ubuntu alternate ubuntu installation
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Post on 23-Jan-2018
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- 1. Create a virtual disk
- 2. set the hard disk size: size specified will be used in partition. Install ubuntu
- 3. byte space specified in first step 60 gb will be shown here. Select the free space
- 4. create a new partition. Split the partition to 15 gb for root ,15 gb for swap and remaining for the /hadoop
- 5. 15 gb for (/) root
- 6. create swap partition.
- 7. Click the mount area use as
- 8. 3 partition for bigdata
- 9. change use as /home
- 10. 2nd partition 3rd partition bigdata.
- 11. Change mount point to /bigdata
- 12. install package manager Default Package Manager in DEBIAN / UBUNTU system is : 1) dpkg which is a backend tool for the more powerful apt system 2) apt as Frontend 3) aptitude (GUI of apt) For RED HAT LINUX distros like Fedora or CentOS: 1) rpm as Backend 2) yum as Frontend
- 13. given as http://arun:email@example.com:80/
- 14. GRUB, the Grand Unified Bootloader. This is the tiny piece of software responsible for starting up your computer and getting Linux or Windows, if you dual-boot loaded into memory. Because the PC architecture has undergone dramatic changes in the last 25 years, the boot process has become more complicated, and requires a small piece of software to handle getting your chosen operating system loaded into memory. With Windows XP, this piece of software is called NTLDR. On Linux, its called GRUB. (There was also another bootloader called LILO, but its been obsolete for years and is not recommended for new installations, even if your distribution gives you the option.) Both of them do the same thing: they get the operating system loaded into memory, and optionally, present you a menu with different choices on how you would like to boot your system. As I mentioned, there are two options for installing GRUB. First, you can install it to the Master Boot Record of your first hard drive. Second, you can install it to the boot sector of the active (bootable) hard drive partition. Which one is the right one? It depends. If you intend to dual-boot Windows, then you should avoid installing GRUB to the MBR. The reason for this is that Windows occasionally overwrites the MBR, for instance, when you reinstall it, and that could be quite often. When that happens, your Linux system will seem to disappear as your system starts booting directly into Windows, bypassing the boot menu altogether. To avoid this, install GRUB to the boot sector of the active partition instead. Theres an exception to that rule: If you are installing Linux to a secondary hard drive, and no part of it will be on your main hard drive, then you must install GRUB to the MBR, and take your chances with Windows overwriting the MBR with its own at some future date. If this happens, youll have to use a Linux rescue CD to get GRUB reinstalled. (Ill cover this procedure in the future.) If, however, Linux will be the only operating system on your computer, its perfectly safe to and you must install GRUB to the MBR. Some special circumstance notes: If you run OS/2, you MUST NOT install GRUB to the MBR under any
- 15. circumstances, or you wont be able to boot OS/2! You will have to install it to the boot sector of the Linux /boot partition on your primary (first) hard drive. If you dont have any free unpartitioned space on your first hard drive, you will have to use a resizing tool such as Partition Magic to create some space and have your Linux installation create the Linux /boot partition in that space. The space must be within the first 1024 cylinders of the hard drive. And it will have to be a primary partition as well, not a logical partition. Many computers cant boot from logical partitions, only primary ones. The root (/) partition can be elsewhere, even on a secondary hard drive. Youll then need to add the /boot partition to OS/2s Boot Manager menu once youve completed the Linux installation. If you have multiple Windows versions on your computer, and use a Windows boot menu to access them, you can add Linux to the Windows boot menu, but the process for this is somewhat complex, and I dont intend to cover it here. Install GRUB to the boot sector instead, creating a /boot partition on the primary hard drive if necessary (see the OS/2 note above). As youve probably gathered, the simple everyday act of booting up your PC is much more complex than you thought it was. This has a lot to do with the way your computers BIOS accesses internal hard drives. The BIOS is the very first bit of software which starts when you turn on your computer, and its located on a physical ROM chip inside the machine. Twenty years ago, hard drives of 5 to 20 MB were common, and many PCs even shipped without a hard drive! Even as late as ten years ago, most computer BIOS software could not access more than the first 528 MB of a hard drive, creating booting problems. Eventually a solution called LBA (logical block addressing) raised this limit, first to 8 GB, and in more recent computers, to 137 GB. This is the range that the so-called first 1024 cylinders can access through the BIOS, before your operating system loads (using GRUB, NTLDR, or what have you). As hard drives exceed 137 GB now, and computers with 1TB of hard drive space are just now becoming available to consumers, the 20 year old BIOS design will again make trouble for the seemingly simple task of starting your computer.
