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  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005

    The Mobile RevolutionProfessor Michael Walker

    Group Research and Development DirectorVodafone Chair in Telecommunications,

    Royal Holloway, University of London

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Contents

    _ Global business context

    _ How mobile phones have developed

    _ Technology looking forward

    _ Need for base stations

    _ RF design for coverage

    _ Field levels from base stations

    _ Power levels from handsets

    _ Handset SAR in real world

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Global mobile business context

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    Europe Asia NorthAmerica

    SouthAmerica

    Arab Africa Russia India EastCentral

    Asia

    Subscriber estimate Dec 2004 millions

    Other

    GSM

    _ More than 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the global population, have a mobile phone, and more than 75% are GSM customers

    _ 2 billion people in the world have yet to make a phone call - when it happens it will most likely be on a mobile phone not a fixed line

    _ Increasing proportion of revenue from non-voice now over 17% for Vodafone globally 2004/5

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    The beginning

    _ In the 1970s Bell Labs developed the Advanced Mobile Phone Standard (AMPS) that initiated the Cellular revolution

    _ In the 1980s Nordic Mobile Telephone standard was deployed in the Scandinavian countries

    _ In the mid 1980s, UK Total Access Communications System was developed based on AMPS

    _ The following slides will take us through the revolution from 1985 to present

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1st JanuaryVodafone UKnetwork starts1985

    1st transportablePhone

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1986Nokia TalkmanWeight - 4.8KgPrice - 3000

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1987Siemens C2

    Transportable

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1989Motorola MicroTAC

    personal cellular phone. The phone retails for an

    estimated $3000

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1st GSMmobile phone 1992

    Motorola International 3200

    (>500g)

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1993Panasonic

    I series

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1994Vodafone UK Digital data fax and short text messaging services

    Nokia 2140

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1995 1st sub 200g

    mobile phone

    Bosch M-cam

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    19961st PDA mobile

    phone

    Nokia 9000 communicator

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1997 1st Colour display

    Siemens S10

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    19981st Dual-band

    mobile phone

    Siemens S15E

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    1999 1st WAP capable mobile phone

    Nokia 7110

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    20001st mobile phone

    to play MP3 files

    Samsung SGH-100

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    20011st 3G voice call - Vodafone & Ericsson

    1st Active colour display SonyEricsson T68

    1st Bluetooth phone Ericsson T39m

    1st Polyphonic ring tones Sony Z7

    1st Integral FM radio Nokia 8310

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    20021st Camera Phone

    1st Smart Phone

    Nokia 7650

    XDA

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    20031st Vodafone 3G data card

    1st Video recording phone Nokia 3650

    1st Dedicated game phone Nokia N-Gage

    1st Rotating screen Samsung SGH-P400

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    Vodafone launch 3G networks in

    13 countries2004

    1st Two mega pixel camera phone with optical

    zoom Sharp 902

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    20053G Video Calling,Internet browsing,

    Full Track Music downloads,Location based Services,High Speed Data Access

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    How mobile phones have developed

    Mobile data access

    Text message FAX WAPVoice call Wireless device connectivity

    Increased data rate

    Picture message

    Video playback

    Instant Email access

    Video telephony

    Fast Internet browsing

    Full Track Music downloads

    Location based Services

    High Speed Data Access

    Video games

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Looking forward - new ways of displaying content

    Today_ LCD display resolution progressing

    towards VGA (640x480 pixels) as good as the eye can resolve at typical

    viewing distances and capable of supporting DVD-quality but user experience degraded by small

    display size

    Tomorrow_ Organic LED will improve image quality_ 3D displays will compensate for small

    physical display size by adding depth_ But ultimately the need will be for larger

    displays that fill the field of view and support multiple viewing windows: Head-up displays (high-definition

    resolution) Micro-projectors Pull-out displays (flexible/rollable)

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Looking forward - a multiplicity of local connectivityToday

    _ InfraRed_ Bluetooth_ Memory cards_ USB

    Tomorrow_ All of the above with the addition of:_ Near Field Communications

    device pairing & local network configuration

    service discovery/initiation_ WLAN (802.11b)

    Home and office connectivity Wireless extension of DSL in the home For both charging and synching content

    to the terminal_ UWB

    Wireless USB

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Mobile TV - bmco trials in Berlin

    _ Worlds first trial of MobileTV with interactive services DVB-H/GSM terminals friendly user group proved technical feasibility and user demand/interest insight into the nature of successful services

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Multimedia device c 2009

    DVB-H broadcast Display

    DVD quality (VGA) reception

    Hard DD Storage2 GB

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Part of Life_ Health care use

    Diabetes monitoring trial at Oxford University Health monitoring trial for people with heart & lung problems in

    Spain Monitoring health of AIDS patients in South Africa

    _ Peace of mind Personal security for vulnerable Controlled freedom for the young Access to emergency services

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    The need for base stations

    _ Coverage The local base station is the radio access to the network

    _ Capacity Each base station has capacity limited by spectrum bandwidth Spectrum is limited and needs to be re-used across network

    Interference from such re-use is a critical network design factor

    _ Capability There are physical limits to how far and how fast you can transmit a

    bit

  • Vodafone Group 2004 WHO Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Geneva, June 2005C1 PUBLIC

    Drivers for site densityPortable terminals = more sites

    Terminal Site densityRooftop panel (10dBi) 1Upstairs window, fixed (3dBi) 12Outdoor laptop (0dBi) 60Indoor laptop (0dBi) Suburban 230Indoor laptop (0dBi) Urban 800

    Higher frequencies = more sitesFaster data = more sites

    Data Rate

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