txpert™ digital solutions · pdf file 2021. 2. 26. · moisture in ppm (mg/kg)...

Click here to load reader

Post on 22-Aug-2021

1 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS © Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reservedDecember 2020
POWERING GOOD FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
TXpert™ digital solutions
TXpert™ ecosystem TXpert™ ready CoreSense DGA sensors for alternative fluids
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 2
External stresses may affect transformer life expectances St
re ss
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 3
Unplanned outages are costly and result in significant downtime. With proper monitoring, they can be avoided.
External stresses may affect transformer life expectancy
Time
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS Source: Cigré SCA2.37 Report Technical Brochure 642/2015 Transformer Reliability Survey 4
Failure location analysis on transformers manufactured after 1980 Failure mode analysis (based on 964 failures)
Monitoring the main tank of the transformer cover ~45% of all faults
Transformer failure mode analysis
Flux Shints 0,88%
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 5
Insulation in a transformer Dielectric Oil Cellulose (Paper)
Purpose of the insulation: – Dielectric Insulator – Thermal Transfer
When the insulation system is stressed, gases are produced and they will dissolve in the oil
Gas-in-Oil is a very good incipient fault indicator for main tank thermal faults
Basics of gas formation
Oil ¡ 83 4 70 1  4 894 7  881824 3 4 '
Cellulose (Paper, pressboard, laminated wood)
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 6
Silicon fluid
Mineral oil
Ester oils
Standard insulating and cooling fluid for most transformers Refined petroleum product Not biodegradable, flammable Can dissolve limited moisture
Natural esters are vegetable oil, synthetic versions available Most common are Cargil FR3 (Natural), Midel 7131 (Synth) Biodegradable, operate at higher temperatures, non-flammable Much better moisture properties, environmental advantage
Polydimethylsiloxane liquid Very stable, non-flammable, non-toxic but not biodegradable Moisture handling not as good as Esters but was cheaper in the past More and more a legacy product being displaced by esters
Fluids for transformers
M oi
st ur
e in
p pm
(m g/
Mineral oil Synthetic Ester Natural Ester Silicone
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 7
Advantages Limitations Targets Price: Esters are 2 to 3 times more costly than mineral oils today Retrofits: An existing mineral oil transformer cannot be simply refilled with ester fluid Infrastructure: duplication of tanker fleets, oil handling equipment, oil storage facilities if an operator owns a mix of ester and mineral oil transformers Accessories: Bushings, Tap changers, monitoring equipment (particularly DGA) must all be ester oil versions Weather: Ester oils perform poorly in cold subfreezing weather and are therefore only in limited use in northern countries
Critical installations where safety and reliability are concerns – synergy of Esters and monitoring Installations near flammable materials where a fire might spread – refineries, factories … Sensitive environments where a mineral oil spill would be very bad or difficult to contain Very humid environments where moisture can be an issue
Safety : Esters can run hotter and are less flammable Monitoring : With Ester capable DGA you get the best of both worlds in terms of safety Environment: Esters are biodegradable vegetable oil, spills are mostly harmless Sustainability: Esters are a byproduct of agriculture; they are a renewable resource
For best safety and reliability Esters and monitoring go hand in hand
Why do we not see more esters?
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS Reference - IEEE c57.104:2019 8
The degradation of the oil molecule
Dissolved gas in mineral oil
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 9
Esters Silicone While the principles of DGA will apply and you will have formation of hydrogen and light hydrocarbons the interpretation rules are different since the fluids in chemically quite different
The rules for DGA interpretation are found in
IEEE-Std.-C57.146-2005 : Gases generated in Silicone immersed transformers
Esters are more similar chemically to mineral oil, CH3 groups replace Hydrogen and some oxygen is included. The rules for DGA analysis can be found in
IEEE-Std.-C57.155-2014: Gases generated in ester immersed transformers
Dissolved gas in other oils
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 10
CoreSense™ – hydrogen & moisture sensor
No moving parts, no consumables
Robustness was a key design parameter during the product development process. We eliminated weak points such as the membrane that separates dissolved gas from oil and removed consumables. To ensure oil circulation we implemented a forced convection thermal pump with no moving parts.
