Transitional Shelter Guidelines

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Transitional Shelter Guidelines


<ul><li><p>TRA</p><p>NSITIO</p><p>NA</p><p>L SH</p><p>ELTER </p><p>GU</p><p>IDELIN</p><p>ES</p><p>This consensus publication:</p><p> offers a defi nition and explains the 10 principles of transitional shelter indicates when a transitional shelter approach may be inappropriate shows how to design and implement a transitional shelter programme with communities</p><p>SHELTER GUIDELINES</p><p>TRANSITIONAL </p></li><li><p>Relocatable</p><p>Recyclable</p><p>Resaleable</p><p>No legalstatus</p><p>House tenant</p><p>Apartmenttenant</p><p>Landtenant</p><p>Apartment owner-occupier</p><p>House owner-occupier</p><p>Securing land tenure enables implementation of the parallel reconstruction process</p><p>RECONSTRUCTIONLAND TENUREPRE-DISASTER OPTIONS</p><p>POST-DISASTER </p><p>OPTIONS</p><p>Materials are added incrementally to the transitional shelter</p><p>Reusable</p><p>is relocation necessary?</p><p>UpgradableTRANSITIONAL </p><p>SHELTER PROCESS</p><p>defi nition of TS</p><p>10 TS principles</p><p>5 characteristics</p><p>when not to use TS</p><p>SWOT</p><p>decision-making tool</p><p>coordination</p><p>programme plan</p><p>assessment</p><p>benefi ciaries</p><p>labour</p><p>materials</p><p>procurement</p><p>support</p><p>quality assurance</p><p>community</p><p>site selection</p><p>site planning</p><p>land tenure</p><p>handover</p><p>socio-cultural</p><p>minimise risk</p><p>climatic design</p><p>materials</p><p>construction</p><p>d</p><p>e</p><p>fi</p><p>n</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>o</p><p>n 1</p><p>23</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>t</p><p>o</p><p>o</p><p>l</p><p>p</p><p>r</p><p>o</p><p>g</p><p>r</p><p>a</p><p>m</p><p>m</p><p>e</p><p>s</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>e</p><p>d</p><p>e</p><p>s</p><p>i</p><p>g</p><p>n</p><p>r</p><p>e</p><p>s</p><p>o</p><p>u</p><p>r</p><p>c</p><p>e</p><p>s</p></li><li><p>iThis consensus publication:</p><p> offers a defi nition and explains the 10 principles of transitional shelter indicates when a transitional shelter approach may be inappropriate shows how to design and implement a transitional shelter programme with communities</p><p>TRANSITIONAL SHELTER </p><p>GUIDELINES</p></li><li><p>ii</p><p>Published by:Shelter Centre</p><p>Email: info@sheltercentre.orgWebsite:</p><p>Part draft May 2009Final draft November 2011First edition: May 2012</p><p>A catalogue record for this publication is available for download from the Shelter Centre library,</p><p>The fi ndings, interpretations and conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily refl ectthe views of the International Organization for Migration or its Member States.The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the work do notimply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IOM concerning the legalstatus of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiersor boundaries. </p><p>Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together with a reference to the document number. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to Brian Kelly (, Nuno Nunes ( and Shelter Centre (</p><p>International Organization for Migration (IOM) 17, Route des Morillons CH-1211 Geneva 19 Switzerland</p><p>Tel: +41.22.717 9111 Fax: +41.22.798 6150 Email: </p></li><li><p>iii</p><p>FundingSupport and funding from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) was received for the initial drafting of these guidelines.</p><p>Subsequent funding and support from the International Organization for Migration (IOM) has made the fi nalisation of this project possible, including support from the Swedish International Development Coorporation Agency (Sida).</p><p>AcknowledgementsThis project has been made possible thanks to DFID, Sida and IOM.</p><p>Brian Kelly, Head of IOM Pakistans Emergency and Stabilization Unit, acted as project manager and coordinating editor on behalf of IOM. Nuno Nunes, CCCM Global Cluster Coordinator, supported the project from IOM Headquarters.</p><p>Shelter Centre is extremely grateful to Bill Flinn for his reviews and valuable contributions to this publication.</p><p>The executive editor of these guidelines is Shelter Centre Executive Director Tom Corsellis.</p><p>Lead authors and production team comprisedJo Ashbridge Laura HeykoopAntonia Bengono-Muanze Lisa IrvineBritt Christiaens Federica LisaSarah Cook Cristina MazzoneDave Curtis Jennifer MilneAndrew Cusack Christoph MllerMaria Evangeliou Ana Margarida M. RamosStephen Fitzmaurice Joanna ReadSimon Golds Pedro Salavessa GarciaStphanie Gomez de la Torre Estelle SohPilvi Halttunen Valrie VerougstraeteAdditional contributions were made byRob Fielding Julia PhillipsLaura Martinelli Joseph Charles WoodwardSevket ztasExternal contributions were made byHugh Earp, independent Jim Kennedy, independentFiona Kelling, independent Alison Killing, independentShelter Centre would especially like to thank Fiona Kelling for her advice and contributions to sections 3.2.3 Programme and project management and section 4.4 regarding land tenure issues.