THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL MARKETING ON EMPLOYEEjournal- IMPACT OF INTERNAL MARKETING ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN JORDAN ... much do we need marketing? Aghazadeh et
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ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 811 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL MARKETING ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN JORDAN Sulieman Ibraheem Shelash Al-Hawary Associate Professor of Business Management, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Finance and Business Administration, Al al-Bayt University, P.O.BOX 130040, Mafraq 25113, Jordan. Kamal A. M. Al-Qudah Associate Professor, Dean, Faculty of Business and Finance, American University of Madaba, Petra Mashal Abutayeh Researcher, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business and Finance, American University of Madaba Jordan. Sherrihan Mashal Abutayeh Researcher, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business and Finance, American University of Madaba Jordan. Dyala Yahya Al-Zyadat Researcher, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business and Finance, American University of Madaba Jordan. Abstract The aim of the study was to examine the impact of internal marketing practices represented by the empowerment, training, leadership and motivation, on job satisfaction of Jordanian commercial banks. The target population of this study was employees of commercial banks in Jordan.. A random sample was selected from this population. The data collection resulted in 203 answers from employees of commercial banks in Amman. The constructs in this study were developed by using measurement scales adopted from prior studies. The instrument was evaluated for reliability and validity. Statistical Package (SPSS) was used to test hypothesis. Based on the statistical analysis and the values, Training and development has the highest impact on employees job satisfaction followed by Motivation, Empowerment, Communication, respectively. Thus, there is effect of the internal marketing practices on employees job satisfaction. Provided the above results and statistics, and due to the critical economic situation in Jordan, and the expensive cost of living, taking into consideration that the human power is the greatest resource in Jordan, decision makers and managers have to give motivation their full focus and attention in turning their employees into their most reliable and permanent asset. And they have to focus on developing the different skills in the employees and encourage them to be creative and discover their abilities by assigning them in training courses that suit each employee skills or his/her interest. Keywords: Internal marketing, Job satisfaction, employees, commercial banks, Jordan 1. Introduction To transform from a very small fish to become the big one and then the biggest among all, lays the importance of marketing. Any manager knows that the right question is how much do we need marketing? Aghazadeh et al. (2007) implied that the main reason for the mangers in the organization to focus on customer satisfaction and competition in the markets are because of the main characteristic that is dynamicity of the environment. No one can ignore the importance of marketing in all kind of businesses, small or large, profit or non - http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=tasr.2011.364.374&org=10#564188_ja ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 812 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 profit organizations, due to the advanced technology that invaded all the fields in the 21st century, which also resulted in new markets emerging and the competition level getting higher and higher by the passage of time. To win the competition and become a big fish the organization must satisfy its customers. Satisfied customer can be achieved if the employees are satisfied (Schultz, 2002; Kotler, 2000; Pitt, Bruwer, Nel and Berthon, 1999), satisfying our employees can be easily achieved through internal marketing. Since Berry et al. (1976) the marketing literature has been discussing the internal marketing for almost four decades now. Sasser and Arbeit (1980) were the first who alluded to the internal marketing; the term was coined by Berry (1980). Berry (1981) implied that for any organization to be successful there would be need for organizations to fulfill the needs of its employees. According to Kotler (2000), internal marketing should be as a priority before external marketing. IM starts with the organization recruiting the right people in the position to reach the point where these employees are satisfied and willing to do their job and accomplish customer satisfaction. The concept of internal marketing has evolved from the original conceptualization of employee satisfaction/motivation by treating employees as customers and jobs as products for improving service quality (Sasser and Arbeit, 1976; Berry, 1981). The main concept of internal marketing is to make the employees as important as the external customers by treating them as internal customers (Grnroos, 1981). The importance of internal marketing lies in motivating the employees and encouraging them to offer super services to customers who will improve the customer satisfaction of the companys services (Lings and Greenly, 2005). Job satisfaction is not new in the marketing literature it was first presented in the mid 1930s (Hoppock, 1935). Employee job satisfaction is derived from the mental and physical satisfaction they experience in the environment