the resurgence of conservatism chapter 40: 1980-1992 chapter 41: 1992-2000

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  • The Resurgence of Conservatism Chapter 40: 1980-1992 Chapter 41: 1992-2000
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  • Ronald Reagans Presidency (1981-1989) b b Election of 1980 Democratic candidate: Jimmy Carter Republican candidate: Ronald Reagan in favor of Roosevelts Common Man theory New Right led by evangelical Christians concerned about social issues independent candidate: John Anderson Reagan won over 51% of the popular vote, Carter 41%, and Anderson 7%
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  • Reagans Foreign Policies b b Iran Hostage Crisis Nov. 4, 1979 a mob of anti-American Muslim militants stormed U.S. Embassy in Teheran, Iran and took all occupants hostage. Captors demanded that the American Authorities ship the exiled shah back to Iran, who had arrived in the U.S. 2 weeks earlier for medical treatment. On Reagans Inauguration Day, January 20, 1981, the Iranians released the hostages after 444 days of captivity b b Invasion of Grenada October 1983, Reagan dispatched heavy-fire-power invasion force to island of Grenada in the Caribbean military coup had killed prime minister and brought Marxists to power demonstrated Reagans determination to dominate the Caribbean
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  • Reagans Foreign Policies Con t b b Issues in Nicaragua revolution in 1979 disposed of long-time dictator of Nicaragua Sandinistas : anti-American revolutionaries Reagan retaliated and accused the Sandinistas of turning their country into a forward base for Soviet and Cuban military taking photos from spy planes, U.S. administration claimed Nicaraguans were giving weapons to forces in El Salvador Led to the Iran-Contra Affair Teflon President
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  • Reagans Domestic Policies b b Reagan vowed to boost American economy by: (Reaganomics) rolling back government regulations lowering taxes balancing the budget b b promised that lower taxes would increase government revenue because it would arouse the whole economy b b the combination of tax reduction and increases in military spending opened a broad revenue hole of $200 billion annual shortages b b in 8 years in office, Reagan added nearly $2 trillion to the national debt b b Reagan appointed three conservative-minded justices to the U.S. Supreme court, namely Sandra Day OConner Arizona judge sworn in on September 25, 1981 became the first woman to rise to the high bench
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  • George Bushs Presidency b b Election of 1988 Republican candidate: Bush whose platform was Reagans tax cuts, strong defense policies, toughness on crime, opposition to abortion, and economic expansion Vice President: J. Danforth Quayle, senator from Indiana Democratic Candidate: Michael Dukakis, governor of Massachusetts Running mate: Lloyd Bentsen, Senator of Texas Bush won, carrying 40 states
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  • Bushs Foreign Policy b b End of the Cold War Several regimes collapsed in Europe between 1989 and 1990 including Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Romania In December 1989, Berlin Wall torn down East and West Germany united and formed Democratic nation Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev started to dissolve the communist govt, giving freedom to many 1991, Warsaw Pact disbanded Bush and Gorbachev proclaimed the end of Cold War and birth of new world order where democracy and diplomacy would reign 1991 coup was attempted to throw Gorbachev from power foiled with help of Boris Yeltsin, pres. of Russian Republic
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  • Bushs Foreign Policy Con t Dec. 1991, Gorbachev resigned USSR dissolved into 15 republics, forming the Commonwealth of Independent States Russia most powerful, but all renounced communism and embraced democracy and free- market economies 1993, Bush and Yeltsin signed the START II accord, which committed both powers to reduce their long- range nuclear arsenals by 2/3 in the next 10 years
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  • Bushs Foreign Policy Con t b b Beginning of Gulf War Jan. 16, 1991 - U.S. and allies began air campaign against Iraq bombed targets in Iraq and Kuwait Iraq responded by firing Scud : short-ranged ballistic missiles against military and civilian targets in Israel and Saudi Arabia. Bush convinced these countries not to retaliate Commander of allies forces was Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf strategy to soften Iraqis with relentless bombing, then begin war
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  • Bushs Foreign Policy Con t Saddam Hussein, director of Iraq, threatened to wage the mother of all battles Iraq had chemical and biological weapons including anthrax Saddam employed ecological warfare: released an oil slick into the Persian Gulf to stop amphibious assault Operation Desert Storm began Feb. 23, 1991 and lasted 4 days: hundred-hour war succeeded in driving back Iraqs armies and liberated Kuwait nonstop media coverage