</p><p>Additional special thanks to Jim Kennedy for his specifi c contribution to section 4.5 regarding the handover of transitional shelter programmes. </p></li><li><p>iv</p><p>Photographs/imagesCover photographRumana Kabir </p><p>Internal content photographsDyfed Aubrey IOMMarco Botelli IOM HaitiCordaid IOM PakistanTom Corsellis Adam KalopsidiotisOliver Dorighel Chris Kaput Leonard Doyle Arie KievietUsman Ghani Chris LomHeiner Gloor Peter Manfi eldHabitat for Humanity Mike MeaneyAsim Hafeez Practical Action Latin AmericaHandicap International David Sacca</p><p>Peer reviewThe publication was drafted and reviewed over the period May 2009November 2011 at the Shelter Meetings, a biannual forum organised by Shelter Centre which is attended by the key NGO, IO, UN and government stakeholders in the global sector. </p><p>Shelter Centre would like to thank all organisations and individuals who have expressed their willingness to contribute to the process and peer review of the part draft in May 2009 and fi nal draft in November 2011.</p></li><li><p>vPeer reviewersJohn Adlam, DFID Jim Kennedy, independentMasood Akhtar, IOM Esteban Leon, UN-HABITATDavid Alford, WASH Cluster Manoucher Lolachi, UNHCREddie Argenal, CHF Francesca Lubrano, IOM HaitiJoseph Ashmore, independent Mike Meaney, Habitat for HumanityDyfed Aubrey, GOAL Henk Mejrink, Cordaid/CaritasRick Bauer, Oxfam GB Jrme Michon, MSF-BelgiumNeil Brighton, Care/IFRC Maria Moita, IOMAdriana Carvalho-Friedheim, UN/OCHA</p><p>Isabelle de Muyser-Boucher, UN/OCHA</p><p>Giovanni Casani, IOM Susith Premasisri, IOMIgor Chantefort , IOM Haiti Richard Choularton, CHF</p><p>Jeroen Quanyer, IFRC/Benelux Red Cross</p><p>Alex Coissac, IOM Raghu Srinivasa Rao, NRCSimon Devine, Education for All Peter Roberts, independentHugh Earp, independent Shaun Scales, IOMWilliam Flinn, independent Anna-Maria Selleri, IFRCMario Flores, Habitat for Humanity David Stone, The ProAct NetworkRainer Frauenfeld, UNOPS Corinne Treherne, IFRCRod Imer, World Vision International Mark Wooding, MedairAdam Kalapsidiotis, independent Jake Zarins, NRC</p><p>The following Shelter Meeting peer presentations have been held as part of the revision process:</p><p>1st peer presentation, hosted by Swiss Solidarity, Geneva 78 May 2009.2nd peer presentation, hosted by UNHCR, Geneva 1213 November 2009.3rd peer presentation, hosted by IOM, Geneva 2728 May 2010.4th peer presentation, hosted by UN/OCHA, Geneva 23 December 2010.5th peer presentation, hosted by UNDP, Geneva 1213 May 2011.6th peer presentation, hosted by IOM, Geneva 12 November 2011.</p><p>Shelter Meeting participating organisations included:</p><p>Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) clustersCamp Coordination and Camp Management; Early Recovery; Education; Emergency Shelter; Protection; Water, Sanitation and Hygiene.</p><p>Humanitarian bilateral and multilateral donorsDanish Peoples Aid (DPA); DFID; Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Humanitarian Aid Unit (SDC/HA); Swiss Solidarity; The World Bank; United States Agency for International Development (USAID).</p><p>United Nations bodiesUnited Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR); United Nations Offi ce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN/OCHA); United Nations Offi ce for Project Services (UNOPS).</p></li><li><p>vi</p><p>International organisationsInternational Organization for Migration (IOM); IOM Haiti; IOM Pakistan.</p><p>Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementInternational Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC); Red Cross National Societies (Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, USA).</p><p>Non-governmental organisationsAction Aid; Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA); Architecture &amp; Development (A&amp;D); Architecture Sans Frontires (ASF); Bioforce Development Institute; CARE International; Caritas Switzerland; Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF); Engineers Without Borders UK (EWB-UK); GOAL; Groupe URD; Habitat for Humanity; Handicap International (HI); Islamic Relief (IR) Worldwide; Medair; Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF) Belgium; Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC); Oxfam GB; Oxfam India; ProAct Network; RedR; Relief International; Practical Action; Shelter Centre; Skat Foundation; World Vision International (WVI).</p><p>Academic institutionsEindhoven University of Technology (TU/e); London South Bank University; Oxford Brookes University; University of Glasgow.</p><p>National governmental organisationsDFID; Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Disaster Management Commission; Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB); Sida.</p></li><li><p>vii</p></li><li><p>viii</p><p>Sustainable reconstruction often takes a number of years, especially in urban environments. It is always a challenge to support shelter for affected populations over this period of time. </p><p>The shelters provided to persons in the aftermath of a disaster must meet good quality standards in order to last for a number of years, offering persons affected a safe, secure, healthy and dignifi ed accommodation. They must also be of the right size and layout to enable benefi ciaries to regain their livelihoods and to take the lead within efforts for reconstruction.</p><p>The transitional shelter approach articulated within this publication advocates for investment in construction materials into communities, thus supporting community-led reconstruction efforts and ownership within the recovery process.