they work in and from the work itself (Tadeka et al. 2005). The attitude and behaviours of the employees determine the quality of the services provided to the customers (Tadeka et al. 2005). Ivancevich et al. (1997) state that job satisfaction is the state a worker has of a feeling how well he/she is in an organization. When the employers are aware of the needs of their employees, customers will be more satisfied (Zeithaml et al., 1988; Bitner et al., 1990). Therefore, in relating with to win competitions, and become the biggest fish among all as stated above. Successful marketing can be achieved if the firms are involved both in external and internal marketing (Caruana and Calleya, 1998). Most especially in this era that most of the service organizations are striving to exceed the expectation of its customers in order to promote satisfaction and loyalty among the shareholders (Ballantyne et al., 1995). The importance of the employees' role has led service organizations to adopt internal marketing and hence, treat their employees as internal customers (Mishra, 2010). The study intended to investigate the effect of internal marketing practices represented by the empowerment, training, leadership and motivation, on job satisfaction of Jordanian commercial banks. The remaining sections of this empirical paper are arranged in the following manner. Literature review and hypotheses development in section 2. The research model is presented in section 3. The research methodology is discussed in section 4, including detailed information on the Measures, Sample, Data Gathering. Data analysis performed in this study, followed by a presentation of the results and Analysis in section 5. Discussion presented in section 6. Followed by managerial implications in section 7. Finally, the limitation of the study in addition to direction for future researches presented in section 8. ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 813 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 2. Theoretical framework and Hypotheses development 2.1 Internal Marketing The term internal marketing appears to have been first used by Berry et al. (1976) and later by George (1977) and Thompson et al. (1978, p. 243) and Murray (1979). Many proponents of IM follow Berrys (1980) original view point that concentrate on its relevance to service firms in particular; and in general, by seeing the employee as an internal customer, who is an important party in delivering satisfaction to external customers, (as cited Pitt M. et al, 1999). There are many definitions of internal marketing found in the past decade with some authors viewing internal marketing as either a concept, a philosophy or a management practice (e.g. Grnroos, 1985; George, 1990; Wilson, 1990 as cited by Lings, 2000). Internal marketing is defined as treating both employees and customers with equal importance through proactive programs in order to achieve the objectives of the organization (Woodruffe, 1995). Grnroos (1981) defined internal marketing as the behavior of selling a corporation to its internal customers (employees) under the principle that highly satisfied employees will help create a market-oriented and customer-centered corporation. The concept of internal marketing is viewed employees as customers, so internal customers need to have their needs satisfied (Berry, 1981). Internal marketing is also defined as The planned use of communication actions to systematically influence the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of current employees by Stauss and Hoffman (2000). Rafiq and Ahmed (2000, p. 449) stated that IM was: "A planned effort using a marketing-like approach to overcome organizational resistance to change and to align, motivate, and inter-functionally co-ordinate and integrate employees towards the effective implementation of corporate and functional strategies in order to deliver customer satisfaction through a process of creating motivated and customer oriented employees". While the dimensions of internal marketing measurement as discussed by Hogg et al., (1998) are: communication, staff training; appraisal and feedback; and customer consciousness. Berry et al. (1976) involve actions such as employee attraction and selection, employee socialization, empowerment, participation in decision making and establishment of accurate and open information between employees and management. Service training programs, performance incentives, and vision for service excellence key elements of internal marketing (Tsai and Tang, 2008). Lings and Greenley (2005) has recently been adopted for other studies (Gounaris, 2006), as it goes beyond the mere enumeration of human resources management activities (selection, training and development, incentive systems or empowerment) shown by other constructs in order to represent internal marketing (Ahmed et al., 2003; Foreman and Money, 1995; Tansuhaj et al., 1987). Rafiq and Ahmed (2000) identify the main elements of internal marketing as employee motivation and satisfaction, customer orientation and customer satisfaction, inter-functional co-ordination and integration, marketing-like approach to the above, and implementation of specific corporate or functional strategies. Ching and HsinHsin (2007) identified five dimensions of internal marketing: training, administrative support, internal communication, external communication, human resources management., communication, and training and development. Motivation: According to Mark et al. (1998) Motivation is the movement of workers to act in a desired manner. Motivation is defined by Turner (1995) as voluntary uses of high-level self-regulated learning strategies, such as paying attention, connection, planning, and monitoring (p. 413). According to Broussard and Garrison (2004) motivation is the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something (p. 106). Empowerment : Participation is a process by which influence is shared among individuals who are otherwise hierarchical unequal (Locke and Schweiger, 1979; Wagner, 1994). ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 814 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 Empowerment has been described as a venue to enable employees make decisions (Bowen & Lawler, 1992) and as a personal experience where individuals take responsibility for their own actions (Pastor, 1996). Communication: According to Naude et al. (2002), Communication is a vital prerequisite for a well-functioning IMO culture. Without people being able or prepared to communicate with each other, there will be no inter-departmental or inter functional co-ordination. According to Dwyer (2005) communication is defined as the process whereby people within an organization give and receive messages as cited by Tourani et al. 2012. According to Ahmed and Rafiq (2002). Training and development: training increase or develop the managerial skills (Rosti & Shipper, 1998). Abiodun (1999) submitted that: Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job (Abiodun, 1999, as cited by Saleem et al. 2011). 2.2 Job satisfaction Job satisfaction represents one of the most complex areas facing todays managers when it comes to managing their employees. What do we mean by job satisfaction? Why job satisfaction is important? Does job satisfaction really affect the employee attitudes toward their work and duties?! Job satisfaction is directly related with the positive job performance . Different researchers have different approaches towards defining job satisfaction (Vroom, 1964; Spector, 1997; Statt, 2004; Armstrong, 2006). Locke (1979) defined job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as that job satisfaction is the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job as achieving or facilitating ones job values. Spector (1997) defined Job satisfaction as the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. Shimizu et al, (2005); Suzuki et al. (2006) refers to job satisfaction as a joyful or positive emotional state regarding work or the work experience. Vroom (1964) defined job satisfaction as affective orientations on the part of individuals toward work roles which they are presently occupying. Job satisfaction is seen by many researchers as the general attitude which is the result of many specific attitudes (Reddy & Rajasekhar, 1990). Kaliski (2007) implies that Job satisfaction is the key ingredient that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment. One of the main factors when it comes to efficiency and effectiveness of business organizations is job satisfaction (Aziri, 2011). Job satisfaction is of vital importance for the growth of any organization. 2.3 Internal marketing and job satisfaction The relation between internal marketing and job satisfaction had been the concern of many researchers (Rajyalakshmi and Kameswari, 2009). If an organization implements internal marketing then the organization is upgrading job satisfaction for employees which will lead definitely to enhancing the performance of the organization this is the result of a lot of researches (Tansuhaj et al. 1991; Rafiq & Ahmed, 2000; Conduit and Mavondo, 2001). An empirical study conducted on the impact of internal marketing factors on job motivation and job satisfaction in the retail stores revealed that the working conditions and hours, hygiene &sanitation, rest rooms, support from superior, and attitude of colleagues have highest influence on job satisfaction and motivation (as cited by Rajyalakshmi and Kameswari (2012)). In a study by Al-Borie (2012) to examine the impact of internal marketing on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the teaching hospitals in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The independent variables are internal marketing factors was represented by these variables namely selection and appointment, training and development, organizational ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 815 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 Motivation Empowerment Employees job satisfaction Communication Training support, incentives and motivation, and retention policy, The research's findings showed that internal marketing had a positive effect on Saudi teaching hospitals physicians' job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction (Efthymios and Constantinos, 2011). Internal marketing had a positive influence to nurses' job satisfaction (Peltire et al., 2008). We have argued that internal marketing the reason for job satisfaction. Based on the review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated as follows: H1. IM practices are positively associated with employees job satisfaction of Jordanian commercial banks. More specifically: H1a. Motivation is positively related to employees job satisfaction. H1b. Empowerment is positively related to employees job satisfaction. H1c. communication is positively related to employees job satisfaction. H1d. Training and development is positively related to employees job satisfaction. 3. Research Framework Based on study hypothesis, the following theoretical framework, shown in Figure 1, was proposed in order to show the relationships among independent and dependent variables. Figure1 Theoretical Model 4. Methodology In this section, we discuss measures, sample and data collection as well as the statistical tests used to evaluate the hypothesis. 