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  • Bushs Foreign Policy Con t Results of Persian Gulf War: Bushs approval rating soared, but was criticized for not removing Saddam Hussein from power A U.N. observer force took place in Iraq few American casualties led to U.N. inspections of Iraq and further military action against Saddam in 1998 and 2003
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  • Bushs Domestic Policies b b Bushs economic policies Conservatives wanted Bush to continue Reagan's policies but Bush saw that he needed to confront a budget deficit, prosperity that only benefited the wealthy, and problems from Reagan's cuts in govt programs called for a kinder, gentler America and proposed cuts in military spending in his campaign, Bush pledged, Read my lips: no new taxes, a promise he would come to regret
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  • Bushs Domestic Policies b b Bush and Congress 1990, recession hit. By 1992, unemployment rate was 7% federal budget deficit hit $250 billion in battles with Congress, Bush vetoed 35 pieces of legislation for this reason, his presidency called status quo because not much was done
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  • Bushs Domestic Policy Con t Bush agreed to budget agreement that included $133 million in new taxes violated campaign promise of no new taxes and would cost him the 1992 election 1990, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed prohibited discrimination against Americans with physical or mental disabilities passed several laws to protect the environment, including a law that reformed the distribution of subsidized water in the West 1990, Dept. of Education challenged the legality of college scholarships for minorities
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  • Bushs Domestic Policy Con t b b Bush and the Supreme Court Bush made 2 Supreme Court appointments: David Souter and Clarence Thomas Thomas was first African American justice to be appointed since the retirement of liberal Thurgood Marshall
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  • Bushs Domestic Policy Con t Thomas was very conservative and his nomination was opposed by organized labor, the NAACP, and the National Organization for Women (NOW), because he was anti- abortion Oct. 1991, Anita Hill, law professor a t University of Oklahoma, accused Thomas of sexual harassment after other females colleagues of Thomas said they witnessed improper behavior, the Senate approved Thomas with a 52-48 vote result: gender gap developed between the political parties, as women resented the anti-abortion policies of the Republicans
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  • Bill Clintons Presidency (1993-2001) b b Election of 1992 Republican candidate: Pres. George Bush Democratic candidate: Bill Clinton campaign theme: Its the economy, stupid. independent candidate: H. Ross Perot Clinton won with 370 electoral votes to Bushs 168 and Perots none
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  • Clintons Foreign Policy b b Clinton supported the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) created in 1993, free trade zone including Mexico, U.S., and Canada Effects: changed his own stand in the 1992 election eliminated the opposition of democratic protectionists, especially labor leaders afraid of losing jobs to Mexicans working for less money b b In 1994, Clinton promoted World Trade Organization (WTO) : a global free-trade system
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  • Clintons Foreign Policy b b Conflicts in Bosnia: ethnic conflict raged through Bosnia Washington govt hesitated before committing American troops to a NATO peacekeeping contingent in late 1995 abandoned when it became clear that were the only force capable of preventing new hostilities
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  • Clintons Foreign Policy Con t b b Air strikes in Serbia President of Serbia, Milosevic, wants ethnic cleansing in Kosovo in response, NATO forces led by U.S. launched an air war against Serbia failed to stop ethnic terror and forced Milosevic to accept a NATO peacekeeping force in Kosovo
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  • Clintons Impeachment b b Clintons role in the Whitewater Land Corporation prompted federal prosecutor, Kenneth Starr to investigate b b Jan. 1998, Clinton blamed for having a sexual affair with a young White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, and then lied about it when testified under oath in a civil law suit. Law suit brought by Paula Jones who charged that when the president was governor, he had sexually harassed her when she was a state employee Supreme court permitted case move forward in May 1997
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  • Clintons Impeachment b b Clinton publicly denied any relationships with that woman b b after keeping innocence for 8 months, Clinton forced to admit an inappropriate relationship b b Sept. 1998, Starr presented a report to House of Rep.. Charging Clinton with 11 possible grounds for impeachment, all relatin