</p><p>This type of approach has sheltered millions of people in emergency responses all over the world, and has been adopted by various agencies, including the International Organization for Migration (IOM).</p><p>Since the introduction of the approach in 2005, no detailed guidelines have ever been published to fully capture the transitional shelter experience and to support humanitarian actors in the provision of transitional shelters.</p><p>The development of these guidelines refl ects an extensive consensus-building process, involving 44 agencies as well as independent humanitarian specialists. Within the process, a number of detailed suggestions have been integrated from fi eld practitioners managing transitional shelter projects and programmes from all over the world. </p><p>IOM is pleased to have contributed to this jointly developed tool for fi eld practitioners, and believes this effort will have a positive impact on the improved shelter conditions of persons affected by crisis situations.</p><p> Mohammed AbdikerDirector of Operations and Emergencies International Organization for Migration</p><p>FOREWORD</p></li><li><p>ix</p><p>Programme managers and fi eld staff need guidelines in order to understand if, when and how transitional shelter should be used. This publication provides a decision-making tool to aid this process. These are practically and succinctly explained in the 10 transitional shelter principles. </p><p>The transitional shelter approach engages a series of sectors involved in a response, including camps, recovery and water, sanitation and hygiene. When supported appropriately, this approach can also make a signifi cant contribution to protection and environmental management.</p><p>Consultation with fi eld practitioners often raises the common misconception that transitional shelter is a distinct phase in a response, coming between emergency shelter and reconstruction. In fact, transitional shelter is an incremental process, which begins with the fi rst distribution of materials after an emergency. These guidelines aim to prevent these misunderstandings.</p><p>In consolidating lessons learned, the guidelines support the addition of transitional shelter to the range of other shelter and settlement options available to the humanitarian community in responding to confl icts and disasters.</p><p>John AdlamDirector CHASE Operations Team</p><p>Department for International Development </p></li><li><p>xAcknowledgements iiiForeword viiiList of diagrams, tables and photographs xii</p><p>INTRODUCTIONBackground xviAim of this publication xviiiAudience xixWhat is not in these guidelines xxiExplanation of graphics xxi</p><p>CHAPTER 1 Introduction to the transitional shelter process1.1 What is transitional shelter? 21.2 10 principles of transitional shelter 101.3 The 5 characteristics of transitional shelter 151.4 When is transitional shelter not appropriate? 171.5 Transitional shelter SWOT analysis 18</p><p>CHAPTER 2 Decision-making toolDecision-making tool 21</p><p>CHAPTER 3 Programme design and implementation 3.1 Transitional shelter as part of a coordinated response 313.2 Developing a transitional shelter programme plan 443.3 Programme assessment 563.4 Benefi ciary identifi cation 643.5 Labour methods 703.6 Materials methods and sourcing 763.7 Procurement and logistics 823.8 Support methods 903.9 Quality assurance 96</p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS</p></li><li><p>xi</p><p>CHAPTER 4 Community site selection and planning4.1 Supporting a community 1114.2 Site selection 1144.3 Site planning and communal infrastructure 1234.4 Land tenure 1294.5 Handover 135</p><p>CHAPTER 5 Community shelter design5.1 Designing with the community 1385.2 Designing to minimise risk 1475.3 Climatic design 1595.4 Building materials 1685.5 Construction principles 180</p><p>RESOURCESGlossary 195Acronyms 200Annotated bibliography 202References 204Index 210</p></li><li><p>xii</p><p>List of diagrams</p><p>Chapter 1</p><p>1.1 Transitional shelter as an incremental process 1.2 Transitional shelter in the response cycle 1.3 Transitional shelter and cost </p><p>Chapter 3</p><p>3.1 11 Global Clusters and lead agencies 3.2 Coordination framework 3.3 Communication methods 3.4 The four stages of assessment after a disaster 3.5 Balancing benefi ciary numbers to level of assistance 3.6 18 assistance methods 3.7 The procurement process 3.8 Post-disaster supply demands 3.9 Planning an effi cient distribution chain </p><p>Chapter 4</p><p>4.1 Landslide-prone areas site considerations 4.2 Earthquake-prone areas site considerations 4.3 Hurricane/cyclone-prone areas site considerations </p><p>Chapter 5</p><p>5.1 Elevated plinth 5.2 Improving foundation waterproofi ng 5.3 Earthquake resilient building plan layouts 5.4 Anchoring to foundations to prevent uplift 5.5 Roof shape and orientation 5.6 Rodent-proofi ng measures 5.7 Fire safety distance 5.8 Ventilating wall cavities 5.9 Ventilation principles for warm-humid climates 5.10 Shading opportunities 5.11 Ventilation strategy for hot-dry climates 5.12 Cold climate building principles 5.13 Plastic sheeting connection details 5.14 Fixing CGI sheeting 5.15 CGI sheeting details 5.16 Cut timb...</p></li></ul>


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