- 16. CTRL=C (HOST KEY +C) to view in full mode: RIGHT CTRL+I to mouse and local windows 7 properly sync
- 17. as you can see can control mouse in windows command prompt and linux ubuntu screen Settings: to copy any content from windows to ubuntu and ubuntu to windows change the settings. Click settings and change it.
- 18. Change network to bridge adapter . Change video memory as as much as possible.
- 19. Click file > preference add extension to make display looking good. Terminal window look bad
- 20. Install guest Additions extensions: RIGHT-CTRL + F fullscreen mode:press CTRL +F till you the below screen i.e top menu and footer
- 21. fails may if install ubuntu-alternate12.04 32 bit on windows 7. default value
- 22. folder structure of ubuntu as per partition:
- 23. bigdata created as mentioned in partition
- 24. bigdata as Root APTCommands: apt-get install apt-get remove purge: When removing software in some files such as configurations are not always removed. To completely remove a package use the purge switch apt-get remove purge force install To fix broken packages use the force option with install apt-get -f install upgrade: apt-get upgrade dist-upgrade: use apt-get dist-upgrade apt-get dist-upgrade --To re-load your sources.list file use apt-get update
- 25. apt-get update To set environment variable in ubuntu: ===================================== 1. either edit /etc/bash.bashrc file but we dont have access to edit it >su root >password: root@ubuntu:/home/arun#nano /etc/bash.bashrc ^O to edit the file ^X to save the changes, it will ask whether to save the changes. if yes is given it will save. NOTE : this is bad practice as it causes login failure and affect all user . i created wrong environment variable which causes failure and looping login screen without login in to the screen.please can avoid other options: ============ add enviornment entry file with .sh under etc/profile.d/ files created with shell script will run when ubuntu starts. >su root >password: since we dont have permission to edit the files we can add a file by using sudo root root@ubuntu:/home/arun#mv arun /home/arun/environment.sh /etc/profile.d/ Adds a user sudo adduser Disable a user sudo passwd -l 'username' Delete a user sudo userdel -r 'username' change user password sudo pwd e.g sudo pwd arun Enter new password: Retype new password: passwd: passwd change successfully. Add user a to a usergroup sudo usermod -a -G GROUPNAME USERNAME
- 26. Remove user from a user group sudo deluser USER GROUPNAME NOTE: If youre an experienced Linux user, its possible to configure Ubuntu so that the root account login is activated. Simply type the following at the command prompt to configure Ubuntu so that the root account login is activated sudo passwd root Then type a password. To switch to the root user in the future, type su -. To quit, type exit or hit Ctrl+D. deactivate the root account sudo passwd -l root If you ever want to slip into the root account for a short period, even if you havent followed the previous instructions to activate the root account login, you can do so by typing the following: sudo su Youll be prompted to type your ordinary account login password; do so. When youve finished, type exit to return to your standard user account (or hit Ctrl+D). we can temporarily switch to this user by typing the following command, which stands for substitute user: su frank changing permissions: chmod a+rw myfile a-adding r-removing w-writing changing group: chmod g-rw. add(+) read/write permission for owner
- 27. if ubuntu login causes login loop with login in: ================================================ You might be having problems with LightDM, the login manager that comes in Ubuntu by default. In 12.04 it used to do the same problem you are describing. You can install GDM, an alternative login manager, to get around this: At the login screen, press and hold Ctrl+Alt+F2 (login in to ubuntu using command prompt way) to go to the terminal. Don't be afraid! Just log in here with your username and password. Then, type sudo apt-get install gdm. Let it install and type sudo dpkg-reconfigure gdm and follow the prompts to set it as your login manager. Press Ctrl+Alt+F7 to get back to the login screen which should now look different. Does logging in work? If it does, your pro
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