Flag incipient faults
Hydrogen and moisture in oil are important indicators that can alert you to a developing condition. These indicators will not give you a precise diagnostic of the underlying condition, rather indication that something is happening in the transformer.
Engineered simplicity & robustness
Universal oil support
DGA for mineral oils, ester fluids and silicon fluids supported with correct alarm settings for each type of oil
CoreSense ST – mineral oil model CoreSense SL – Silicon fluid model CoreSense SE – synthetic ester model (calibrated for midel 7131) CoreSense NE – natural ester model (calibrated for cargil FR3)
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 11
CoreSense™ – hydrogen & moisture sensor
- Direct reading of moisture in oil - Capable of withstanding vacuum and overpressure - Never requires maintenance or calibration - Readings are insensitive to temperature variations
Solid state in situ hydrogen sensor
- No gas separation membrane - Capable of withstanding vacuum and overpressure - Never requires maintenance or calibration - Reading are insensitive to other gases or temperature variations
Reliable design
Forced Convection
- Avoid stagnant oil and allow more representative sampling - No need for a mechanical pump and associated maintenance - Enables an extension from the tank up to 40 cm
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 12
CoreSense™ – hydrogen & moisture sensor
H
– Sensor measures capacitance using the transformer oil as a dielectric fluid – Any water mixed into the oil will change the dielectric constant of the oil resulting in a
capacitance change – The sensor also measures the temperature – The amount of dissolved water in µl/l (ppm) is a function of the oil type, the
temperature and the relative saturation of the oil. The relative saturation can be determined from the capacitance.
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 13
Moisture is measured in terms of relative saturation The precision of the moisture sensor is 2% RS When comparing to lab results in ppm the type of fluid will have a huge impact on the error bars in ppm because of the different solubilities
Moisture error bars for alternative fluids
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
M oi
st ur
e in
p pm
(m g/
Mineral oil Synthetic Ester Natural Ester Silicone
Measurement characteristics at 90 C
Mineral oil: Range in ppm 0 to 556ppm +/- 11ppm (2% of 556ppm)
Synthetic Ester (Midel 7131) Range in ppm 0 to 5375ppm +/- 108ppm (2% of 5375ppm)
Natural Ester (Cargil FR3) Range in ppm 0 to 3062ppm +/- 61ppm (2% of 3062ppm)
Silicon Range in ppm 0 to 1116ppm +/- 22ppm (2% of 1116ppm)
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 14
CoreSense™ M10 – Multigas Dissolved Gas Analyzer
Easy installation right out of the box Without any external oil circulation loop, installation is as easy as mounting the measurement head on a valve and hanging the analytical unit on a wall, no need for welding or piping at site. This approach also greatly limits the likelihood of any oil leaks related to the DGA system installation
Lowest cost of ownership with no maintenance for 10 years Without any need for carrier gases or calibration, CoreSense ™ M10 has double and triple redundancies built in to allow the user to use the device for at least 10 years without maintenance.
Space proven ABB FTIR technology ABB used a technology sold for over 25 years in different industries (including for NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European space agency and the Chinese Space Agency) and re-adapted it for transformer monitoring. Allowing CoreSense™ M10 to offer excellent measurement repeatability, no cross-interference between the gases and no calibration ever in the field.
Fast response with continuous sampling Oil is being sampled continuously with readouts every 10 minutes allowing for fast response times. A gas increase in a transformer can be detected in as little as 10 minutes and accurately quantified in under 2 hours.
