were scanned while doing a simple rhyming task.
In normal readers, the left frontal cortex lit up, but this does not happen in dyslexics.Graduate dyslexics studyWell-compensated graduate dyslexics studied.
Equivalent non-dyslexic control group
Simple rhyming task
PET scan findingsBoth groups completed the tasks with no problem.
Dyslexic group very different pattern of brain activity:
Less activity in Brocas and Wernickes areas and no activity at all in the insulaConclusionA specific failure in that particular brain system connected with language persists into dyslexics adult lives, although their performance indicates that they were compensating well.Effect of correct remediation Several studies have shown that brain activation patterns can be changed with the right remediation even in adults.Current conclusions The evidence is consistent with an increasingly sophisticated account of dyslexia that does not single out either phonological or visual or motor deficits. Rather, temporal processing in all three systems seems to be impaired. Dyslexics may be unable to process fast incoming sensory information adequately in any domain.Gene linksChromosome 6 (DCDC2) linked with dyslexia Chromosome 15 (KIAA0319) also implicated
Genetic abnormalities in Brocas and Wernickes areas (the main language areas in the left hemisphere)Links with other conditionsLeft-handednessEczemaAllergiesSchizophreniaDyspraxiaADHDGlue earIrlen Syndrome
Dyslexia and behaviour Internationally, 60 80% of prison populations are dyslexic
Dyslexia causes huge anxiety and self-esteem problems, particularly with brighter pupils. This magnifies behavioural issues at school age and beyond.
Fallacies about dyslexiaHes not ready for reading yet. Wait until hes ready and hell be fine.
Dyslexia doesnt exist. Its just a middle-class parents excuse for a thick child.Possible IndicatorsObvious good or bad days with no reasonConfusion between directional wordsDifficulties with sequences, days, months, tablesFamily historyDiscrepancy between oral and written languageReversals/mis-sequencing lettersPoor concentrationForgets or misunderstands instructionsHas difficulty understanding what has been readTakes longer to do written workSlow processorProblems copying, particularly from the boardProblems planning essays
Poor confidence or self-esteemPoor social skillsCan appear awkward or clumsyVery inconsistent abilitiesUnexpected difficulties with certain tasksSometimes tongue-tiedAnxious about answering questions in classHome and social implicationsFatigueHomeworkOrganisationSocial isolation
Famous dyslexicsAlexander Graham Bell Nelson RockefellerJohn Britten Henry FordThomas Edison Walt DisneyMichael Faraday CherErin Brockovich John LennonGeorge Patton Auguste RodinOrlando Bloom Nigel KennedyTom Cruise Henry WinklerWhoopi Goldberg Jackie StewartSusan Hampshire Muhammed AliKeanu Reeves Thomas JeffersonKiera Knightly Winston ChurchillOliver Reed J F KennedyRobin Williams George WashingtonLeonardo da Vinci Agatha ChristiePicasso W B YeatsAndy Warhol Terry GoodkindPatterns of difficulty One feature of dyslexia is that there is no link between dyslexia and intelligence.
There are typical patterns, but huge variability between individual difficulties.Memory implicationsA non-dyslexic child takes between 4 and 10 exposures to a word to fix it in long-term memory.
A dyslexic child can take anything between 500 and 1300 exposures.
Therefore: teaching needs to incorporate huge amounts of overlearning
Common language problemsInterpretation very literal, dont understand figures of speech
Language of mathematics 70% of dyslexics experience difficulty with number language words (sum, total, odd, take away) Chasty 1985
Comprehension reading and oralDyslexic or low ability?
Low ability profile
Typical dyslexic profile
More extreme dyslexic profile very able but indicators of dyspraxia
Low ability profile
Very able, but major perceptual difficultiesAssessment optionsSpecialist assessment centresSPELDStep by Step Centre
Assessment software available in schools