types of researches
Post on 11-Apr-2017
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GUIDELINES IN CHOOSING A METHOD
Quantitative research is the systematic investigation of observable phenomena via; statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.It is used for studying large number of population.QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Less time consuming.
Useful for studying large number of people.
Provide precise and numerical data.
Assumes sample as representative of population.
WHY QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH?
MIXED RESEARCH Mixed Research focuses on collecting, analyzing, and mixing both Quantitative and Qualitative data in a single study or series of studies. It focuses on the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches in combination so it provides a better understanding of research problems than one single approach.
Also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Fundamental&Scientific knowledgeSource Scientific ideas&New Thinking Refuting or Supporting theoriesGenerates New ideasPrinciplesTheoriesQuality of LifeImproves Technology
TYPES OF BASIC RESEARCH
Exploratory researchIs defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. This is where a researcher has an idea or has observed something and seeks to understand more about it.Descriptive researchDefines as attempts to explore and explain while providing additional information about a topic. This is where research is trying to describe what is happening in more detail, filling in the missing parts and expanding our understanding.Explanatory researchIs defined as an attempt to connect ideas to understand cause and effect, meaning researchers want to explain what is going on.
EXAMPLES OF BASIC RESEARCH
A study looking at how caffeine consumption impacts the brain.
2) A study assessing whether men and women are more likely to suffer from depression.
In these two examples, the goal of research is to simply increase the amount of knowledge on topic, not to actually come up with a practical solution to a problem.
Is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' (the academia's) accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state, business, or client-driven purpose.
Applied ResearchSolvingSpecific ProblemEstablishingPolicy ProgramsImprovesSocial LifeAIMS
TYPES OF APPLIED RESEARCHAPPLIED RESEARCHActionResearchSocialImpactStudiesEvaluationResearchCostBenefitAnalysis
EXAMPLES OF APPLIED RESEARCH
Investigating which treatment approach is the most effective for reducing anxiety.
2) Studying different keyboard designs to determine which is the most efficient and ergonomic.
As you may notice, these two examples explore topics that will address a real world issues. This immediate and practical application of the findings is what distinguished applied research frombasic research, which instead focuses on theoretical concerns.
CORRELATION RESEARCHCorrelation is the average relationship between two or more variables.When the change in one variable makes or cause a change in other variable then there is a correlation between these two variables.
If r = +1 (perfectly positive)If r = -1 (perfectly negative)If r = 0 (zero correlated)
PERFECTLY POSITIVE CORRELATION
When there is a change in one variable and if there is equal proportion of change in the other variable in same direction.
PERFECTLY NEGATIVE CORRELATION
When there is a change in X,the same amount of change in Y, in equal proportion but in opposite direction.
When the change in one variable has no effect in other variable
EXPLORATORY RESEARCHExploratory research is a research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined
It may use a variety of methods such as trial studies, interviews, group discussions, etc
Historical methods of research are the process of systematically examining an account of what has happened in the past.It is not facts and dates or even a description of past events.The process of learning and understanding the background and growth of a chosen field of study or profession can offer insight into organizational culture, current trends, and future possibilities.
The historical method of research applies to all fields of study because it encompasses there: origins growth, theories, personalities, crisis etc.Quantitative and qualitative variables can be used in the collection of historical information. The dynamic account of past events that involves an interpretation attempt to recapture the nuances, personalities, and ideas that events.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Descriptive study is one in which information is collected without changing the environment (i.e., nothing is manipulated).Sometimes these are referred to as correlational or observational studies.Descriptive researchis used to describe characteristics of apopulation or Descriptive studies can involve a one-time interaction with groups of people or a study might follow individuals over time.
Descriptive studies, in which the researcher interacts with the participant, may involve surveys or interviews to collect the necessary information.
ADVOCACY RESEARCHAdvocacy research is carried out with the intention of providing evidence and arguments that can be used to support a particular cause or position.It is commonly carried out by pressure groups, lobby groups and interest groups (such as trade unions) and, occasionally, by political parties, journalists and academics.
WHEN SHOULD WE DO ADVOCACY RESEARCH?Any advocacy requires some basic research, but there are times when research is particularly valuable.When trying to get legislation passed.When seeking to arouse community concern about an issue that needs attention.When important programs or services or whole groups of people are under attack.When government officials are corrupt or otherwise guilty of wrongdoing.When government or another entity is lying to the public.When it's necessary to prevent harm.When it's important in order to further the public interest.
STEPS FOR ADVOCACY RESEARCHStep 1: Identify issues and opportunities for collecting data.Step 2: Select issues and opportunities and set goals.Step 3: Plan an approach and methods.Step 4: Collect data.Step 5: Analyze and interpret data.Step 6: Act on results.
EVALUATION RESEARCHTo evaluate means to ascertain its value or worth, to examine and judge it.Evaluation is often used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises, including the arts, criminal justice , foundations ,non-profit organization, government, health care and other human services.
WHY EVALUATION RESEARCHPolicy Formulation.Impact Assessment.Accountability.To increase the effectiveness of program management and administration.To test hypotheses or evaluate practice approaches.For administrative purposes.
TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING EVALUATION RESEARCHThe key informant approachThe community forum approachThe rate under treatment approachThe social indicators approach The community surveyThe focus group approachThe convergent analysis approach
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCHEthnography is the systematic study of people and cultures.It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study.
Forms of ethnography.RealistCriticalFeatures of ethnographic research.Procedures for conducting ethnography.Data collection methods.Differences across disciplines.Cultural and SocialCommunication Studies
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCHThe focus of phenomenologic inquiry is what people experience in regard to some phenomenon or other and how they interpret those experiences.A phenomenological research study is a study that attempts to understand people's perceptions, perspectives and understandings of a particular situation.
Purposive Sampling.Research Question.Sample/Recruitment of participants.Data Collection.
STAGES OF ANALYSIS.
Identification of a common shared experience.
The phenomena is identified.
Bracket Researcher Bias and Interpretation.
Unified Descriptive Account.
Presentation of the invariant structure.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHThe process of controlling certain variables and manipulating others to observe if the results of the experiment reflect that the manipulations directly caused the particular outcome.
It is designed to evaluate the effect of one particular variable on a phenomenon by keeping the other variable constant.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IS BASED ONRandom AssignmentsThe subjects are randomly assigned to form group and have equal chances of getting into a group.Experimental ControlAll the features are identical except independent variable.Appropriate MeasuresTaken at start and end of year so