ABB third generation multigas DGA technology - advantages
Universal oil support DGA for mineral oils, ester fluids and silicon fluids supported with correct alarm settings for each type of oil CoreSense M10 ST – mineral oil model CoreSense M10 SL – Silicon fluid model CoreSense M10 SE – synthetic ester model (calibrated for midel 7131) CoreSense M10 NE – natural ester model (calibrated for cargil FR3)
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 15
CoreSense™ M10 installation Other multigas DGA installation Multitank DGA installation Requires external oil circuit – Higher risk or leaks or bubbles – Customized installation can take 2+ days – Requires dual flange on tank
Requires multiplexed external oil circuit – Even higher risk of leaks or bubbles – Risk of oil cross contamination – Significant reduction in response time – Customized installation can take 1 week – Requires dual flanges on each tank
No external oil circulation – Very low risk of oil leaks or bubbles – Fast 2 hour system installation – Only one flange required – Exactly same interface as CoreSense™
With CoreSense™ M10 you get the safest fastest installation in the industry
CoreSense™ M10 – Easy installation
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 16
Mobile Skid Advantages - CoreSense™ M10 is easy to move between transformers.
- This enables selective nursing of sick transformers
- CoreSense™ M10 fast installation can be performed under an hour with the mobile skid
- The mobile skid can be equipped with wireless connectivity
Mobile CoreSense™ M10 possible because of simple installation technology
CoreSense™ M10 – Multigas Dissolved Gas Analyzer
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS
17
7 4 72 0 1 24 3 −4 2984 3 4 3 8+ 74 8 574 87 4 81 88 24 3 983 + 4 + 81) 514 = 83 6 83 94 84 3 84 7 7 4 0 3
5 ) 3 74 6 4 3 0 3 3 2 4 889+ 74 2 4 0 8+ 74 3 83 889+ + 883 6 84 183 890 94 84 3 84 78
785 14 74 3 + 3 3 0 3 9 6 0 8 5 + 2 5 83 6 2 4 3 + 14 54 7 ) 4 0 78 2 0 83 94 3 0 3 24 574 4 4 5 4 70 984 3
1+ 0 1 74 3 + 3 3 0 3 9 83 570 74 3 84 + 724
4 72 0 3 4 3 9 20 181 70 984 3 = 897 84 2 824 3 3 + 294 7 10 84 7 1 0 84 3 574 6 + 4 3 2) 74 54 74 3 24
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 18
Gas
Moisture
Mechanical/Electrical
Environmental
0 to 1 aw (0 to 100% RH) ± 0.02 aw (± 2% RH) Mineral oil: 0 to 60 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 180 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% Synthetic ester: 0 to 2220 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 3490 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% Natural ester: 0 to 1010 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 1780 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% Silicon: 0 to 300 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 590 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% -40 to +120 ± 0.2 °C (-40 to +248 ± 0.4 °F)
Standard sensor - 25 to 5,000 ppm (μl/l) ±25 ppm or ±20 % (whichever is higher) High performance - 5 to 5,000 ppm (μl/l) ±3 ppm or ±20 % (whichever is higher)
392 x 264 x 158 mm (14.43 x 10.39 x 6.2 in) 8kg (18lbs) IP67\NEMA4X enclosure, ISO12944 class C4 150VA @ 100 to 240 VAC (50 to 60 Hz), max current 1A – 10% power fluctuations allowed
Operating temperature range -50 to +60C; survival -60 to +100C Oil temperature operational range -20 to +100C; survival -50 to +120C Oil pressure 0 to 10Bar (can withstand vacuum)
CoreSense™ – specifications
Hydrogen (H2)
Temperature
Operating temperature Oil temperature Oil pressure
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 19
Gas
Moisture 0 to 1 aw (0 to 100% RH) ± 0.02 aw (± 2% RH) Mineral oil: 0 to 60 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 180 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% Synthetic ester: 0 to 2220 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 3490 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% Natural ester: 0 to 1010 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 1780 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% Silicon: 0 to 300 @ 25 °C (77 °F) or 0 to 590 @ 55 °C (131 °F) ± 3% -40 to +120 ± 0.2 °C (-40 to +248 ± 0.4 °F)