4.1 Population and Sample The target population of this study was employees of commercial banks in Jordan. Survey data had been collected at the mid of December 2012. The surveys have not been coded and all participants have been kept anonymous. There have been 300 surveys mailed out to employees of commercial banks in Amman (capital of Jordan). Of the 300 questionnaires posted, a total of 213 questionnaires were returned after one follow-up. About 10 ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 816 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 questionnaires were eliminated due to largely missing values. The overall response rate was thus 67.7 percent (203/300), which was considered satisfactory for subsequent analysis. 4.2 Sample characteristics The data collection resulted in 203 answers from employees of commercial banks in Amman. A total of 203 of these questionnaires were completed and used in the data analysis representing a response rate of 67.7 percent. Of the respondents, 60.6 percent are males and 39.4 percent are females. Regarding age 15.8 percent the respondents were with age Less than 25, 57.6 percent with age 25- less than 35, 11.3 percent with age 35- less than 45, the lowest percentage was with age 45 and more. Regarding qualification, 83.3 percent having Bach degree forms the highest percentage and 9.3 percent having Diploma degree forms the lowest percentage. % N Variable 60.6 123 Male Gender 39.4 80 Female 15.8 32 Less than 25 Age 57.6 117 25- less than 35 11.3 23 35- less than 45 15.3 31 45 and more 7.4 15 Diploma Education 83.3 169 Bach 9.3 19 Higher education Table.1. Sample Characteristics 4.3 Measures The constructs in this study were developed by using measurement scales adopted from prior studies. Modifications were made to the scale to fit the purpose of the study. All constructs were measured using five-point Likert scales with anchors strongly disagree (= 1) and strongly agree (= 5). All items were positively worded. IM practices measures were adapted from previous studies Berry et al. (1976), and Lings and Greenley (2005), Hogg et al., (1998), Tsai and Tang, (2008), and Rafiq and Ahmed (2000). For the current study, the following internal marketing constructs identified as internal marketing dimensions, motivation, empowerment, training, and leadership. Four items to measure empowerment were adopted from Gounaris (2008a), and Gounaris (2008b) which had a reported reliability coefficient of .82 . Six items to measure training and development were adopted from Pervaiz et al., (2003), Gounaris (2008a), and Gounaris (2008b). Which had a reported reliability coefficient of .78. Five items to measure communication were adopted from Gounaris (2008a), and Gounaris (2008b). Which had a reported reliability coefficient of .73. Five items to measure motivation were adopted from Gounaris (2008a), and Gounaris (2008b). Which had a reported reliability coefficient of .84. Employees job satisfaction measures were adapted from previous studies Williams (2004), Rue and Byars (2003), and Kaliski (2007). Ten items for measuring the employees job satisfaction were adopted from Spector (1997) which had a reported reliability coefficient of .86. 4.4 Factor analysis A principal component factor analysis was conducted to validate the underlying structure of the internal marketing practices and employees job satisfaction (Table 2). Results of the factor analysis indicated the existence of five significant dimensions with eigen values greater than one. ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 817 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 Reliability % of Variance Eigenvalue Factor Loading SD Mean Construct and item .84 42.567 3.264 .89 3.69 Motivation .56 When I do something extraordinary I know that I will receive some financial bonus/reward .67 My income and the annual increases are dependent only to the Unions bargaining with the employers side .72 My income and the annual increases are very closely tied to my qualifications and my performance .59 Everyone gets an annual bonus regardless of their performance .68 My income and the annual increases are much related to those of people with similar qualifications working in this or any other industry .78 52.103 3.121 .87 3.52 Training and development .64 In this company. Training is closely related to the individual needs of each employee. .73 A newly hired employee will have to find his own answers to the requirements of the job .67 Before the implementation of a major change in service rules we always get significant training regarding its impact on our daily activities and job description. .62 If one is moved from one department to another, the new supervisor will personally train him/her for a pre-specified period of time. .71 In this company. They set aside adequate resources to train employees .65 Training and development programme is clearly directed at creating the competencies that are important to our business .73 33.624 2.64 .87 3.64 Communication .63 Before any policy change my supervisor informs me phase-to-phase in advance .78 Supervisors are sincerely interested in listening to what subordinates have to say about their jobs, the problems they have and the solutions that subordinates suggest .56 If an employee has a certain personal problem that influences negatively his (her) work performance, (s)he is encouraged to discuss it with his/her supervisor .59 Supervisors in this company are ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 