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  • 1.The water purification in L.Suwa. The experiences and the problems of theenvironmental rehabilitation of a lakeit l h bilit tif l k Tokio Okino (Professor emeritus, Shinshu University)

2. The profiles of L. Suwa(1) Origin of lakeTectonic lake about 300 000 b t 300,000 years ago bi thbirth The depth of the sedimentation200< Type lake Eutrophic Type of lakeEutrophic type The specifications of lake Surface area13 3 area13.3 Lakefront line extension distance 16 Water depthmax. depth 6.5 mean depth about 4 Catchment area 532 About 40 times of the surface area of lake Retention timeabout 40 days ( annual mean ) Characteristics of sediment diatom Gyttja 3. The profiles of L. Suwa(2) p( )2Humanistic characteristics Population about 200 000 capitals 200,000 Paddy and vegetable fields :31% of catchment area Urban area : 6 2% of catchment area6.2% Industry : Silk, clock, high technical andfermentation industries ( high economicppower region in the inland of Japan) gp ) 4. The Th past landscape of Lake Suwa. (around 1940) tl d fL k S ( d 1940 Swimming in L Suwa L. The landscape of water front p of L. Suwa ( 1941 ) (Around 1940)2 5. The water pollution status of Lake Suwa. ( 1970~1973 ) 40 September, 1970 July, 1972 1973 August, August September, September 19733 6. Comparison of the blooming situation ( transparency of surface lake water) by blue-green algae between 1971 and 1999 19711999August, 1971 1999 August,5 7. The present status of the remediation of water front and the water quality of L. Suwa ( from spring to summer, 2000) remediation of beach remediation of water front July, 2000 2000 August, At4 8. The recent progress of the environmental changesin Lake Suwa (1) 1st stage : A silk thread industry seedtime ( around 1900 ) No processing industry and domestic water flow into the lake A large quantity of earth and sand flow into the lake from themountain region by felling of the forest There was not the change of the appearance-like lake 2nd stage : A highly economic period of growth (1960~)Complicated water pollution occurred by the variouspollutants (industry, urban, agriculture, etc.)Eutrophication of lake water by inflowing of a large amount ofnutrients ( nitrogen and phosphorus) fiid h h ) from the watershed ofhh d fL. Suwa Rapid R id water pollution was generated, and a amount of thtll ti t d d t f theblue-green algae occurred. 9. The recent progress of the environmental changes in Lake Suwa2 23rd stage : The start of the purification measures (the 1970's d beginning ) 1) The setting of th environmental standard (l Th ttif theit l t d d (legallmaintenance) Industrial drainage regulation (heavy metals and organics )2) The construction of the sewerage systemIndustrial drainage and urban waste water regulation3) Dredging of the polluted mud of lake bottom start ( littoralzone,zone 2m >) 4th stage : A new trial to purification ( mitigation ) (1990~ ) The development of the soft action by the inhabitantsparticipation 10. An administrative action to L. Suwa purification 1965 Lake Suwa purification measure Committee start The water pollution investigation of L Suwa startL. 1969 The dredging of the litoral zone (2.5 m>) start 1971 Environmental standard setting about water pollution 1972 The sewerage system construction start 1979 The part service of the sewerage system start 1987 The application of the Law Concerning Special Measuresfor Conservation of Lake Water Quality ( Nitrogen andPhosphorus standard ) 2002 The targeted value of the fourth plan : COD 4.7ppm,TP0.05 mg/l, TN 0.75 mg/l 2007 Revive; Lake Suwa Lake Suwa coexisting with aquaticgqcreature (change of the aim ) 11. Inhabitants and the administrative actions 1973 The shore cleaning by the students of Kamisuwa MiddleSchool start (spring and summer) 1975Public hall activity in the watershed area (A general theme:The environmental problems) 1985 The shore cleaning action by the inhabitants of 2 citiesand 1town around the lake 1989 The 1st environmental urban designing with Japan andGermany in Suwa ( 1991 2nd, 1993 3rd i G dd in Germany, 2002 4th )1994 A waterside maintenance examination committeedepending on i h bit t participationd di inhabitantsti i ti 1995 Making the master plan for lakeside mitigation,Start the reconstruction of the waterfront 12. The main scientific researches about Lake Suwa 1965-1968 The study of the purification measure of L. Suwa (Nagano pref and Shinshu university) pref. 1967-1973 International Biological Programs (Monbusyo) 1971-1975 UNESCO Man and Biosphere (Monbusyo)UNESCO, 1977-1985 