The history of Fortran I, II, and III

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<ul><li><p>,((($QQDOVRIWKH+LVWRU\RI&amp;RPSXWLQJ9RO1R</p><p>The History of Fortran I, II, and IIIJOHN BACKUS</p><p>This article discusses attitudes about automatic programming, the eco-nomics of programming, and existing programming systems, all in the early1950s. It describes the formation of the Fortran group, its knowledge of ex-isting systems, its plans for Fortran, and the development of the language in1954. It describes the development of the optimizing compiler for Fortran I,of various language manuals, and of Fortran II and III. It concludes with re-marks about later developments and the impact of Fortran and its succes-sors on programming today.</p><p>&gt;(GLWRUV QRWH 7KLV SDSHU RULJLQDOO\ DSSHDUHG LQ WKH$QQDOV RIWKH+LVWRU\RI&amp;RPSXWLQJYROQR-XO\ 7KHVD\LQJVXVHGDVSXOOTXRWHVZHUHQRWLQWKHRULJLQDOSDSHUEXWZHUHRQFDUGV WKDW ZHUH GLVWULEXWHG GXULQJ WKH $),36 1DWLRQDO&amp;RPSXWLQJ&amp;RQIHUHQFHZKLFKLQFOXGHGD3LRQHHU'D\KRQRULQJ WKH)RUWUDQSLRQHHUV5HDGHUV LQWHUHVWHG LQ WKH WRSLFRI)RUWUDQVKRXOGFRQVXOWWKH$QQDOVYROQRZKLFKZDVDVSHFLDOLVVXH GHYRWHG WR WKH KLVWRU\ RI WKH ODQJXDJH GXULQJ LWV ILUVW \HDUV@</p><p>Early Background and EnvironmentAttitudes About Automatic Programming in the1950s%HIRUH DOPRVW DOO SURJUDPPLQJZDVGRQH LQPDFKLQH ODQJXDJHRUDVVHPEO\ ODQJXDJH3URJUDPPHUV ULJKWO\ UHJDUGHG WKHLUZRUNDVDFRPSOH[FUHDWLYHDUW WKDWUHTXLUHGKXPDQLQYHQWLYHQHVVWRSURGXFHDQHIILFLHQWSURJUDP0XFKRIWKHLUHIIRUWZDVGHYRWHGWRRYHUFRPLQJWKHGLIILFXOWLHVFUHDWHGE\WKHFRPSXWHUVRIWKDWHUD</p><p> WKHODFNRILQGH[UHJLVWHUV WKHODFNRIEXLOWLQIORDWLQJSRLQWRSHUDWLRQV 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WKDWWKHLUDXWRPDWLFSURJUDPPLQJV\VWHPVKDGDOPRVWKXPDQDELOLWLHVWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHODQJXDJHDQGWKHQHHGVRIWKHXVHUZKHUHDVFORVHULQVSHFWLRQRIWKRVHV\VWHPVZRXOGRIWHQUHYHDODFRPSOH[H[FHSWLRQULGGHQSHUIRUPHURIFOHULFDOWDVNVWKDWZDVERWKGLIILFXOW</p><p>,(((</p></li><li><p>,((($QQDOVRIWKH+LVWRU\RI&amp;RPSXWLQJ9RO1R</p><p>WR XVH DQG LQHIILFLHQW :KDWHYHU WKH UHDVRQV LW LV GLIILFXOW WRFRQYH\ WRD UHDGHU LQ WKH ODWHV WKH