818 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 Reliability % of Variance Eigenvalue Factor Loading SD Mean Construct and item never too busy if one of their subordinate wishes to meet personally .69 Supervisors are expected to spend time with their subordinates, explaining them company objectives and how these objectives affect what the company expects from each individual employee .82 44.628 3.28 .94 3.53 Empowerment .82 My supervisor allows me to use my own judgment in solving problems .67 My supervisor encourages me to take initiatives .69 My supervisor allows me a high degree of initiative .73 My supervisor trusts me to exercise good Judgment .86 52.364 2.856 .82 3.76 Job satisfaction .64 Financial incentives motivates me more than non financial incentives .57 I am satisfied with the salary I draw at present .67 I feel that my superior always recognizes the work done by me .82 .I am satisfied with the responsibility and role that I have in my work .66 .I am satisfied with the support from the HR department .62 I generally like to schedule my own work and to make job-related decisions with a minimum of supervision. .77 Visibility with top management is important to me. .68 The medical benefits provided in the organization are satisfactory. .55 I feel that the job I do gives me a good status. .64 The employees in the organization feel secured in their job. Table.2. Factor analysis of the study variables ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 819 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 The KMO measure of sampling adequacy value for the items listed below (table (3)) indicating sufficient intercorrelations with the Bartletts Test of Spehericity was also found to be significant. These dimensions were four listed under internal marketing practices namely motivation, empowerment, communication, and training and development, respectively and job satisfaction . Variables Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Values Bartletts Test of Sphericity Sig. df Approx.Chi-Square Motivation .825 .000 10 124.215 Empowerment .762 .000 12 98.564 Communication .743 .000 15 87.325 Training and development .684 .000 20 111.63 Job satisfaction .652 .000 10 92.354 Table.3. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and the Bartletts Test of Sphericity 4.5 Correlation analysis: relationships between the variables A correlation matrix was constructed using the variables in the questionnaire to show the strength of relationship among the variables considered in the questionnaire. According to Kline (1998), correlation matrix is defined as ``a set of correlation coefficients between a number of variables''. SPSS version 7.0 was used. Variables M E C TD JS Motivation (M) 1 Empowerment (E) 0.319** 1 Communication(C) 0.344** 0.328** 1 Training and development (TD) 0.353** 0.357** 0.319** 1 Job satisfaction (JS) 0.325** 0.273** 0.344** 0.334** 1 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table.4. Summary of correlations of internal marketing practices and job satisfaction. As shown in table (4), the correlation matrix indicates that internal marketing practices were positively and moderately correlated with job satisfaction. The highest coefficient of correlation in this research between internal marketing practices is 0.357, which is below the cut-off of 0.90 for the collinearity problem. Thus, multicollinearity problem does not occur in this research (Hair et al., 1998). These correlations are also further evidence of validity and reliability of measurement scales used in this research (Barclay et al., 1995; Hair et al., 1998). There was a significant positive relationship between Communication and job satisfaction (r = 0. 344, n = 203, p 0.01). The positively correlation were also for Training and development and job satisfaction (r = 0. 334, n = 203, p 0.01), Motivation and job satisfaction (r = 0. 325, n = 203, p 0.01), Empowerment and job satisfaction (r = 0. 273, n = 203, p 0.01) respectively . In other words, the results indicate that the most important internal marketing practices on job satisfaction was Communication, which goes to prove that Communication was perceived as a dominant internal marketing practice; improvements on job satisfaction levels was significant. 5. Data Analysis The statistical computer program used for the questionnaires data analysis was SPSS for Windows Version 11.0. Correlation studies were used to determine the relationship between internal marketing practices on employees job satisfaction. internal marketing practices were regressed against employees job satisfaction. The multiple regression analysis was used to further explain the significance of the independent and dependent variables. The statistical ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 820 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 significance difference targeted was .05 alpha levels which is typical in most research (Cooper & Schindler, 2006). 5.1 Descriptive statistics analysis Table (2) indicates that employees of commercial banks in Jordan perceived motivation (with the highest mean scores, i.e. M = 3.69) to be the most dominant of internal marketing practices and evident to a considerable extent, followed by communication (M = 3.64), empowerment (M = 3.53), and training and development (M = 3.52) respectively. Regarding employees job satisfaction employees of commercial banks in Jordan rated job satisfaction with mean (3.76). 