Standard sensor - 25 to 5,000 ppm (μl/l) ±25 ppm or ±20 % (whichever is higher) High performance - 5 to 5,000 ppm (μl/l) ±3 ppm or ±20 % (whichever is higher) 2 to 5,000 ppm (μl/l) ±2 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 5 to 20,000 ppm (μl/l) ±5 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 1 to 10,000 ppm (μl/l) ±1 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 0.5 to 10,000 ppm (μl/l) ±0.2 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 2 to 10,000 ppm (μl/l) ±2 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 2 to 10,000 ppm (μl/l) ±2 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 10 to 10,000 ppm (μl/l) ±10 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher) 10 to 10,000 ppm (μl/l) ±10 ppm or ±5 % (whichever is higher)
CoreSense™ M10 – specifications
Hydrogen (H2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Acetylene (C2H2) Ethelene (C2H4) Ethane (C2H6) Propene (C3H6) Propane (C3H8)
Relative moisture Moisture ppm (mg/kg)
Temperature
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 20
Mechanical/Electrical
Environmental
392 x 264 x 158 mm (14.43 x 10.39 x 6.2 in) 8kg (18lbs) IP67\NEMA4X enclosure, ISO12944 class C4 685 x 863 x 292 mm (27 x 34 x 11.5 in), 65 kg (143 lbs) IP66\NEMA4X enclosure, ISO12944 class C4 600VA @ 100 to 240 VAC (50 to 60 Hz), max current 5A – 10% power fluctuations allowed
Operating temperature range -50 to +55C; survival -60 to +100C Oil temperature operational range -20 to +120C; survival -50 to +120C Oil pressure 0 to 10Bar (can withstand vacuum)
CoreSense™ M10 – specifications
Head dimensions and weight Head ingress protection Cabinet dimensions and weight Cabinet ingress protection Power input
Operating temperature Oil temperature Oil pressure
Environmental Operating temperature range -50 to +55C; survival -60 to +100C Oil temperature operational range -20 to +120C; survival -50 to +120C Oil pressure 0 to 10Bar (can withstand vacuum)
Operating temperature Oil temperature Oil pressure
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS 21
Mechanical/Electrical
Environmental
Oil specifications
Operating temperature range -50 to +55C; survival -60 to +100C Oil temperature operational range -20 to +120C; survival -50 to +120C Oil pressure 0 to 10Bar (can withstand vacuum)
392 x 264 x 158 mm (14.43 x 10.39 x 6.2 in) 8kg (18lbs) IP67\NEMA4X enclosure, ISO12944 class C4 685 x 863 x 292 mm (27 x 34 x 11.5 in), 65 kg (143 lbs) IP66\NEMA4X enclosure, ISO12944 class C4 600VA @ 100 to 240 VAC (50 to 60 Hz), max current 5A – 10% power fluctuations allowed
CoreSense M10 ST for transformers filled with mineral oil CoreSense M10 SE for transformers filled with Synthetic ester – calibrated for Midel 7131 CoreSense M10 NE for transformers filled with Natural ester – calibrated for FR3 CoreSense M10 SL for transformers filled with Silicon
Head dimensions and weight Head ingress protection Cabinet dimensions and weight Cabinet ingress protection Power input
Operating temperature Oil temperature Oil pressure
Mineral oil Synthetic esters Natural esters Silicon
© Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS
Thank you!
HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS © Hitachi ABB Power Grids 2020. All rights reserved 23
POWERING GOOD FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
Slide Number 1
Transformer failure mode analysis
Basics of gas formation
Dissolved gas in mineral oil
Dissolved gas in other oils
CoreSense™ – hydrogen & moisture sensor
CoreSense™ – hydrogen & moisture sensor
CoreSense™ – hydrogen & moisture sensor
CoreSense™ M10 – Easy installation
CoreSense™ – specifications