The Rwandan Genocide A Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis

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The Rwandan Genocide A Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis. Genocide. Between April and June of 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans, from the group known as Tutsis, were killed in the span of 100 days. This is their story. Who were the Hutus? Who were the Tutsis?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Rwandan GenocideA Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis

  • GenocideBetween April and June of 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans, from the group known as Tutsis, were killed in the span of 100 days.

  • This is their story

  • Who were the Hutus?

    Who were the Tutsis?

  • Who are the Hutus & Tutsis The Hutus and Tutsis are two groups of people that settled in present day Rwanda close to two-thousand years ago.

    Some scientists believe the Tutsis migrated from present day Ethiopia.

    Over time they worked together and united.They developed a single language (Kinyarwanda) and one set of religious and philosophical beliefs.

  • Long ago, Rwanda and Burundi were one nation. The Hutu and Tutsi lived here.

  • Working TogetherThe Hutus and Tutsis were cultivators and raised livestock.

    With fertile soil and regular rainfall, the region where the Hutus and Tutsis lived eventually became the most densely populated nation on the entire African continent.

  • A Division BeginsIn the 18th century, when Rwanda emerged as a powerful and populous nation, its rulers began to measure their power in the number of their cattle.

    The Tutsi were rich in cattle. They were the elite and ruling class.

    On the other hand, the Hutu had less livestock and less power.

  • Hutus vs. Tutsis The Hutus were the majority around 85%. But they were considered commoners.

    The Tutsis were the minority around 14%. But they were considered the elite, ruling class because of their large estates, large number of servants, and large number of cattle.Hutu 85%Tutsi 14%

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    85

    14

    Population

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    85

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    Population

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  • Marriage Although there were some families that intermarried, most Hutus married Hutus and most Tutsis married Tutsis.

    This impacted genetics and the way Hutus and Tutsis began to look.

  • Physical AppearanceBecause the Hutus and Tutsis did not usually intermarry, their offspring began to develop similarities in their features.

    The Tutsis were often very tall, thin, with narrow features, and fair skin.

    The Hutus were often shorter, stronger, with broader features, and darker skin.

  • This is a picture from the movie Hotel Rwanda.

    The man on the right, plays a Hutu character. The woman on the left, plays a Tutsi character.

  • ColonizationThe Germans were the first Europeans to colonize Rwanda.

    They did so in the early 1900s.

    The Germans helped to fight off other countries that wanted to attack Rwanda (the Hutus and Tutsis). This helped to protect Rwanda and make is strong.

  • Colonization Continued After WWI, the United Nations decided that Germany could no longer rule Rwanda.

    The country was now under the safeguards of the United Nations, and it was to be governed by Belgium.

  • Belgium Brings Further Division Belgium decided to use the class system (that had already been put into place) to their advantage.

    The Belgians favored the Tutsis and gave them privileges and western-style education.

  • Why did the Belgians do this?The Belgians did this because they could control Rwanda easier this way.

    The Belgians also favored the Tutsis because they appeared more European in their tall, slender features. They discriminated the Hutus because they appeared less European.

  • How do you think the Hutus felt about this?

    How do you think the Tutsis felt about this?

  • Identification CardsAfter creating laws that gave special privileges to the how could the be sure who was a Tutsi and who was a Hutu? Tutsi, the Belgians ran into a problem

    Physical characteristics identified some, but not all.

    The solution: Have every single citizen register and carry an identification card.

  • What if you had no proof?If you could not give proof of your ancestry, the Belgians would simply measure your height and other features.

    If you appeared more European, they listed you has a Tutsi.

    If your features were taller, darker, stronger, etc. they listed you has a Hutu.

  • Soon the Hutus got tired of this discrimination.

    What do you think they did?

  • PARMEHUTUThe Party for the Emancipation of the Hutus is formed in 1959. It is called Parmehutu.

    Hutus rebelled against the Belgian colonial power and the Tutsi elite.

    150,000 Tutsis flee to Burundi (which at the time was part of Rwanda).

  • Belgium LeavesIn the 1960s Belgium withdraws from Rwanda.

    Rwanda and Burundi split into two different countries.

  • The Hutus fight the TutsisStill angry at being repressed and discriminated against for so many years, the Hutus fight the Tutsis.

    Many Tutsis are massacred, and many flee Rwanda.

  • Igniting Violence A well-known Hutu leader, Dr. Leon Mugesera appeals to the Hutus to send the Tutsis back to Ethiopia via the rivers.

    Other Hutus said that they needed to clean up the filth and kill the Tutsi cockroaches.

  • Negotiations Aug. 1993Following months of negotiations, President Habyarimana (a Hutu President) and the RPF sign a peace accord that calls for a return of Tutsi refugees.

    2,500 United Nations troops are deployed to Kigali to oversee the peace accord.

  • Will there be peace?Despite a peace accord, the Rwandan president stalls in created a unified government in which the power is shared.

    At the same time, training of militias and violence intensifies.

    An extremist radio station, Radio Mille Collines, begins to warn: it is almost time for us to cut down the tall trees. This was code for, it is almost time to kill all of the Tutsis.

  • WARNING! Human rights groups warn the international community of an impending genocide.

    In March of 1994, the human rights groups are forced to flee Rwanda due to the impending calamity. Only the Red Cross stays behind.

  • The U.N. LeavesThe U.N. is forced to leave for a variety of reasons, including increased violence in Rwanda and world tensions following a crisis that occurred in Somalia.

  • GENOCIDE

  • A Day that will Live in Infamy April 6, 1994 President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, are shot down in a plane and killed.

    No one knows who shot down the presidents plane. There are theories that the Hutus did this and there are theories that the Tutsis did this.

    That night the genocide begins.

  • The Genocide The Hutu militia, at one point 30,000 people strong, slaughtered any Tutsi that came in their path.

    They encouraged regular Hutu civilians to do the same.

    In some cases, Hutus were forced to kill their Tutsi neighbors.

  • The Death TollIn the span of 100 days, an estimated 800,000 Tutsis were slaughtered.

    They were killed primarily with knives, machetes, and clubs.

    100,000 of these were children.

  • Where was the help?While the genocide was going on, the world sat back and watched.

    No troops or aide was sent by the Americans or any other country.

    The victims were left screaming for help, but no one came.

  • An End to the Genocide By July, the RPF (a Tutsi organization) captured the city of Kigali. The government collapsed and the RPF declared a cease-fire.

    As soon as it became apparent to the Hutus that the Tutsis were victorious, close to 2 million fled to Zaire (now the Republic of Congo)

  • A New GovernmentOn July 19 a new multi-ethnic government was formed, promising all refugees a safe return to Rwanda.

    Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu, was inagurated as president, while the majority of cabinet posts were assigned to Tutsis.

  • Justice for Genocide The new government of Rwanda continues to seek justice for the innocent murder of close to a million people.

    Many people have been tried in court and found guilty of war crimes.

    500 have been put to death for their war crimes, and another 100,000 are still in prison!!!

  • What does the future hold for Rwanda?

    Only time will tell.

  • Works Cited Human Rights Watch PublicationsLeave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/Geno1-3-09.htm#P200_83746

    BBC News Rwanda: How a Genocide Happened http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230.stm

    PBS Frontline Timeline Rwanda: A Chronology of Key Eventshttp://pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/rwanda/etc/cron.html

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