5.2 Multiple regression analysis The hypotheses in this study test the four practices of internal marketing as the independent variables to determine if there is an impact on employees job satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis was employed to test the impact of internal marketing practices on employees job satisfaction. Model Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients t Sig. B Std. error 1 (Constant) 0.977 0.176 5.558 0.000 Motivation 0.186 0.047 0.184 3.935 0.000 Empowerment 0.175 0.053 0.156 3.302 0.001 Communication 0.114 0.043 0.123 2.635 0.009 Training and development 0.214 0.033 0.305 6.503 0.000 Notes: R 2 =.0.332 ; Adj. R 2 =0.323 ; Sig. F = .000 ; F-value = 38.249; dependent variable: job satisfaction, p < 0.05 Table.5. Regression Summary of the impact of internal marketing practices on employees job satisfaction. (N= 203) The proposed model was adequate as the F-statistics (p-value = 0.000) was significant at the 5 percent level (p 0.05). This indicated that overall model was statistically significant relationship between internal marketing practices and employees job satisfaction. From Table (5), it can be observed that the coefficient of determination (R 2) was 0.332, representing that 33.2 percent of job satisfaction can be explained by the four practices of internal marketing. Thus, there is effect of the internal marketing practices on job satisfaction. Regression analysis indicated that, Training and development had significantly positive effect on employees job satisfaction (p ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 821 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 6. Discussion This paper is aimed to examine the impact of internal marketing in its four dimensions; training and development, motivation, communication and empowerment, on Job satisfaction, in the commercial bank in Jordan. H1a. Motivation is positively related to employees job satisfaction. One of the research findings that can be concluded from the statistics provided above is that motivation is positively related to employees job satisfaction in the commercial banks in Jordan. Motivating employees should be one of the main roles of the manager in the organization; a manager must acknowledge that his/her employees are the most important asset they have in order to have a distinctive output- whether it is a tangible product or an intangible service- and costs of investing in this asset will always be for the benefit of the organization. However, giving the employees sense of achievement, providing them with new opportunities for advancement and promotions are key motivator that creates positive job attitudes as identified by Herzberg et al, (1959). This result is also consistent with Ahmad et al. (2012) finding of the positive correlation between motivation and job satisfaction. Commercial banks in Jordan are currently implementing motivation as an important dimension of internal marketing. H1b. Empowerment is positively related to employees job satisfaction. Participation is a process by which influence is shared among individuals who are otherwise hierarchical unequal (Locke and Schweiger, 1979; Wagner, 1994). Empowerment has been described as a venue to enable employees make decisions (Bowen & Lawler, 1992) and as a personal experience where individuals take responsibility for their own actions (Pastor, 1996). There is a participatory management that manages the subordinate participation in decision making process ,taking actions, and solving any problems or conflicts during job in logical way that fits the organization objectives and the creativity components is very important for employees to develop a new means to implement their tasks and in cases including risks, Berry and Parasuraman (1991) also regard empowerment as an essential aspect of IM. Empowerment or in other words participation of front-line employees in making decisions related to their routine job activities is directly related to job satisfaction, previous researchers have also highlighted the significant relationship between empowerment and job satisfaction (e.g. Spreitzer, 1996; Fulford & Enz, 1995; Hancer & George, 2003). H1c. communication is positively related to employees job satisfaction. Regarding to Communication: As the above statistics imply, communication has a positive relationship with job satisfaction in the Jordanian commercial banks. It is a process where the employees in the organization can transmit their information, ideas, opinions and plans to other employees or supervising managers. This process can be done through written media or orally. Managers communicate with the employees to inform them with the new plans, strategies and the companys strategic objectives using written letters or memos. On the other hand, the manager communicates with the employees to provide them with constructive feedbacks about their work and understand their wants and need. Of course, communications also involves listening to the opinions and thoughts of the employees and take them into consideration. When the employees feel that they are good contributors it will encourage them to involve and participate more for the sake of the organization. Regarding this dimension, when manager communicates effectively with the employees, listens to their complaints, answering their questions and provide for them ways to communicate effectively, the organization will encourage them to enhance their work and feel satisfied about their jobs. ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 822 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 According to Tourani et al. (2012) many researchers assert that communication in organization has significant effect on employees job satisfaction. H1d. Training is positively related to employees job satisfaction. Recently many researchers are studying extensively the effect of training and development as a dimension for employees job satisfaction and how the job training does and development related to job satisfaction. Because the organization is aware that its most valuable asset they have is the human resource, and because the company seek forward higher service quality and improved performance, thus they organized a training and development programs for its employees in order to improve their performance and capabilities through investing to have a skilled, powerful, unique, high service performance (individually or team) and greater knowledge in different required field even though the organization is aware about the high cost of this programs but the know that the returned of this method will recover their the cost of it and also with a good return compensated later on. To be effective, training and management development programs need to take into account that employees are adult learners (Forrest & Peterson, 2006). Obisi (1996) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. 7. Managerial Implication Provided the above results and statistics, and due to the critical economic situation in Jordan, and the expensive cost of living, taking into consideration that the human power is the greatest resource in Jordan, decision makers and managers have to give motivation their full focus and attention in turning their employees into their most reliable and permanent asset. However, in talking about managerial implications, managers and decision makers for example can give the employees salaries for 14 months instead of 12 months in a year, or give them a percentage of the profits of the organization. It would be a great influence on the employees if the managers sit a monthly certificate of the employee of the month that would encourage them to do their best. Managers also have to communicate with their subordinates effectively in order to make them satisfied about their jobs. So, in order to achieve employees satisfaction managers have to make weekly meetings with the employees to hear their opinions and feedbacks about the job and take what they say into consideration. Managers have to facilitate the process of generalization of rules and regulations so that every employee can know the up-to-date rules once they are announced. Managers and decision makers have to focus on developing the different skills in the employees and encourage them to be creative and discover their abilities by assigning them in training courses that suit each employee skills or his/her interest, and it is recommended to give the timing of the course a great attention, the management ought to specify the time of the course in the same time as the working hours so instead of going to work they go to training courses and of course getting paid for these working hours in other words, not to have these hours subtracted from their monthly salaries, or they can send employees to have the training course in other country, which will give them a time to relax and consider it as a vacation but in the same time they are developing their skills for the benefit of the organization. Managers have to involve the empowerment practice, because it is proved that when the employees are participants in the decision making process they provide a much better service to customers. The managers have the choice to encourage the employees in making decisions in cases where the decision made is simple and a routine decision not a major one, but this small participation can have a great satisfactory results from the employees toward their jobs and eventually the satisfaction of the customers. ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 823 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 8. Limitation and Directions for future researches The study is not without limitations, which, however, future research can address. This study took four dimensions of internal marketing, future research can adopt more and different dimensions such as; leadership, human resources management,, retention policy, and many more dimensions that might affect the employees job satisfaction. The study was based on a small sample. Future research should apply the studys model on larger population. The sample also included only the commercial banks in the capital of Jordan (Amman), so all the respondents of the questionnaire were only from one culture which is the culture of Amman but it would be a great accomplishment if a future a study tested respondents whom belonged to different cultures and included all the governorates of Jordan. The study was exclusive to one type of banks (commercial) and only one sector (financial sector), so it is recommended to use different bank types such as the Islamic banks or different sectors such as the health sector or teaching sector, tourism sector also it is recommended to turn this research into a basic research by making the population the commercial banks throughout Jordan not only the capital Amman, so its findings can be generalized, and to be subjected to different cultures. It would be a great advantage to make comparative study with the different bank types, different sectors, or with other countries. ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 824 JANUARY 2013 VOL 4, NO 9 References Abiodun, E.J.A. (1999). Human Resources management, an overview, Concept Publication, Shomolu, Lagos. Adeniyi, O.I. (1995) Staff training and development in Ejiogu, A; Achumba, I. Asika (eds). 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