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  • UNIVERSIT DE STRASBOURG

    COLE DOCTORALE DES HUMANITS

    Linguistique, Langues, Parole (LiLPa) - EA 1339

    THSE prsente par: Diana AL-AGHBARI

    soutenue le : 29 septembre 2016

    pour obtenir le grade de : Docteur de luniversit de Strasbourg Discipline/ Spcialit: Langues et Littratures trangres/ Anglais

    Integrating Pragmatic Competence in

    Teaching English to the Students of

    Medicine at Taiz University

    THSE dirige par : Madame PAULIN Catherine Professeur des universits, universit de Strasbourg

    JURY : Monsieur ALBRESPIT Jean Professeur des universits, universit de Bordeaux Montaigne Monsieur BENAYOUN Jean-Michel Professeur des universits, universit

    de Paris Diderot Monsieur HAMM Albert Professeur des universits, universit de Strasbourg

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................... 3

    LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................... 7

    LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................. 8

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................... 9

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................... 11

    RSUM ............................................................................................................... 13

    INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 37

    CHAPTER 1: Preliminary Considerations. ........................................................ 48

    1. 1 A Study in Interlanguage Pragmatics ......................................................... 50

    1. 2 Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Context ............................. 54

    1. 3 The Concept of Appropriateness: Which Norms to follow........................... 59

    1. 4 Pragmatic Competence and Linguistic Competence .................................. 65

    1. 5 Summary .................................................................................................... 72

    CHAPTER 2: Literature Review .......................................................................... 73

    PART ONE: Pragmatics: Exploring the Territory ................................................ 74

    2. 1 Context in Pragmatics................................................................................. 74

    2. 2 Defining Pragmatics.................................................................................... 77

    2. 3 Origin of Pragmatics ................................................................................... 79

    2. 4 Borders of Pragmatics ................................................................................ 83

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    2. 5 Pragmatics and Speech Act Theory ........................................................... 88

    2. 5. 1 Requests ............................................................................................. 93

    2. 5. 2 Refusals .............................................................................................. 94

    2. 5. 3 Apologies ............................................................................................ 95

    2. 6 Pragmatics and Politeness ......................................................................... 97

    2. 6. 1 Brown and Levinsons Politeness Theory ........................................... 99

    2. 6. 2 Politeness and Culture ...................................................................... 102

    PART TWO: Pragmatics in the ESP Context ................................................... 105

    2. 7 ESP and Pragmatics................................................................................. 105

    2. 7. 1 Exploring the Liaison ......................................................................... 106

    2. 7. 2 Previous Studies on the relationship between ESP and Pragmatics. 108

    2. 8 The Case within ESP: Medical Students .................................................. 111

    2. 9 Getting into the Core: Pragmatic Competence ......................................... 114

    2. 9. 1 Pragmatic Competence and Communicative Competence ............... 115

    2. 9. 2 Pragmatic Awareness and Pragmatic Failure ................................... 120

    2. 10 Summary ................................................................................................ 124

    CHAPTER 3: Methodology ............................................................................... 125

    3. 1 Contextual Background ............................................................................ 126

    3. 1. 1 Brief History of Yemen ...................................................................... 126

    3. 1. 2 The Educational System: An Overview ............................................. 129

    3. 1. 3 The Status of English in Yemen ........................................................ 135

    3. 2 Research Design ...................................................................................... 141

    3. 3 Participants ............................................................................................... 144

    3. 3. 1 Participants in the questionnaire ....................................................... 144

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    3. 3. 2 Participants in the interview .............................................................. 146

    3. 4 Research Instruments............................................................................... 148

    3. 4. 1 The Questionnaire ............................................................................. 149

    3. 4. 2 The Interview .................................................................................... 156

    3. 5 Pilot Study ................................................................................................ 162

    3. 6 Data Collection ......................................................................................... 165

    3. 6. 1 The First Stage: distributing questionnaires ...................................... 165

    3. 6. 2 The Second Stage: conducting interviews ........................................ 167

    3. 7 Summary .................................................................................................. 169

    CHAPTER 4: Data Analysis and Results ......................................................... 170

    4. 1 Questionnaire Data ................................................................................... 172

    4. 1. 1 Awareness Test Data ........................................................................ 172

    4. 1. 2 DCT Data .......................................................................................... 185

    4. 2 Interview Data ........................................................................................... 211

    4. 2. 1 The graduates own experience with English .................................... 214

    4. 2. 2 The graduates viewpoints of English for medical students ............... 218

    4. 3 Summary .................................................................................................. 225

    CHAPTER 5: Discussion................................................................................... 226

    5. 1 Addressing the Research Questions ........................................................ 227

    5. 1. 1 The First Research Question ............................................................ 227

    5. 1. 2 The Second Research Question ....................................................... 251

    5. 2 Study Implications .................................................................................... 256

    5. 2. 1 The Proposed Model: Theoretical Considerations ............................ 260

    5. 2. 2 The Proposed Model: Application ..................................................... 269

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    5. 3 Limitations of the Study ............................................................................ 280

    5. 5 Summary .................................................................................................. 282

    CONCLUSION .................................................................................................... 283

    REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 288

    APPENDICES ..................................................................................................... 314

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    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1 Students' Profile ..................................................................................... 146

    Table 2 Interviewees' Profile ............................................................................... 148

    Table 3 Summary of the Awareness Test Responses ........................................ 174

    Table 5 Distribution of the Reasons .................................................................... 177

    Table 6 The Percentage of Relevant Reasons.................................................... 184

    Table 7 Classification of Request Strategies ....................................................... 187

    Table 8 Type and Frequency of Request Strategies ........................................... 190

    Table 9 Classification of Apology Strategies .................................