Special Program of Environmental Sciences (Monbusyo) 1985-1988 Ecosysetm Studies of Littoral Zone of L. Suwa ( (Monbusyo)y ) 1990-1998 The studies on the matter cycles of lake littoral (The studies on the reproduction of aquatic organisms)(Ministry of Agriculture, Nagano Pref., Shinshu Univ.) 1996-present Long-term monitoring of L. Suwa (p g g(Ministry of y Environment, Shinshu University) 13. New development to purification action Revive; Lake Suwa Swimming in L. Suwa TheTh switch of the aim : lake water purification it h f th il ktifi ti conservation of lake ecosystem *The restoration of the bank becomes the key toSuwa lake quality p qy purification(Development of mitigation action ) The holding of the joint seminars of Japan andGermany(1989~2002) by the sponsorship ofinhabitants was a chancechance. *Inhabitants, an expert, administrative cooperationand appropriate role allotment di tl ll tt 14. 3rd seminer in Germany (June, 1993) 15. 3 19936 16. A waterfront maintenance business : Master plan of L. Suwa The scenery of the new L.Suwa Shore reconstraction to bring up nature and culture Reconstruction and creation of the shore environment that assumed Lake Suwa at the time 30 of 1950 original scenery g y A 17 17. Case F zone : The shore that kept nature alive F 18. The recovery situation of the lakefront vegetation Before reconstruction (1993) After completion (1995) 18 19. Just construction after restoration 2Aquatic plants community two years later 20. Reproduction of the lakefront 1 ( p (The beach where a pperson can touch the water) 1 Before After 21. Reproduction of the lakefront 2 (Takahama beach) 2 Before After 22. Reproduction of the lakefront 3 (Sibusaki beach) 3 Before After 23. The floating plants (Trapa sp.)zone reconstructed naturally in the front of the artificial beach 24. The trees and the bridge of the walking road of lake side 25. Case A zone : The beach where a person can p water touch the A Before B fAfter 26. The reproduction situation of the submerged plantin L. Suwa 400350300250200 150100 5001911 1966 1972 2006 27. The change of the total phosphorusconcentration in L Suwa (Nagano Pref 2007) L. Pref.,2007)2007 P mg/l 0.35 0.3030.25 The part service start of the sewer(1979)0.20.15 0 15Standard TP0.05mg/l0.10.050S48 50 52 5456 58 60 62 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 28. The change of the total nitrogen concentration in L. Suwa (Nagano Pref 2007)Pref.,2007) 2007 N mg/l 2.52The part service start of the sewer(1979)1.51 0.5 05Standard TN0 6 /l St d d TN0.6mg/l0 S4851 1 5457 60 063 3 69 12115 1181 29. The change of COD concentration in L. Suwa (Nagano P f 2007) (NPref.,2007) COD2007COD mg/l 10The part service start of the sewer(1979) 8642 Standard COD3 mg/l012 4 6 8 43 4547 4951 5355 5759 61631012 1416 18 S4 30. The problems of Lake Suwa The further improvement of the water qualitiesNone-point sources measure of the pollutantsRecovery of the self-purification power (river and soil) Promotion of the area along the shore Hydrophilic creation and maintenance by the reconstructionof the natural landscape Th aquatic floral zone reconstruction of the area along theThe ti fl l t tif th lthshore Local inhabitants and user promote adequacy of a lake useunder the agreement d th t Careful to the use in the coast landside (We need sight, theevaluation for the five senses including the hearing) Ecosystem maintenance (coexistence with the othercreatures in nature) as the Lake Suwa Careful to the introduction of the creature from other region 31. A problem of the aquatic environment improvementpInhabitants The information di t h Th i fti dispatch Information disclosure from inhabitants by the administration UnderstandingInformation disclosure and a of naturecommentary by the expert GovernmentExpert An exhibition and joint ownership of the information The coexistence of a person and the creature ConservationKnow ridgeAquatic organisms Protetion UnderstandingCreation f the t C ti of th water culture as new culturelt lt 32. The lesson that Lake Suwa conveysRestoration is the next best thing : It is the most g important not to break a certain nature There are few expenses and finishes it There are little both time and labor and can achieve a purpose surely Coexistence with the other creatures in nature is the most important idea It is human arrogance to think that we can do itg by human power everything There is not the creature living under the most suitable environment it bli t Earth is not nature only in human sakePatience and hesitation are necessary so that we survives 33. ; Revive; Lake Suwa 50