VWUHQJWKRI WKH VNHSWLFLVP DERXW DXWRPDWLF SURJUDPPLQJ LQ JHQHUDO DQG DERXW LWVDELOLW\ WRSURGXFH HIILFLHQWSURJUDPV LQSDUWLFXODU DV LW H[LVWHGLQ</p><p>,Q WKH DERYH GLVFXVVLRQ RI DWWLWXGHV DERXW DXWRPDWLF SURJUDPPLQJ LQ ,KDYHPHQWLRQHGRQO\ WKRVHDFWXDO V\VWHPVRIZKLFKP\FROOHDJXHVDQG,ZHUHDZDUHDWWKHWLPH)RUDFRPSUHKHQVLYH WUHDWPHQW RI HDUO\ SURJUDPPLQJ V\VWHPV DQG ODQJXDJHV , UHFRPPHQG WKH DUWLFOHV E\.QXWK DQG 3DUGR DQG E\-HDQ6DPPHW</p><p>The Economics of Programming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p><p>Fortran is a collection of warts, heldtogether by bits of syntax.</p><p>$QRQ</p><p>7KLVHFRQRPLFIDFWRUZDVRQHRIWKHSULPHPRWLYDWLRQVWKDWOHGPHWRSURSRVHWKH)RUWUDQSURMHFWLQDOHWWHUWRP\ERVV&amp;XWKEHUW+XUG LQ ODWH WKH H[DFW GDWH LV QRW NQRZQ EXW RWKHU IDFWVVXJJHVW'HFHPEHUDV D OLNHO\GDWH , EHOLHYH WKDW WKH HFRQRPLF QHHG IRU D V\VWHP OLNH )RUWUDQZDV RQH UHDVRQZK\ ,%0DQG P\ VXFFHVVLYH ERVVHV +XUG &amp;KDUOHV 'H&amp;DUOR DQG -RKQ0F3KHUVRQSURYLGHGIRURXUFRQVWDQWO\H[SDQGLQJQHHGVRYHUWKHQH[W ILYH\HDUVZLWKRXWHYHUDVNLQJXV 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History of Fortran I, II, and III</p><p>,((($QQDOVRIWKH+LVWRU\RI&amp;RPSXWLQJ9RO1R</p><p>DXWRPDWLF SURJUDPPLQJ HIIRUWV WKDW VLPXODWHG D V\QWKHWLF FRPSXWHUHJ0,7V6XPPHU6HVVLRQ&amp;RPSXWHU6+$&amp;2'8$/6SHHGFRGLQJ DQG WKH ,OOLDF V\VWHP VLQFH WKHLU ODQJXDJHV DQGV\VWHPVZHUH VR GLIIHUHQW IURP WKRVH RI )RUWUDQ$OVRZHZHUHQRW LQIOXHQFHGE\DOJHEUDLFV\VWHPV WKDWZHUHGHVLJQHGDIWHURXU3UHOLPLQDU\5HSRUWEXW WKDWEHJDQRSHUDWLRQEHIRUH)RUWUDQHJ %$&amp;$,&amp; ,7 DQG 0DWKH0DWLF $OWKRXJK 3$&amp;7 ,</p><p>ZDVQRWDQDOJHEUDLFFRPSLOHULWGHVHUYHVPHQWLRQDVDVLJQLILFDQWGHYHORSPHQW LWZDVGHVLJQHGDIWHU WKH)RUWUDQ ODQJXDJHEXWZDVLQRSHUDWLRQEHIRUH)RUWUDQLWGLGQRWLQIOXHQFHRXUZRUN</p><p>2XU215 V\PSRVLXP DUWLFOH DOVRPDNHV FOHDU WKDW WKH )RUWUDQJURXSZDVDOUHDG\DZDUHWKDWLWIDFHGDQHZNLQGRISUREOHPLQDXWRPDWLFSURJUDPPLQJ</p><p>The one central attribute of Fortranis its name.</p><p>0DUWLQ*UHHQILHOG</p><p>7KHYLDELOLW\ RIPRVW FRPSLOHUV DQG LQWHUSUHWHUV SULRU WR)RUWUDQKDG UHVWHGRQ WKH IDFW WKDWPRVW VRXUFH ODQJXDJHRSHUDWLRQVZHUH QRW PDFKLQH 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